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Visitors and Residents: The Hows and Whys of Engagement with Technology


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Connaway, Lynn Silipigni. 2016. “Visitors and Residents: The Hows and Whys of Engagement with Technology.” Presented at the Library Association of the Republic of China (LAROC) Annual Meeting, Taiwan, December 10.

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Visitors and Residents: The Hows and Whys of Engagement with Technology

  1. 1. Library Association of the Republic of China (LAROC) Annual Meeting | December 10, 2016 Visitors and Residents: The Hows and Whys of Engagement with Technology Lynn Silipigni Connaway, PhD Senior Research Scientist and Director of User Research, OCLC
  2. 2. “A majority of U.S. adults – 62% – get news on social media, and 18% do so often...” (Gottfried and Shearer 2016)
  3. 3. “With 150 million people sending “snaps” every day, Snapchat—the social network that relies on ephemeral, in-the-moment photos and short videos— now has more daily users than Twitter…” (Nicks 2016)
  4. 4. As a result of public library technology access: 32 ½ million people pursued educational activities 30 million used library computers & Internet access for employment or career purposes 28 million people sought information or carried out tasks related to health & wellness (Becker et al. 2011.)
  6. 6. About Digital Visitors and Residents o Identify how individuals engage with technology o How they acquire their information o Why they make their choices (White, Connaway, Lanclos, Hood, and Vass 2014)
  7. 7. V&R Framework (White and Le Cornu 2011) #vandr Visitors and Residents resources
  8. 8. Visitor Mode o Functional use of technology o Formal need o Invisible online presence o Internet is a toolbox (White and Connaway 2011-2014)
  9. 9. Resident Mode o Visible and persistent online presence o Collaborative activity online o Contribute online o Internet is a place (White and Connaway 2011-2014)
  10. 10. #vandr Educational Stages (Connaway, White, and Lanclos 2011)
  12. 12. 4 Project Phases • Semi-structured interviews • Diaries/monthly semi- structured interviews • Written • Video • Skype or telephone • Second group of semi- structured interviews • Online survey Data Collection Tools
  13. 13. Visitors and Residents Interviews • United States • United Kingdom • Universidad Carlos III de Madrid (Madrid, Spain) • Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore (Milan, Italy) • Universitat Oberta de Catalunya (Barcelona, Spain)
  14. 14. Educational Stage Universidad Carlos III de Madrid (Madrid) United Kingdom United States Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore (Milan) Universitat Oberta de Catalunya (Barcelona) Emerging Participants 8 21 22 3 6 Establishing Participants 10 5 5 6 7 Embedding Participants 10 5 5 6 7 Experiencing Participants 10 5 5 5 13 Total 38 36 37 20 33 Visitors and Residents Interview Demographics
  15. 15. II. Sources A. Human 1. Mother 2. Father 3. Extended family 4. Experts/ Professionals 5. Friends/ Colleagues 6. Teachers/ Professors 7. Peers 8. Librarians 9. Other B. Digital 1. E-books 2. Online textbooks 3. Databases 4. Websites Visitors and Residents Codebook Excerpt
  16. 16. “It’s like a taboo I guess with all teachers, they just all say – you know, when they explain the paper they always say, ‘Don’t use Wikipedia.’” (Digital Visitors and Residents, USU7, Female, Age 19, Political Science) The Learning Black Market
  17. 17. “At first I started looking online, and it was a little bit overwhelming…I ended up reaching into my mom’s cupboard and using a recipe that I found in one of her old cookbooks. The recipe was just what I was looking for...” (Digital Visitors and Residents, USS3, Emerging, Female, Age 17, High School Student) “Convenient” Isn’t Always Simple
