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HTTP cache @ PUG Rome 03-29-2011

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A short presentation about HTTP caching at the Rome PHP User Group.

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HTTP cache @ PUG Rome 03-29-2011

  1. 1. HTTP cache Alessandro Nadalin March, 29th 2011
  2. 2. The Web is inconsistent
  3. 3. get over it
  4. 4. Why?
  5. 5. Because it scales to billions of users
  6. 6. Because it scales to billions of users WWW data traffic won't be possible without being inconsistent
  7. 7. How does it scales?
  8. 8. Cache
  9. 9. What is caching?
  10. 10. Storing data so that future requests for that data can be served faster ( general purpose )
  11. 11. Process of storing copies of your most accessed resources near to a/some client/s ( the WWW )
  12. 12. Caching is not saving a webpage , or a fragment of it, on the disk, to serve it to the next client
  13. 13. Caching is not saving a webpage , or a fragment of it, on the disk, to serve it to the next client This is a caching mechanism
  14. 14. Disk-persisted or in-memory
  15. 15. Can be distributed
  16. 16. Can be distributed with a NoSQL database
  17. 17. Cache implementation can be really funny
  18. 18. Don't reinvent the wheel
  19. 19. Goals
  20. 20. Goals evolve
  21. 21. Goals evolve loose coupling
  22. 22. Goals Work less evolve loose coupling
  23. 23. Evolve   Because you want your platform to extensible
  24. 24. Evolve   Because you want your platform to extensible   Loose coupling   Because you want it to be easy to integrate with, evolve, plug and mantain
  25. 25. Evolve   Because you want your platform to extensible   Loose coupling   Because you want it to be easy to integrate with, evolve, plug and mantain Work less Because every LoC is bug-prone and our man-day is a hard to scale cost
  26. 26. enters our Hero #1
  27. 29. enters our Hero #2
  28. 31. http://www.lullabot.com/articles/a-beginners-guide-to-caching-data
  29. 32. Goals Work less evolve loose coupling
  30. 33. Goals Work less evolve loose coupling
  31. 34. everything is done for us! :) but....
  32. 35. tmp files, cache tables, procedural crap... mmmmh.... gotta be something better
  33. 36. Frameworks
  34. 38. Cache is used for compiling routes, autoloading, ...
  35. 39. Cache is used for compiling routes, autoloading, ... ...but also for storing the view
  36. 40. Goals Work less evolve loose coupling
  37. 41. Goals Work less evolve loose coupling
  38. 42. at least because we use a framework
  39. 43. but, probably
  40. 44. PHP sucks
  41. 45. Let's call a hero, from the East
  42. 46. on Rails
  43. 48. Goals Work less evolve loose coupling
  44. 49. gosh :-(
  45. 50. hey, what about the latest products?
  46. 51. both Symfony2 and Ruby's Rack  embrace
  47. 52. HTTP
  48. 53. (here comes the nice part)
  49. 54. Local Shared/proxy   Shared/reverse proxy
  50. 55. Local Shared/proxy   Shared/reverse proxy
  51. 57. Local Shared/proxy   Shared/reverse proxy
  52. 59. Local Shared/proxy   Shared/reverse proxy
  53. 61. on the server side
  54. 62. Proxy Reverse proxy http://www.codeproject.com/KB/aspnet/ExploringCaching.aspx
  55. 63. There is something cool about caching softwares.
  56. 64. Free as free beer
  57. 65. ...but the server should take advantage of them ( the boring part were you need to write code )
  58. 66. and here are a few ways to do so, using
  59. 67. and here are a few ways to do so, using expiration
  60. 68. and here are a few ways to do so, using expiration validation
  61. 69. and here are a few ways to do so, using expiration validation invalidation
  62. 70. and here are a few ways to do so, using expiration validation invalidation we will se why
  63. 71. Expiration
  64. 72. GET / HTTP/1.1 Host: www.example.com Expires: 0
  65. 73. GET / HTTP/1.1 Host: www.example.com Expires: 0
