The current situation of OpenCourseWare in Spain Edmundo Tovar (Universidad Politécnica de Madrid) email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org with the support of the Lifelong Learningopencourseware.eu Programme of the European Union 1
Past studies with the support of the Lifelong Learningopencourseware.eu Programme of the European Union 2
Studies on the impact of OCW• A New Model for Open Sharing (MIT):Margulies (2004) – Methodology: survey – Findings: OCW statistics on use and its consequences. Advantages for MIT OCW: • Reference site for many teachers • Preserving teacher materials and pedagogy (a record is kept) • Preservation of course materials (notes and transcripts); • Graphical assistance • Greater visibility for teaching; promotes grant applications.
Studies on the impact of OCW• Studies at MIT (2004, 2005, 2007, 2010, 2011). – Methodology: survey and analysis of access – Findings: this study covers three areas: access, use and impact. • OCW site use statistics • Source and type of users. • Ease of use • Impact on users.
Studies on the impact of OCW• “Impacto del Open Course Ware (OCW) en los docentes universitarios” María Dolores Frías Navarro, Juan Pascual Llobell, Héctor Monterde i Bort y Marcos Pascual Soler (2010): – Methods: Survey sampled from Spanish and Lat American professors; – Findings: • Number of courses and their type. • A study of contents of a randomly selected group • A poll that has been answered by 255 Spanish professors and 53 from Latin American universities
Studies on the impact of OCW• “OER Impact Study”: (Liz Masterman y Joanna Wild (2011):) – Methodology: interviews and focus groups with professors, students and OCW managers – Findings: Potential benefits of OER to both educators and students.
Studies on the impact of OCW• Chapter of advantages and disadvantages, detected several areas: • Pedagogic: – Provenance: Quality – Pedagogic intent, explicitly developed for educational purposes – Granularity. – Media. Rich. • Attitudinal: – emphasizes the enhancement of students autonomous learning, increased confidence when professors publish their own materials, teacher openness to learn them too., etc • Logistics: – the amount of resources in some areas is insufficient, lack of quality of content, • Strategy – to identify individuals and groups using OER
Studies on the impact of OCW• “The impact of OpenCourseWare on paid enrollment in distance learning courses” (Justin K. Johansen, 2009): – Methodology: experimental method focusing on several courses compared with previous years using statistical techniques – Findings: • OCW is sustainable because of the new students attracted.
Studies on the impact of OCW• “Measuring our Impact: the Open.Michigan Initiative” (Emily Puckett Rodgers, 2011): – Metodología: SWOT analysis, using opinion survey, interviews and user feedback – Findings: how to implement a culture of quality measurement in the MU OCW:
International context Our survey in the EU OCW project with the support of the Lifelong Learningopencourseware.eu Programme of the European Union 10
Survey Results EU OCW Project with the support of the Lifelong Learningopencourseware.eu Programme of the European Union 11
FactorsFactors enabling OCW/OER initiatives Factors inhibiting OCW/OER Initiatives• Institutional support • Lack of institutional supportAn institution supports open sharing in • Negative attitudes from facultyeducation through: • Copyright-related challenges-Actively encouraging participation in theproduction and sharing of OCW/OER amongst • Lack of information about institutional benefitsfaculty members related to OCW/OER projects-Implementing open content or open accesspolicies • Difficulties with finding appropriate and quality-Providing resources (financial and staff) to OCW/OER (when attempting to reuse materialsassist faculty members in the production of produced elsewhere)OCW/OER-Providing incentives to faculty members toengage in the production and sharing ofOCW/OER• Positive attitudes from faculty members with the support of the Lifelong Learning opencourseware.eu Programme of the European Union 12
Benefits of OCW/OER Initiatives for the involved Institutions • The content used by educators, professionals, and individual users. • Allows to work in a business model. • It increases the quality of education. • OCW has become the KPI of the university. • Medium for sharing information among a community of institutions. • Increased visibility of the university. • Increased visibility of teachers and materials. • Collaboration with other universities. • Teacher recognition (awards). • Attracting new students. • To provide to the society the knowledge generated in the university. • Contribution to national development. • Provide users with materials - free of charge. • Medium to share materials among teachers. • OER integrated into the objectives of the academic or research organizations, scholarships, etc… with the support of the Lifelong Learningopencourseware.eu Programme of the European Union 13
