The world’s libraries. Connected.“I don’t think I have ever picked up abook out of the library to do anyresearch – all I h...
The world’s libraries. Connected.“I find Google a lot easier…so many journalscome up and when you look at the first ten an...
The world’s libraries. Connected.• Then: The user builtworkflow around thelibrary• Now: The library mustbuild its services...
The world’s libraries. Connected.• Local to global• Linear to linked• Print to digitalChanges in Information Acquisition
The world’s libraries. Connected.• Challenges• Budget cuts• High retirement rates• Hiring freezes• Opportunity• Best value...
The world’s libraries. Connected.• Convenience is king• Satisficing• Google andWikipedia• 84% of users startwith a searche...
The world’s libraries. Connected.• Power browsing• Scan small chunks of information• View first few pages• No real reading...
The world’s libraries. Connected.• Website hard to navigate• Inconvenient• Limited hours• Distance to library• Physical ma...
The world’s libraries. Connected.• Students• Confident with informationdiscovery tools• Determine credibility by:• Common ...
The world’s libraries. Connected.• Students• Lack of mobile access• Library• Website hard to navigate• Inconvenient• Assoc...
The world’s libraries. Connected.• Undergraduate Students• Google, Wikipedia• Also use library website and e-journals• Hum...
The world’s libraries. Connected.• Online resources• 99.5% use journals asprimary resource• Google, Web of Science,PubMed,...
The world’s libraries. Connected.• Visit only a few minutes• Shorter sessions• Basic search• View few pages• Backfiles dif...
The world’s libraries. Connected.Digital Sources & Educational Stage26%, n=850%, n=577%, n=2490%, n=970%, n=750%, n=532%, ...
The world’s libraries. Connected.Contact & Educational Stages55%, n=17 60%, n=640%, n=484%, n=2690%, n=970%, n=7 70%, n=73...
The world’s libraries. Connected.The word “librarian” onlymentioned once in originalinterviews by Emerging Stageparticipan...
The world’s libraries. Connected.“It’s like a taboo I guesswith all teachers, theyjust all say – youknow, when theyexplain...
The world’s libraries. Connected.• Improved OPACs• Full text, online accessible• Seamless discovery todelivery• Access mor...
The world’s libraries. Connected.• Advertise resources, brand, &value• Provide search help at time ofneed• Chat & IM• Mobi...
The world’s libraries. Connected.“By focusing on relationship building instead of serviceexcellence, organizations can unc...
The world’s libraries. Connected.Selected BibliographyBertot, J. C., Berube, K., Devereaux, P., Dhakal, K., Powers, S., & ...
The world’s libraries. Connected.Selected BibliographyConnaway, L. S., Lanclos, D., White, D., Le Cornu, A., & Hood, E. M....
The world’s libraries. Connected.Selected BibliographyDe Rosa, C. (2005). Perceptions of libraries and information resourc...
The world’s libraries. Connected.Selected BibliographyRadford, M. L., Connaway, L. S., Shah, C. (2011-2013). Cyber Synergy...
The world’s libraries. Connected.Special thanks to Alyssa Darden, OCLCResearch, for assistance in preparation ofthis prese...
The world’s libraries. Connected.Questions &DiscussionLynn Silipigni Connaway, Ph. Dconnawal@oclc.org
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The New Digital Students, or: "I don't think I have ever picked up a book out of the library to do any research - all I have used is my computer."

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Presented at UKSG 2013 Annual Conference and Exhibition, 8-10 April 2013, Bournemouth, England (UK)
Researchers and students expect seamless access to full-text sources and are confident in their own ability to find and use information. The ways people acquire information are changing from national to global, linear to linked and print to digital. However, information literacy has not kept pace with digital literacy and there is a need for education and support. Librarians need to develop new ways of providing services and systems to meet the needs of library users and to attract library non-users. This presentation highlights the common themes and findings of multiple US and UK user behavior studies to help librarians make informed decisions.

http://www.oclc.org/research/presentations.html

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The New Digital Students, or: "I don't think I have ever picked up a book out of the library to do any research - all I have used is my computer."

