Universities, Research libraries, (Collections) Boundaries

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Dempsey, Lorcan. "Universities, Research libraries, (Collections) Boundaries." Presentation given 19 March 2010 at University of Washington Libraries, Seattle (USA).

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  • A different view of the system-wide print collection – as it is reflected in the mass-digitized corpus.WorldCat, a reflection of system-wide library print collection, has grown rapidly in recent years; mass digitization moves even faster.5 million volumes in January 2010 – a milestone for Hathi. Projected 4 million titles in June 2010 – a milestone for UW?Over the nine months of our study, the number of titles in the Hathi repository has grown by 68% (about 8% per month). If this rate of growth is sustained, we would expect to find nearly 4 million titles (and 6.5 million volumes) in the archive by June 2010. On average, about 150,000 new titles are added to the repository each month. We focus on titles as a unit of measure because monographic works dominate in the Hathi corpus; an increase in the number of titles indicates growth in the scope of coverage while growth in volume counts may simply reflect additional digitized copies of the same edition. (If Hathi were primarily archiving journals, a focus on holdings at the volume level would be more important.) Since all copies of a given manifestation are subject to the same copyright restrictions, an increase in the number of copies does not necessarily result in an increase in the online availability of the content.
  • EEBO, ECCO – some full-text primary sources available to support research/teaching in the humanities, but mostly limited to interpretive/critical apparatus in the journal literature, not scholarly monographs. Now (or soon) we can expect a critical mass of digitized books to come online, potentially displacing some core library function. Threat or opportunity?
  • Growth rate of Hathi (approx 150K titles per month) easily exceeds that of any ARL library; coverage of retrospective print collection increasing at a rapid pace.11 miles of recoverable space in Feb 2010 assumes licensed electronic access to in-copyright content; cf. uncertain prospects of GBS settlement.
  • Universities, Research libraries, (Collections) Boundaries

    1. 1. Universities Research libraries (Collections)Boundaries<br />Lorcan Dempsey<br />U Washington Libraries<br />19 March 2010<br />With thanks to Brian Lavoie and Constance Malpas<br />
    2. 2. Worldwide demand for cars <br />will never exceed <br />one million,<br />primarily because of a limitation <br />in the number <br />of available chauffeurs.Daimler<br />
    3. 3.
    4. 4. A diversion: UW book collections<br />
    5. 5. University of Washington in WorldCat<br />Scale<br />Diversity<br />Total number of UW holdings<br />in WorldCat:<br />4,045,667<br />378 languages<br />(31% of titles non-English)<br />236 countries of publication<br />(52% of titles non-US)<br />Contribution<br />Number of UW-contributed<br />records in WorldCat:<br />412,197<br />Value of Contribution<br />Number of holdings attached<br />to UW-contributed records:<br />2,088,555<br />Rareness<br />Number of items held by UW<br />& 4 or fewer other institutions:<br />541,551<br />Statistics current as of January 2010<br />
    6. 6. HathiTrust: 12 month growth trajectory<br />Equal in scope to University of Washington (UW)<br />Equal in size to median ARL collection (2008)<br />Data current as of February 2010<br />
    7. 7. N=3.2 million titles ; 5.3 million volumes<br />Humanities content (literature, history) dominates – presages shift in scholarly practice?<br />Hathi Trust: Subject Distribution<br />Data current as of February 2010<br />
    8. 8. = 27% of titles held by UW<br />11 miles of recoverable shelf space<br />Data current as of February 2010<br />University of Washington ‘mirrored’ in Hathi<br />
    9. 9. UW: Potential Redistribution of Print Resource<br />Choices?<br />
    10. 10. Overview<br />
    11. 11. Education & research<br />Crude<br />Collections<br />Simplistic<br />Research libraries <br />Reductive<br />
    12. 12. The business of education<br />Research and learning workflows<br />Information products and services<br />Library technology<br />
    13. 13. The business of education<br />Research and learning workflows<br />Information products and services<br />Library technology<br />
    14. 14. Overview<br />
    15. 15. a quick look at education<br />
    16. 16.
