The Lean within Scrum


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The Lean within Scrum

  1. 1. THE LEAN WITHIN SCRUM“What of Lean is already within Scrum?” © Joe Little 2009 1
  2. 2. With help from... With help from Accenture, ADI LLC, Alliance Global Services, American Greetings Interactive, AOL, Applied Physics Laboratory, Argonaut Group, Asurion, Avid Technology, Booz Allen Hamilton, CA, CAE, Canada Post, Capital One, Charles Schwab, Citigroup, CNN/Turner, Comcast, Compuware, Cornell, Crisp, Dell, DST, EDR, Exigen Services, FedEx, GE Power Systems, Georgia Institute of Technology, Gilbarco, Google, HP, Huawei, IBM, iContact, INM, Intersect, J Ray McDermott, Mantech, McKesson, McKinsey & Co, Medco, Microsoft, Morrison Management, Motley Fool, MySpace, Nationwide, NC State University, NEA, Nortel, Northrop Grumman, NYSE Euronext, Ontario Legislative Assembly, Pearson, Philips, Polycom, Rally, RealTravel, Red Hat, REMITData, S1, SAIC, Scripps Network Interactive, Scrum Training Institute, Siemens, SirsiDynix, Smart Online, SolutionsIQ, Sonic Boom Media, SteamTheWorld, Sungard, Systematic Software Engineering, The Hartford, The Library Company, The New Teacher Project, Tradeware, Travelocity, Trifork, Ultimate Software, Vanguard, Version One, Vignette, Wake Forest University, Wells Fargo/Wachovia, Wireless Generation, Xebia, and others. © Joe Little 2009 2
  3. 3. Attributions Taiichi Ohno Mary & Tom Poppendieck Jeff Sutherland Jim York Many others © Joe Little 2009 3
  4. 4. Joe Little• Agile Coach & Trainer• 20+ years in senior level consulting to well-known firms in New York, London and Charlotte• Focus on delivery of Business Value; interest in Lean• CST, CSP, CSM; MBA• Was Senior Manager in Big 6 consulting• Head of Kitty Hawk Consulting, Inc. since 1991• Head of• Started trying to do [Agile] before reading The Mythical Man-Month – – © Joe Little 2009 4
  5. 5. 6 Blindmen and an Elephant © Joe Little 2009 5
  6. 6. Is this subject important? 5x-10x improvement in velocity (times) 3x-5x improvement in Business Value © Joe Little 2009 6
  7. 7. Scrum is a Simple Framework Product Backlog Scrum Product Owner Sprint Backlog Artifacts Roles ScrumMaster Burndown Chart TeamWorking MeetingsSW Imped Sprint Daily Sprint Retro- List Planning Scrum Review spective © Joe Little 2009 7
  8. 8. © Joe Little 2009 8
  9. 9. What’s the most important thingabout Lean? Respect people? No one thing? Taiichi Ohno’s attitude? © Joe Little 2009 9
  10. 10. A set of Attitudes Scrum is a simple, basic set of “things” that must be adapted to the situation at hand. It is not one thing, it is “The Scrum Way” that really counts. A team that is continuously improving. Practical, empirical...and yet also spiritual. © Joe Little 2009 10
  11. 11. Kaikaku Means: Lean production term which in Japanese means radical overhaul of an activity to eliminate waste and create greater value. Also called breakthrough kaizen. eg, When we implement Scrum initially. © Joe Little 2009 11
  12. 12. Use of Sensei For initial setup For ongoing discussions Why? © Joe Little 2009 12
  13. 13. Kaizen Means: Good change or improvement. Usually used to mean small continuous changes. So, “opposite” of Kaikaku, in a way. Scrum: Removing small impediments all the time via the Daily Scrum or the Retrospective. Required: Same “Michael Phelps” attitude every day. © Joe Little 2009 13
  14. 14. Attitude Watanabe (then President of Toyota): ”There’s no genius in our company. We just do whatever we believe is right, trying every day to improve every little bit and piece. But when 70 years of very small improvements accumulate, they become a revolution.” Dan Markovitz: “Kaizen is boring and laborious. Kaikaku is sexy and exciting. Kaizen is your spouse of 15 years. Kaikaku is the smoking hot blonde on the barstool next to you.” © Joe Little 2009 14
  15. 15. Yes, and... © Joe Little 2009 15
  16. 16. Minimize inventory Toyota says that inventory is waste. Why? How fast does knowledge decay? Compared to a car? In Scrum, we also minimize inventory and work-in-process. © Joe Little 2009 16
  17. 17. Kanban Meaning: Visual card, or signboard. Ohno created the use of kanban as a means to attaining minimal inventory, and better flow. Probably idea borrowed from Pigglywiggly. Implements a pull system. Scrum board of tasks and stories is simple version of kanban. © Joe Little 2009 17
  18. 18. Flow The flow of single-pieces in fulfillment of the customer’s request. The focus is on the speedy flow; process cycle time. Other things are much less important. Similarly, in Scrum, we want the speedy flow of stories © Joe Little 2009 18
  19. 19. Work as a team Ohno uses the metaphor of a rowing team In Scrum we have a team of 7, plus/minus 2 And we want the Team to self-organize, to reach their higher potential © Joe Little 2009 19
  20. 20. genchi genbutsu Meaning: “Go and see for yourself”. Also, more loosely: “Don’t manage from behind the desk” This is similar to the concern about managers interrupting the Scrum team. In Scrum, we want the managers to come to the Team room, and see what is really happening there © Joe Little 2009 20
  21. 21. Go to the Gemba © Joe Little 2009 21
  22. 22. Mura, Muri, Muda Mura: Unevenness of flow In Scrum, we get the small user stories to flow through the team Muri: Overstressing the system In Scrum, we want the team not to take on more story points than they can do Muda: Waste In Scrum, we eliminate the impediments that cause waste © Joe Little 2009 22