  1. 1. The world’s libraries. Connected.“I don’t think I have ever picked up abook out of the library to do anyresearch – all I have used is mycomputer.” (USU1, Female, Age 19)THE NEW DIGITAL STUDENTS, or:Bournemouth, 9 April 2013UKSG 36th Annual Conference and ExhibitionLynn Silipigni Connaway, Ph. DSenior Research ScientistOCLC@LynnConnaway
  2. 2. The world’s libraries. Connected.“I find Google a lot easier…so many journalscome up and when you look at the first ten andthey just don’t make any sense. I, kind of, giveup.”(USU7, Female Age 19)
  3. 3. The world’s libraries. Connected.• Then: The user builtworkflow around thelibrary• Now: The library mustbuild its services arounduser workflow• Then: Resources scarce,attention abundant• Now: Attention scarce,resources abundantThen & Now(Dempsey, 2008)
  4. 4. The world’s libraries. Connected.• Local to global• Linear to linked• Print to digitalChanges in Information Acquisition
  5. 5. The world’s libraries. Connected.• Challenges• Budget cuts• High retirement rates• Hiring freezes• Opportunity• Best value for most use• Understand how, why, &under what circumstancesindividuals use systems &servicesCurrent Environment
  6. 6. The world’s libraries. Connected.• Convenience is king• Satisficing• Google andWikipedia• 84% of users startwith a searchengineConvenience(De Rosa, 2005(Centre for Information Behaviour and the Evaluation of Research, 2008)
  7. 7. The world’s libraries. Connected.• Power browsing• Scan small chunks of information• View first few pages• No real reading• Squirrelling• Short basic searches• Download content for later use• Situational needs determine search• Contextually based rationaldecisions• Confident in skills• Differ with discipline• “Awareness of open access is low• Lack of understanding of copyright& signed publisher agreementsInformation-Seeking Behavior(Consortium of University Research Libraries, and ResearchInformation Network, 2007)(Research Information Network, 2006)(Connaway & Dickey, 2010)
  8. 8. The world’s libraries. Connected.• Website hard to navigate• Inconvenient• Limited hours• Distance to library• Physical materials• Don’t think electronicresources are libraryresources• Associate with booksThe library? What’s that?(Connaway & Dickey, 2010)
  9. 9. The world’s libraries. Connected.• Students• Confident with informationdiscovery tools• Determine credibility by:• Common sense (83%)• Cross-checking (71%)• Reputation ofcompany/organization (69%)• Credible recommendations(68%)• Researchers• Self-taught in discovery services• No formal training (62%)• Doctoral students learn fromdissertation professor• Confident in skillsSkills for Finding & Using Information(De Rosa, 2006)Research Information Network, 2006)
  10. 10. The world’s libraries. Connected.• Students• Lack of mobile access• Library• Website hard to navigate• Inconvenient• Associate with books• Faculty• Accessing online journal articles &back files• Need desktop access• Discovery of non-English content• Unavailable content• Irrelevant information in result list• Lack of specialist search enginesFrustrations(Connaway & Dickey, 2010)
  11. 11. The world’s libraries. Connected.• Undergraduate Students• Google, Wikipedia• Also use library website and e-journals• Human resources• Other students/classmates• Family & relatives• Friends• Graduate students• Professors, advisors, mentors• Electronic databasesTools Used: Students(De Rosa, 2006)Connaway & Dickey, 2010)
  12. 12. The world’s libraries. Connected.• Online resources• 99.5% use journals asprimary resource• Google, Web of Science,PubMed, Science Direct,JSTOR• Human resources• 90% mention expertise ofindividuals as importantresource• Coworkers• Colleagues• Other professionalsTools Used: Researchers(Research Information Network, 2006)(Connaway & Dickey, 2010)
  13. 13. The world’s libraries. Connected.• Visit only a few minutes• Shorter sessions• Basic search• View few pages• Backfiles difficult toaccess• Content often discoveredthrough GoogleE-journals(Wong, Stelmaszewska, Bhimani, Barn, & Barn, 2009)(Research Information Network, 2009)
  14. 14. The world’s libraries. Connected.Digital Sources & Educational Stage26%, n=850%, n=577%, n=2490%, n=970%, n=750%, n=532%, n=1050%, n=548%, n=1540%, n=420%, n=2040%, n=40%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%100%Emerging Interviews Establishing InterviewsEmbedding InterviewsExperiencing InterviewsMajor Media SitesWikipediaRetailSyllabus- and discipline-based sites
  15. 15. The world’s libraries. Connected.Contact & Educational Stages55%, n=17 60%, n=640%, n=484%, n=2690%, n=970%, n=7 70%, n=730%, n=310%, n=1052%, n=16100%, n=10 100%, n=10 100%, n=100%20%40%60%80%100%120%Emerging Interviews Establishing Interviews Embedding Interviews Experiencing InterviewsFace-to-FacePhone callsIM, ChatEmail
  16. 16. The world’s libraries. Connected.The word “librarian” onlymentioned once in originalinterviews by Emerging Stageparticipants as a source ofinformationOne participant referred to“a lady in the library whohelps you find things”(USU5, Male, Age 19)
  17. 17. The world’s libraries. Connected.“It’s like a taboo I guesswith all teachers, theyjust all say – youknow, when theyexplain the paper theyalways say, “Don’t useWikipedia.”(USU7, Female, Age 19)The Learning Black Market
  18. 18. The world’s libraries. Connected.• Improved OPACs• Full text, online accessible• Seamless discovery todelivery• Access more importantthan discovery• Mobile accessWhat can we change?