    17. 17. 71<br />270<br />
    18. 18.
    19. 19. Colleges have three basic business models for attracting and keeping students. Two will continue to work in the next decade, and one almost certainly will not. Chronicle of Higher Education<br />
    20. 20. Research/elite (Strong brand, connected to international network of science and scholarship; educate many of the political and business elite; flagship), <br />Convenience(community colleges and for-profit providers, focused on preparation for further education or for a career) Education as a service.<br />The mixed middle (broad education. Not kept up with distance and convenience agendas, high overhead, limited research funding, value of 4 year immersive experience, …). <br />(vocabulary adapted - LD)<br />
    21. 21. Obvious?<br />Alignment with mission of parent institution … <br />… in a network environment …<br />… and focus on costs …<br />… will continue to redraw the boundaries of the academic library<br />… and force choices. <br />
    22. 22. Libs in ‘convenience’ sector<br />An infrastructure cost<br />ROI<br />Make learning more effective<br />Focus on ‘packaged digital’ and integration with learning process<br />Organizational integration with learning and student support<br />Focused on institutional goals not on ‘community of libraries’.<br />
    23. 23. ‘Middle’ academic<br />Make research and learning more productive<br />Selective local engagement around creation and curation of scholarly and learning materials <br />with the exception of a small number of large research libraries, retrospective print collections will be managed as a pooled resource and physically consolidated in large regional stores<br />80+% of library materials spending in the academic sector will be directed toward licensed electronic content distributed by a small number of large aggregators<br />Strong downward pressure on costs will push towards library consolidation, more ‘instrumental’ resource sharing, and a move to outsourced services. <br />
    24. 24. Research libs<br />Resources. Libraries that support doctoral education <br /><20% US academic libraries but account for .. <br />>50% library spending and … <br />>75% of expenditures on information resources. <br />Digital infrastructure. <br />Preservation mandate: the scholarly record. Comprehensive collections. <br />Support for scholarly resources. <br />Support for digital scholarship<br />
    25. 25. research<br />
    26. 26. “Emerging global model”<br />
    27. 27. Many countries have initiatives which try to concentrate resources on research excellence, aiming to maintain or establish their presence in the Research/elite group. These include China, Germany, S Korea, Japan, Canada, Taiwan, France. <br />Some countries/regions more consciously support ‘directed diversity’, looking at the balance between research excellence, broad-based education and vocational/convenience approaches: these include Australia, Norway, and Catalonia. <br />(Several sources – LD)<br />
    28. 28. Predictably, institutional attention and resources are directed at activities and local infrastructure that supports high-profile research activities, especially in the natural and social sciences, where federal funding can account for up to 70% of the institutional research portfolio. <br />Scholarship in the humanities, by contrast, is much more dependent on institutional budget allocations and private grant funding. As a result, support for library-based research in the humanities is especially vulnerable to changes in academic priorities and the availability of endowment funds. <br />The importance of STM<br />
    29. 29. Eigenfactor project<br />Tony Hey, Microsoft<br />Scholarly work that used to depend on local research collections and infrastructure is increasingly reliant on content and services that are created and managed outside of individual academic institutions.<br />Disciplinary resource (Arxiv, Repec, SSRN, ..)<br />Community, tools, …<br />Around and above the institution …<br />
    30. 30. collection trends<br />
    31. 31. Volume of publications will continue to grow. Format will become less important than channel: Education (text books, learning materials), Consumer (Amazon/Google/Apple), professional publishing (Pearson, Reed-Elsevier, Thomson Reuters), …<br /> <br />Growth in public and research materials but concerns about how to sustain in longer term.<br />Research and learning materials as social objects. Social will become a major element of all publishing – content will be the basis for learning and social experiences. <br />Move to digital raises major issues around ‘knowledge enclosure’ through licensing which create interesting service issues for (public) libraries. <br />