  18. 18. I. Place A. Internet 1. Search engine a. Google b. Yahoo 2. Social Media a. Facebook b. Twitter c. You Tube d. Flickr/ image sharing e. Blogging B. Library 1. Academic 2. Public 3. School (K-12) C. Home D. School, classroom, computer lab E. Other Visitors and Residents Codebook Excerpt
  19. 19. TOOLS
  20. 20. “I could live without the smartphone, but I can't work without the smartphone, which are two different things.” (UCSCG2, Embedding, Female, Age 25, Humanities) Tablets, computers, smartphones and papers…
  21. 21. “…around half of newspaper readers consume newspapers only in their printed form. They are more likely to often watch local TV news than those newspaper readers who access the paper online instead of or in addition to the print edition.” (Barthel 2016)
  22. 22. “So, it's... I mean, people who use books are dinosaurs now.” (UCSCF2, Experiencing, Male, Age 39, Social Sciences) “(With digital information alerts)….It is like with books, you keep them but you don’t want to trash them because you have some kind of emotional relationship with books…” (UOCG4, Health Sciences Postgraduate Student, male, aged 41)
  23. 23. The future… “Seria un mix de telèfon mòbil i dron, que jo parlant li pogués fer una pregunta, i ell em projectés una imatge o em donés la informació sense que jo tingués que deixar de fer el que estic fent...deslligar-me del transport d’aparells. Que voli al meu costat...projecta’m la pel.licula a la pared....” “A mix of mobile phone and a ‘drone.’ Just talking with it, it would provide me all the information, for example, to project a film on the wall…just not to have to use an artefact, not to transport tools...” (UOCFE6, Male, Age 53, Health and Computer Science Faculty) The magic future would be…
  24. 24. SOURCES
  25. 25. “When I learned to make béchamel sauce, my mother would have gladly taught me, but she was not available, so I searched on the internet… I searched for a good video.” “Quan vaig aprendre a fer beixamel, la meva mare hagués estat encantada d’ensenyar-me a fer-ne però com no hi era vaig buscar per Internet...vaig buscar un vídeo.” (UOCG3, Male, Age 28, Computer Science)
  26. 26. “En temes de salut o així no solo acudir a Internet per res perquè ...poses que et fa mal un dit i acabes tenint pesta bubò es fiable, a internet...lo probablement improbable és lo segur. Aquí si que acudiria a contactes reals.” (UOCG3, Male, Age 28, Computer Science) “Regarding health affairs, I usually don’t search on the internet because… you have pain in one finger and then you end up [thinking] you have the bubonic plague… It is not reliable… improbable things become sure. For this situation, I would use personal contacts.”
  27. 27. • Students from any group rarely mentioned librarians • Faculty of all groups – Mentioned librarians slightly more often – Still less than half of the time
  28. 28. “Wikipedia… it’s perfect, because it gives you the words, the things, the technical words that you need to look, keywords, so Wikipedia is always, always the first step.” (UOCG1, Male, Age 35-44, Professions and Applied Sciences)
  29. 29. The future… “The Google they want to sell us but that it is not…, the one that you could use with natural language and that the system will interpret for you. As simple as presenting my father with the “best patatas bravas recipe” and it appears...but that was a simple question...” (UOCFE5, Female, 26-34, Formal Sciences) The magic future would be…
  31. 31. Convenience/Ease of Use/Accessibility as reasons for selecting a source were mentioned often by all groups.
  32. 32. “So I check three or four websites and if it is more or less the same, so ok, I am confident.” (ESG01, Embedding, Female, Age 26-34, Formal Sciences)
  33. 33. The amount of information available was mentioned as a motivating factor in choosing sources by 100% of UOC Faculty, 60% of UC3M Faculty, & 40% of both US & UK Faculty. Positive = Ability to find almost anything. Negative = Experience information overload & need to determine & manage what is relative & accurate.