  66. 74. GET / HTTP/1.1 Host: www.example.com Expires: Tue, 15 Nov 1994 01:00 GMT
  67. 75. GET / HTTP/1.1 Host: www.example.com Cache-Control: max-age=60, public
  68. 76. GET / HTTP/1.1 Host: www.example.com Cache-Control: max-age=60, public
  69. 77. GET / HTTP/1.1 Host: www.example.com Cache-Control: max-age=60 , public Cacheable for 60 seconds
  70. 78. GET / HTTP/1.1 Host: www.example.com Cache-Control: max-age=60, public Cacheable by both local and shared caches
  71. 79. GET / HTTP/1.1 Host: www.example.com Cache-Control: stale-if-error=600, stale-while-revalidate=600
  72. 80. GET / HTTP/1.1 Host: www.example.com Cache-Control: stale-if-error=600, stale-while-revalidate=600 fault-tolerant
  73. 81. GET / HTTP/1.1 Host: www.example.com Cache-Control: stale-if-error=600, stale-while-revalidate=600 available during downtime
  74. 82. GET / HTTP/1.1 Host: www.example.com Cache-Control: stale-if-error=600, stale-while-revalidate=600 available during revalidation
  75. 83. Validation
  76. 84. GET / HTTP/1.1 Host: www.example.com Etag: 1234
  77. 85. GET / HTTP/1.1 Host: www.example.com Etag: 1234 an identifier for your response
  78. 86. GET / HTTP/1.1 Host: www.example.com If-None-Match: 1234 the browsers asks you if it has been modified Conditional requests
  79. 87. Relax
  80. 88. Calculating an Etag is cheaper than generating a full MVC response
  81. 89. HTTP/1.1 304 Not Modified
  82. 90. GET / HTTP/1.1 Host: www.example.com Last-Modified: Tue, 15 Jan 2011 12:00:00 GMT
  83. 91. GET / HTTP/1.1 Host: www.example.com Last-Modified: Tue, 15 Jan 2011 12:00:00 GMT tell the client about the latest change
  84. 92. GET / HTTP/1.1 Host: www.example.com If-Modified-Since: Tue, 15 Jan 2011 12:00:00 GMT the client asks you if it has been modified since the last time Conditional requests
  85. 93. Relax
  86. 94. Calculating a date is cheaper than retrieving an entire object
  87. 95. HTTP/1.1 304 Not Modified
  88. 96. Invalidation
  89. 97. The web is not meant for invalidating data . Server should not be able to keep clients' state, otherwise they wont scale well. That's why long-polling and endless connections haven't had big success dealing with caching.
  90. 98. but hey, you say
  91. 99. HTTP's cache fails when dealing with really dynamic pages, because consumers will always have to hit the origin server, although a part of the page would be cacheable ( header and footer, for example )
  92. 100. Nope Nope
  93. 101. ESI was built for that http://www.w3.org/TR/esi-lang
  94. 102. and hey, Varnish is a reverse proxy implementing what you need of the ESI specification take 2, pay for 1
  95. 103. So what does HTTP cache is meant to solve?
  96. 104. Less work
  97. 105. because the hard work is delegated to the browser/proxy http://www.flickr.com/photos/snakphotography/5004775320/sizes/o/in/photostream/
  98. 106. evolve
  99. 107. because cache is abstracted from the application
  100. 108. loose coupling
  101. 109. because caching is bound to the protocol, HTTP, not to your implementation ( Sf, RoR, Django )
  102. 110. <ul><li>The presentations lacks on technical stuff </li></ul><ul><li>So here are a few resource for who wants documentation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://tomayko.com/writings/things-caches-do </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.slideshare.net/fabpot/caching-on-the-edge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.odino.org/301/rest-better-http-cache </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.w3.org/Protocols/rfc2616/rfc2616-sec13.html </li></ul></ul>
  103. 111. Deep version of the same talk, about Sf2 cache internals and ESI
  104. 112. May, 12/14 2011 in Verona   Early bid ends on April, 6th
  105. 113. Thanks! Alessandro Nadalin @_odino_ odino.org

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