    32. 32. Data from NCES. Analysis by Constance Malpas. <br />
    33. 33. Forecasts – Digital Availability ofbooks<br />Five Years*<br />Front<br />Back<br />Trade:<br />25%<br />85%<br />100%<br />50%<br />Acad/Prof:<br />10%<br />75%<br />100%<br />30%<br />Text books:<br />20%<br />90%<br />100%<br />10%<br /> 1%<br />20%<br /> 50%<br />5%<br />H/S:<br />Current*<br />Ten Years#<br />Segment<br />College:<br />Memo:<br />*Assumes top tier publishers – 1,000 active publishers<br /># Assumes any active publisher selling on Amazon.com<br />Impact of Google Book Search and GoogleEditions?<br />OCLC work commissioned from Michael Cairns. Based on interviews with selection of industry experts. <br />
    34. 34. Forecasts – Digital Revenues(books)<br />Five Years*<br />Front<br />Back<br />Trade:<br />3%<br />25%<br />60%<br />5%<br />Acad/Prof:<br />1%<br />10%<br />80%<br />5%<br />5%<br />50%<br />90%<br />10%<br />0%<br />5%<br />30%<br />5%<br />H/S:<br />Current*<br />Ten Years#<br />Segment<br />Text books:<br />College:<br />Memo:<br />*Assumes top tier publishers – 1,000 active publishers<br /># Assumes any active publisher selling on Amazon.com<br />OCLC work commissioned from Michael Cairns. Based on interviews with selection of industry experts. <br />
    35. 35. Models of Provision for Scholarly Communication/Journals<br />Free Access<br />Mostly experimental at this point<br />Small but growing segment, aided by public policy support<br />Author Pages<br />Social Networks<br /> (e.g., Nature Network)<br />Open Access<br /> (e.g., BioMed Central)<br />Open Access (e.g., PLoS)<br />ArXiv.org<br />RePEc.org<br />PubMed Central<br />NARCIS<br />For-Profit<br />Non-Profit<br />“trad” Publishing<br />ICPSR<br />American Economic Review<br />JSTOR<br />Often enhanced with new forms of value added:<br />e.g., bundling articles with data; semantic enrichment <br />Long tradition of coexistence with commercial publishing<br />Paid Access<br />
    36. 36. Models of Provision for Scholarly Communication/Journals<br />Free Access<br />Mostly experimental at this point<br />Small but growing segment, aided by public policy support<br />Research institutions: significant funder?<br />Author Pages<br />Social Networks<br /> (e.g., Nature Network)<br />Open Access<br /> (e.g., BioMed Central)<br />Open Access (e.g., PLoS)<br />ArXiv.org<br />RePEc.org<br />PubMed Central<br />NARCIS<br />For-Profit<br />Non-Profit<br />Research institutions: 75% of academic revenue?<br />“trad” Publishing<br />ICPSR<br />American Economic Review<br />JSTOR<br />Often enhanced with new forms of value added:<br />e.g., bundling articles with data; semantic enrichment <br />Research institutions:<br /> major constituency?<br />Long tradition of coexistence with commercial publishing<br />Paid Access<br />
    37. 37. 5 years?<br />Free Access<br />For-Profit<br />Non-Profit<br />Paid Access<br />
    38. 38. “In other words, throughout history, libraries have depended on destruction. And today, in an era of electronic abundance they still operate within an increasingly imaginary economy of scarcity – fragments, incunabula, manuscripts, rare books. ….Once, books were chained to the wall. Today, print is an afterthought: “Do you want a receipt with that?” LisbetRausing<br />
    39. 39. Stewardship/scarcity<br />high<br />low<br />Low-High<br />Books & Journals<br />Newspapers<br />Gov Documents<br />CD & DVD<br />Maps<br />Scores<br />Low-Low<br />Freely-accessible web resources<br />Open source software<br />Newsgroup archives<br />low<br />Uniqueness<br />High-Low<br />Research & Learning Materials<br />Institutional records<br />ePrints/tech reports<br />Learning objects<br />Courseware<br />E-portfolios<br />Research data<br />Prospectus<br />Insitutional website<br />High-High<br />Special Collections<br />Rare books<br />Local/Historical Newspapers<br />Local History Materials<br />Archives & Manuscripts<br />Theses & dissertations<br />high<br />COLLECTIONS GRID<br />