  34. 34. “My capacity to process information is overloaded. I’m just accumulating information as a hamster.” (UOCFE1, Male, Age 43, Information Sciences)
  35. 35. The future… “To have access to all full text…and more criteria to select…To have a criteria tool for helping me to personalize my experience” (UOCFI2,Male, Age 34-44, Social Sciences) The magic future would be… “Un sistema personalitzat que coneixés els teus atributs personals i et presenti els resultats en una combinació de vídeo i mapa conceptual” “A personalized system that would know your personal attributes and show you the results in a combination of video and conceptual map” (UOCU3, Female, Age 19-25, Social Sciences)
  36. 36. CONTACT
  37. 37. “Yes, I have [Whatsapp] groups of friends and family, we are quite practical. I just send messages for useful matters, because I don’t like bothering people.” “Si, tinc grups d’amics i de família, som bastant pràctics. Tinc un grup de quan estudiàvem EGB, sí que en aquest grup envien vídeos i acudits...però en els altres grups som bastant pràctics. Com no m’agrada molestar la gent només envio missatges per coses útils.” (UOCU7, Male, Age 31, Computer Science)
  38. 38. Faculty mentioned email as a means of contact. US: 100% UK: 100% Madrid: 100% Barcelona: 92% Milan: 80%
  39. 39. “El primer que faig és obrir el mòbil, mirar els missatges, entrar a l’Ipad, a Facebook…, mirar el correu.” “The first thing I do is to open my mobile phone, look at the messages, open my iPad, Facebook and look at the mail.” (UOCFE6, Male, 45-54, Professions and Applied Science)
  40. 40. “Correu electrònic I whatsapp, I l’i.message d’Apple. Per la privada I per la personal. Tinc dos telèfons. Un que el té tothom I un que el té el meu marit I els meus pares que és per quan vull desconnectar” (UOCFE5, Female, 26-34, Formal Sciences) “E-mail and Whatsapp, and i-Message from Apple. For public and private life. I have two phones. One that everyone has, and another that only my husband and my father know about. That is the one I use when I want to disconnect”.
  41. 41. The future… The magic future would be… “The perfect way … would be just asking in a voice message, not using the computer… just walking down the street … saying I “need”…” (UOCFI3, Male, Age 48, Information and Communication Studies)
  42. 42. PLACE
  43. 43. Social Media was mentioned across all Faculty groups, with Facebook being mentioned the most. “Hi ha moltes xarxes socials. Hauria d’estar vivint a diferents espais…i la vida és una. Facebook et genera una personalitat, Twitter te’n genera una altra, tinc vocació d’esquizofrènic.” (UOCFI5, Male, Age 44, Law) “There’s a lot of social media places. I must be living in different places…and life is just one. Facebook makes you one personality, Twitter makes you another personality, and...I have no intention of being schizophrenic.”
  44. 44. " A casa és, a l’hora de l’àpat el cap de setmana quan estem junts són els dos nois dient ‘voleu deixar el mòbil, sisplau?’ a la meva dona i jo que estem amb el mòbil." (UOCFI6, Male, Age 53, Arts & Humanities) “At home, at dinner time on weekends, when we are all together our sons ask my wife and I: ‘could you please leave your smartphone?’ [because we are texting all the time]."
  45. 45. Academic Library Barcelona: 88% US: 70% Milan: 65% UK: 56% Madrid: 26%
  46. 46. “No es que conegui com funciona la Biblioteca, però crec que Google ho ha de portar millor.” (UOCG3, Male, Age 28, Arts & Humanities) “In fact, I don’t know how the library works, but I think that Google must do it better.”
  47. 47. “T’hi passes moltes hores, a Sant Google. Ens encomanem a Sant Google i això doncs ens ho soluciona.” (UOCFI6, Male, Age 53, Arts & Humanities) “You spend many hours with Saint Google. We entrust ourselves to Saint Google and that solves it for us.”