Aplicación de tecnologías web emergentes para el estudio del impacto de repositorios OpenCourseWare españoles y latinoamericanos en la Educación Superior EA 2011-120 Grant of the Spanish Ministry of Education with the support of the Lifelong Learningopencourseware.eu Programme of the European Union 14
Challenges on management of OCW information generated and shared byOrganizations(1) Large amounts of unstructured, and semi-structured data.(2) Although the collected data from OCW repositories may have certainstructure accepted by community, but not all data have an similar orcompatible structure and meaning.(3) Open education materials are shared as Information Silos or "WalledGardens"
Application of Semantic technologies:Faceted Query of OCWbased on Linked opencourseware data GICAC UPM-UTPL Educational Innovative Group
Focus Group: What is OCW for your institution?• It is a way of promotion of our University• It is a shop window for others, new students and new clients• It is an altruistic initiative to help those who have no access to Higher Education• It is an opportunity for students to know class materials before enrolling• It is a website that allows teachers and students publish freely available contents in a structured way and with a reasonable cost
Focus group: …but it has some problems• In some cases it has been a failure, mostly due to lack of institutional support (no resources and no personnel devoted to it)• It is something that is good having, but managers do not really care about• It is hard to reach professors and motivate them to collaborate• There is a problem with licenses (too restrictive) and acceptance by professors of the Open culture• There are problems with platforms and several duplicities (moodle, OCW, Aula Virtual, etc.)• There is not a good set of incentives for professors to take part in it
Focus Group: …and offers opportunities for those taking part in it• Way of promotion of professors’ work, with potentially thousands of users looking at their materials• Way of learning one of each other• Offers prestige to the institution hosting it• Increases the quality of teaching materials• Allows to inspect how professors are doing regarding their teaching techniques and materials• Saves money by reusing materials of other peers
Survey (First data): Teachers’s view• OCW Problems Porcentaje válido El proceso de publicación tarda demasiado 2,6 He necesitado respaldo jurídico sobre el funcionamiento de los derechos del 10,5 copyright y no lo he encontrado Hubiera querido acceder a material OCW de otras universidades pero no tenía 7,9 recursos para encontrarlo Me hubiera gustado tener más feedback de quién visita mi página y no lo he 31,6 tenido No existían guías sobre cómo publicar 13,2 No fue posible colgar determinados contenidos que deseaba compartir 2,6 Problemas con el contrato OCW 5,3 Resulta complicado cambiar cualquier cosa una vez publicada 23,7 Resulta difícil acceder a la información relevante sobre el OCW 2,6 (n=73)
Survey (First data): Teachers’s view• Incentives to publish Porcentaje válidoMayor reconocimiento como publicación 74,3Reconocimiento del tiempo dedicado a la preparación de los cursos como tiempo de 57docenciaIncentivos salariales a través de los complementos docentes 37,1Facilidad a la hora de publicar 28,6Concursos que premien a las mejores asignaturas publicadas 20,0Mayor publicidad de las personas que han publicado un curso 17,1Cursos de formación sobre lo que es el OCW 14,3
Survey (First data): Teachers’s view • Priorities to improve OCW Porcentaje válidoFomento del uso de OCW en asignaturas concretas 57,1Creación de un taller sobre su uso para los profesores 51Implantación del uso del OCW en los programas de máster y de preparación del profesorado 48,6Creación de un programa de "tutorías" para que el profesorado acceda al OCW 22,9Creación de comunidades de estudiantes de cualquier parte del mundo interesados en una 20,0asignaturaIncorporación de materiales de OCW a una red social 14,3Creación de un grupo de profesores pioneros que fomenten el uso del OCW 11,4
SWOT Analysis (First draft)S W Welcome to the Open philosopy Unknowledge of the Open PhilosophyUsers’ perception of Quality of some Low Quality Materials courses Dificulty to publish and update Infrastructures operatives (many) Lack of information Receptivity and wish of improvement Disappointing of the good authors becasue the quality Spanish Language Global competence Early arrival to the community Unknowledge by teachers and students OCW as teh future Recognition policies may not depend on OCW Consortium univeersitiesO Explosion of social networks Economical situation T Unknowledge by the Society
Thanks! Edmundo Tovar (Universidad Politécnica de Madrid) email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org with the support of the Lifelong Learningopencourseware.eu Programme of the European Union 24