    40. 40. You see the problem. What is the library, when the totality of experience approaches that which can be remembered? What is it when we no longer preserve only those fragments that time, fire, and barbarians have left us? When we are no longer able to safeguard only remnants of our discourses on thought, memory, and images, but the thoughts, memories, and images themselves – complete? What do we do when we have not only the Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects, but also Vasari’s blog, wiki, twitter, texts, emails, chatroom, Facebook, radio interviews, TV appearances, and electronic notebooks? LisbetRausing<br />
    41. 41. Stewardship<br />high<br />low<br />All institutions: shift to licensed<br />All institutions: manage transition from print?<br />Licensed channel providers: consumer, education, scholarly, ..<br />low<br />Uniqueness<br />Research institutions: managing institutional assets<br />Research institutions:<br /> new scholarly outputs<br />All institutions: learning materials<br />high<br />All institutions:<br />How much investment?<br />COLLECTIONS GRID<br />
    42. 42. library trends:boundaries,focus, scaling and sourcing<br />
    43. 43. Analysis based on NCES data: Constance Malpas<br />If this trend continues library allocations would fall below 0.5% by 2015. Growth<br />in for-profit sector, concerns about infrastructure costs in the ‘middle’ and budget<br />issues in the research sector all support this trend.<br />
    44. 44. The scholarly record<br />Legacy print<br />Digitized print<br />Licenced (books + J)<br />New scholarly outputs<br />Primary sources<br />Data<br />Archives/SpecColl<br />Communications<br />Research infrastructure<br />Offsite storage<br />Repositories<br />Facilities<br />Services (Arxiv, …)<br />Management of institutional assets<br />Records<br />Reputation<br />Resources – R&L<br />
    45. 45. Universities find it useful and<br />economical to internalize a <br />bundle of library-related <br />activities<br />As the pattern of transaction costs change, so too will the boundaries of the library.<br />Researchers/learners have more options – network. <br />a Coasian view of the academic library<br />
    46. 46. Unbundling the corporation<br />Harvard Business Review (1999)<br />
    47. 47. Attracting and building relationships with customers<br />“Service-oriented”, customization<br />Economies of scope important<br />Develop new products and<br />services and bring them to<br />market<br />Speed/flexibility important<br />Customer<br />Relationship<br />Management <br />Product Innovation<br />Infrastructure<br />Back office capacities that<br />support day-to-day operations<br />“Routinized” workflows<br />Economies of scale important<br />Core components of a firm<br />
    48. 48. Acquire/develop new information <br />resources and services to support<br />evolving research and learning<br />workflows<br />Provision of study & social spaces<br />Interpret learning and research needs <br />Personalized research assistance<br />Marketing and assessment<br />Customization/personalization<br />Customer<br />Relationship<br />Management <br />Product Innovation<br />Infrastructure<br />Physical space,<br />Physical inventory, RepositorySystems infrastructureOnline services, etc.<br />Libraries<br />
    49. 49. Customer relationship management<br />Vital to maintain?<br />Deeper engagement with the university mission<br />Local customization<br />Analytics: data driven engagement<br />Fragmented <br />
    50. 50. Innovation<br />Customer relationship management<br />Shared services<br />Organizational?<br />
    51. 51. Infrastructure challenge<br />Print increasingly collaborative:<br />Collaborative arrangements for print<br />Collaborative arrangements for digital<br />Licensed materials:<br />Reduce cost of management through private providers<br />Institutional research and learning materials:<br />Selective investments; leave to others where appropriate<br />Search for collaborative solutions where possible<br />Relationship management<br />Systems infrastructure<br />Consolidation of traditional management environment<br />Selective local investment in digital infrastructure<br />Collaborative and third party cloud offerings<br />
    52. 52. Scale<br />Source<br />
    53. 53. Obvious?<br />No question is so difficult to answer as that to which the answer is obvious. <br />George Bernard Shaw<br />
    54. 54. Thank you<br />Lorcan Dempsey<br />http://www.twitter.com/LorcanD<br />Http://www.oclc.org/research<br />

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