  48. 48. The future… The magic future would be… “Tenir tota la informació al mateix lloc, que quedi integrada.” “Have all the information available in the same place, so it will be integrated there.” (UOCU9, Female, Age 45-54, Arts/Humanities)
  49. 49. MOTIVATION
  50. 50. Media Posting Barcelona: 73% Madrid: 39% US: 16% UK: 14% Milan: 10%
  51. 51. “I don’t like to post to social media my opinions or personal things…I think that [the internet] has enough information about us, both professional and academic, so, it is enough.” “No m’agrada publicar les meves opinions a les xarxes socials…Crec que [Internet] ja té prou informació sobre nosaltres, tant professional com acadèmica, crec que ja és sufficient.” (UOCFE7, Female, Age 36, Arts & Humanities)
  52. 52. “I can’t understand how people can give their opinions (on Twitter) in a such small space, with few characters. For me it is very difficult to say something with value and make people understand me.” (UOCFI1, Male, Age 43, Computer Sciences)
  53. 53. “A vegades per a que la informació sigui significativa, i arribi d’una forma clara, necessites que hi hagi algun vincle emocional amb aquella informació. Si només és la informació pura és més difícil. Millor si hi ha un contacte previ amb l’informant.“ “Sometimes for information to be significant and to arrive in a clear way, you need some kind of emotional link with that information. If there's only information, it is more difficult. [It is] much better if there is previous contact with the information provider." (UOCG4, Male, Age 41, Health Sciences)
  54. 54. The future… “Una persona sàvia. M’agraden els llibres i la tecnologia, però les persones són millors.” “A wise person. I like books and technology, but people are better.” (UOCU1, Female, 19-25, Professions and Appllied Sciences) The magic future would be…
  55. 55. V&R MATERIALS
  56. 56. #vandr
  57. 57. #vandr
  58. 58. #vandr Play
  59. 59. It’s time for a change “Librarians have an opportunity to become part of users’ social networks and to put resources in the context of users’ information needs.” (Connaway 2015, 23)
  60. 60. Embedded librarianship …be where our users need us “Our experience with a proactive chat model… showed us that there is indeed a ready-made market for our services right on our own library pages...” (Zhang and Mayer 2014, 205)
  61. 61. Social Media Presence
  62. 62. Special Events & Activities
  63. 63. Special Events & Activities
  64. 64. “Library is a growing organism.” (Ranganathan 1931) Use what you know Learn what you don’t know Engage in new ways
  65. 65. References Barthel, Michael. 2016. “Around Half of Newspaper Readers Rely Only on Print Edition.” Pew Research Center, January 6, only-on-print-edition. Becker, Samantha, Michael D. Crandall, Karen E. Fisher, Rebecca Blakewood, Bo Kinney, and Cadi Russell-Sauvé. 2011. Opportunity for All: How Library Policies and Practices Impact Public Internet Access. IMLS-2011-RES-01. Institute of Museum and Library Services. Washington, DC. Connaway, Lynn Silipigni, and Ronald R. Powell. 2010. Basic Research Methods for Librarians, 5th ed. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, LLC., 113. Connaway, Lynn S., David White, and Donna Lanclos. 2011. “Visitors and Residents: What Motivates Engagement with the Digital Information Environment?” Proceedings of the 74th ASIS&T Annual Meeting 48: 1-7. Connaway, Lynn Silipigni. 2013. “Meeting the Expectations of the Community: The Engagement-centered Library.” Library 2020: Today’s Leading Visionaries Describe Tomorrow’s Library, edited by J. Janes, 83– 88. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press.
  66. 66. References Connaway, Lynn Silipigni, Donna Lanclos, and Erin M. Hood. 2013. “‘I find Google a lot easier than going to the library website.’ Imagine Ways to Innovate and Inspire Students to Use the Academic Library.” Proceedings of the Association of College & Research Libraries (ACRL) 2013 conference, April 10-13, 2013, Indianapolis, IN. way_Google.pdf. Connaway, Lynn Silipigni, comp. 2015. The Library in the Life of the User: Engaging with People Where They Live and Learn. Dublin, OH: OCLC Research. Connaway, Lynn Silipigni, and Ixchel M. Faniel. 2015. “Reordering Ranganathan: Shifting user behaviours, shifting priorities.” SRELS Journal of Information Management 52, no. 1: 3–23. http://i- DeSantis, Nick. 2012. “On Facebook, Librarian Brings 2 Students From the Early 1900s to Life.” The Chronicle of Higher Education, January 6. brings-two-students-from-the-early-1900s-to-life/34845.
  67. 67. References Gottfried, Jeffrey, and Elisa Shearer. 2016. “News Use Across Social Media Platforms 2016.” Pew Research Center, May 26. platforms-2016/. Kraft, Amanda, and Aleck F. Williams, Jr. 2016. “#Shelfies are Encouraged: Simple, Engaging Library Instruction with Hashtags.” College & Research Libraries News 77, no. 1 (2016): 10-13. MacKay, R. F. (2013). “Playing to Learn: Panelists at Stanford Discussion Say Using Games as an Educational Tool Provides Opportunities for Deeper Learning.” Stanford News, March 1, Nicks, Denver. 2016. “Snapchat Overtakes Twitter in Daily Users.” Time, June 2. Ranganathan, S. R. 1931. The Five Laws of Library Science. London: Edward Goldston, Ltd. White, David, Lynn Silipigni Connaway, Donna Lanclos, Erin M. Hood, and Carrie Vass. 2014. Evaluating Digital Services: A Visitors and Residents Approach. digital-services. Zhang, Jie, and Nevin Mayer. 2014. “Proactive Chat Reference: Getting in the Users’ Space.” College & Research Libraries News 75, no. 4: 202-205.