  23. 23. “Half of what we know is wrong” This is a quote from Taiichi Ohno’s book “Workplace Management”. The idea is that, to change, we must take the attitude that half of what we take as true is wrong And, thus, we must relentlessly pursue perfection. This is shown concretely in Scrum by the never-ending removal of impediments © Joe Little 2009 23
  24. 24. Stop the line The Toyota culture that says “as soon as we find a problem, we must fix it”. And by slowing down to fix the root cause, they get very fast. They improve the cycle time to customer satisfaction. Scrum does this partly by a high standard for “definition of done”. And by an insistence that the Team never dig into Technical Debt. © Joe Little 2009 24
  25. 25. Stop the line culture - 2 © Joe Little 2009 25
  26. 26. Stop the line culture - 3 No bug escapes the Sprint. Impediments mentioned every Daily Scrum. Strong use of Retrospective. Every problem is an opportunity to improve. The 5 Whys. © Joe Little 2009 26
  27. 27. Defer commitment This is a lean phrase attributed to the Poppendiecks. Meaning: Don’t commit until the last responsible moment. (When you know more.) Example: Set-based innovation © Joe Little 2009 27
  28. 28. Key Terms Pull system Value stream map Optimize cycle time Just-in-time TPS; The Toyota Way Kaizen “relentless pursuit of SMED (Single minute perfection” exchange of die) one-piece flow Poka-Yoke visual management Production leveling zero inventory Mura, muri, muda challenge everything Workcell respect for people Andon make the process visible Genchi genbutsu stop the line culture Gemba Sensei 5 Whys © Joe Little 2009 28
  29. 29. The essence? “The essence of [the Toyota system] is that each individual employee is given the opportunity to find problems in his own way of working, to solve them and to make improvements.” © Joe Little 2009 29
  30. 30. Toyota Way: Learn by Doing Fujio Cho, Board Chairman• We place the highest value on actual implementation and taking action. Agile Principle #1• There are many things one doesn’t understand, and therefore we ask them why don’t you just go ahead and take action; try to do something? Agile Principle #3, #11• You realize how little you know and you face your own failures and redo it again and at the second trial you realize another mistake … so you can redo it once again. Agile Principle #11, #12• So by constant improvement … one can rise to the higher level of practice and knowledge. Agile Principle #3 "Anyone who has never made a mistake has never tried anything new." Albert Einstein © Joe Little 2009 30
  31. 31. Make fact-based experiments This is the Deming Cycle © Joe Little 2009 31
  32. 32. What is the goal? Lean thinkers reason this way: “By greatly reducing the cycle time from customer identification of need until the need is satisfied (and we get the cash), we learn to give the customer better, more, faster, and cheaper.” Most of the delay is in wait time. This remains a paradox to many. We optimize cycle time, not anything else. © Joe Little 2009 32
  33. 33. The baton, not the runners © Joe Little 2009 33
  34. 34. What’s the foundation? The Toyota Way Managers-teachers imbued with Lean Thinking You cannot “phone in” your support for The Toyota Way © Joe Little 2009 34
  35. 35. What is “respect for people”? Challenging Listening Demanding Asking Testing Let them devise their own work methods, so they own them, and then can improve them Finally, deciding © Joe Little 2009 35
  36. 36. Standardize Standardize a lot (write down or draw how you do things) the standards are easier to change © Joe Little 2009 36
  37. 37. Visual Management Make things visual...Andon boards, etc. Similar to Poka-Yoke © Joe Little 2009 37
  38. 38. 3 roles • Product owner • Scrum masterPreferred Scrum board style • Team 3 artifacts • Product backlog • Sprint backlog • Sprint burndown 4 activities • Sprint planning • Daily scrum • Sprint review • Retrospective Source: Mike Cohn © Joe Little 2009 38
  39. 39. 3 roles • Product owner • Scrum master • Team Sprint burndown chart 3 artifacts • Product backlog • Sprint backlog • Sprint burndown 4 activities • Sprint planning • Daily scrum • Sprint review • RetrospectiveSource: Henrik Kniberg © Joe Little 2009 123 39
  40. 40. How does one learn processimprovement? Learn by doing. Practice, practice, practice. Who does it? Everyone. How often? Always, all-the-time. Is it chaos? No. There are rules. Changes must be reviewed. Changes must be proven. Etc. Is this the same as 6Sigma process improvement? © Joe Little 2009 40
  41. 41. 3 roles • Product owner • Scrum master Sprint retrospective • Team Long term effect 3 artifacts • Product backlog • Sprint backlog • Sprint burndown 4 activities • Sprint planning • Daily scrumVelocity • Sprint review • Retrospective 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Sprint Effective velocity over time Effective velocity over time (with retrospectives) (without retrospectives) Source: Henrik Kniberg © Joe Little 2009 41
  42. 42. The Goal Toyota generally wants to be 4x the industry average Scrum wants to raise that a bit for software dev teams. © Joe Little 2009 42
  43. 43. Action I hope you will take one or two of these ideas, and start acting on them tomorrow. © Joe Little 2009 43
  44. 44. Questions? © Joe Little 2009 44
  45. 45. The Test What is one most memorable thing? What will you act on tomorrow? (If anything.) How could this be improved? Thanks! © Joe Little 2009 45
  46. 46. Contact Info Joseph Little Kitty Hawk Consulting, Inc. 704-376-8881 © Joseph Little 2010 46