  68. 68. Image Attributions Slide 2: Image: by Esther Vargas / CC BY-SA 2.0 Slide 3: Image: by Global Panorama / CC BY-SA 2.0 Slide 4: Image: by Jisc infoNet / CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 Slide 6: Image: by A METEOR SHOWER / CC BY-NC- ND 2.0 Slide 8: Image: by Robert Couse-Baker / CC BY 2.0 Slide 9: Image: by N i c o l a / CC BY 2.0 Slide 13: Image: by Elena / CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 Slide 15: Image: by Jops / CC BY-NC 2.0 Slide 16: Image: by Claudio Accheri / CC BY-NC 2.0 Slide 17: Image: by Jacob Davies / CC BY-SA 2.0 Slide 18: Image: by Evelyn Berg / CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 Slide 20: Image: by Nicolas Nova / CC BY-NC 2.0
  69. 69. Image Attributions Slide 21: Image: by Meghana Kulkarni / CC BY-NC 2.0 Slide 22: Image: by Tony & Wayne / CC BY-NC 2.0 Slide 23: Image: by Katie Mollon / CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 Slide 25: Image: by Steve Larkin / CC BY-NC 2.0 Slide 26: Image: by Casey Smith / CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 Slide 27: Image: by Austin Kleon / CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 Slide 28: Image: by stateofplace / CC BY-NC 2.0 Slide 29: Image: by Katie Mollon / CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 Slide 31: Image: by Matthew Matheson / CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 Slide 32: Image: by GotCredit / CC BY 2.0 Slide 33: Image: by Bernadette van Hellenberg Hubar / CC BY-NC 2.0 Slide 34: Image: by Peter Trimming / CC BY 2.0 Slide 35: Image: by Katie Mollon / CC BY-NC-ND 2.0
  70. 70. Image Attributions Slide 37: Image: by Desiree Catani / CC BY-NC-SA 2.0 Slide 38: Image: by Katie Mollon / CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 Slide 40: Image: by Widhi Rachmanto / CC BY 2.0 Slide 41: Image: by Katie Mollon / CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 Slide 43: Image: by Jason Howie / CC BY 2.0 Slide 44: Image: by Jessie / CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 Slide 45: Image: by uniinnsbruck / CC BY-NC 2.0 Slide 46: Image: by Stewart Butterfield / CC BY 2.0 Slide 47: Image: ( by Can Pac Swire / CC BY-NC 2.0 Slide 48: Image: by Katie Mollon / CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 Slide 50: Image: by Claudio Toledo / CC BY 2.0 Slide 51: Image: by aniruddh dube / CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 Slide 52: Image: by Andreas Eldh / CC BY 2.0
  71. 71. Image Attributions Slide 53: Image: Freedom II Andres / CC BY 2.0 Slide 54: Image: by Katie Mollon / CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 Slide 56: Image: Wikipedia contributors. "Digital Visitor and Resident." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Slide 63: Image: by / CC BY-SA 2.0 Slide 64: Image: by Dutch Simba / CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 Slide 65a: Image: “Joe McDonald’s Facebook Page.” 274017182657487/. Slide 65b: Image: “Leola McDonad’s Facebook Page.” McDonald-128487107270652/. Slide 66: Images: Twitter Slide 67a: Image: Lawrence University. “Library Events.” Slide 67b: Image: University of Minnesota. “Managing Stress on the Road to Finals Week.” https://twin- Slide 68: Image: by Ryan Hickox / CC BY-SA 2.0 Slide 77: Image: by Scipio / CC BY-NC 2.0
  72. 72. Thank You! Lynn Silipigni Connaway, PhD Senior Research Scientist and Director of User Research @LynnConnaway
  73. 73. Questions & Discussions