  19. 19. The world’s libraries. Connected.• Advertise resources, brand, &value• Provide search help at time ofneed• Chat & IM• Mobile technology• Design all of our systems withusers in mind• Familiar formats• Model services on popularservicesWhat can we do?
  20. 20. The world’s libraries. Connected.“By focusing on relationship building instead of serviceexcellence, organizations can uncover new needs andbe in position to make a stronger impact.”(Matthews, 2012)
  21. 21. The world’s libraries. Connected.Selected BibliographyBertot, J. C., Berube, K., Devereaux, P., Dhakal, K., Powers, S., & Ray, J. (2012). Assessing the usability ofWorldCat Local: Findings and considerations. The Library Quarterly, 82(2), 207-221.Centre for Information Behaviour and the Evaluation of Research. (2008). Information behaviour of the researcherof the future: A CIBER briefing paper. London: CIBER (p. 14).Connaway, L. S. (2013). Exploring shifting changes in user engagement. NextSpace, 20, 16-17. [Available:http://www.oclc.org/nextspace/020/research.htm]Connaway, L.S., & Dickey, T.J. (2010). Digital information seekers: Report of findings from selectedOCLC, RIN, and JISC user behavior projects.http://www.jisc.ac.uk/media/documents/publications/reports/2010/digitalinformationseekerreport.pdfConnaway, L. S., & Dickey, T. J. (2010). Towards a profile of the researcher of today: What can we learn fromJISC projects? Common themes identified in an analysis of JISC Virtual Research Environment and DigitalRepository Projects. http://ie-repository.jisc.ac.uk/418/2/VirtualScholar_themesFromProjects_revised.pdfConnaway, L. S., Dickey, T. J., & Radford, M. L. (2011). “If it is too inconvenient I’m not going after it:”Convenience as a critical factor in information-seeking behaviors. Library & Information ScienceResearch, 33(3), 179-190. (Selected for inclusion in the ALA Reference Research Review: 2011)Connaway, L. S., Lanclos, D., & Hood, E. M. (forthcoming). “I find Google a lot easier than going to the librarywebsite.” Imagine Ways to Innovate and Inspire Students to Use the Academic Library. Proceedings of theAssociation of College & Research Libraries (ACRL) 2013 conference, April 10-13, 2013, Indianapolis, IN.
  22. 22. The world’s libraries. Connected.Selected BibliographyConnaway, L. S., Lanclos, D., White, D., Le Cornu, A., & Hood, E. M. (2013). User-centered decision making: Anew model for developing academic library services and systems. IFLA Journal, 39(1), 30-36.Connaway, L. S., & Radford, M. L. (2011). Seeking synchronicity: Revelations and recommendations for virtualreference. Dublin, OH: OCLC Research. Retrieved from http://www.oclc.org/reports/synchronicity/full.pdfConnaway, L. S., White, D., Lanclos, D., & Le Cornu, A. (2013). Visitors and Residents: What motivatesengagement with the digital information environment? Information Research, 18(1).[Available:http://informationr.net/ir/18-1/infres181.html]Consortium of University Research Libraries, and Research Information Network. (2007). Researchers’ use ofacademic libraries and their services: A report. London: Research Information Network and Consortium ofUniversity Research Libraries (CURL) (p. 31, p.64).Cunningham, S. J. & Connaway, L. S. (1996). Information searching preferences and practices of computerscience researchers. In J. Grundy (Ed.), Proceedings: Sixth Australian conference on computer-humaninteraction, November 24-27, 1996, Hamilton, New Zealand (pp. 294-299). Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE ComputerSociety Press.Dempsey, L. (2013, January 23). The inside out library: Scale, learning, engagement. Presentation atHacettepe University, Beytepe, Ankara (Turkey).Dempsey, L. (2008). Always on: Libraries in a world of permanent connectivity. First Monday, 14(1). Retrievedfrom http://www.firstmonday.org/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/2291/207
  23. 23. The world’s libraries. Connected.Selected BibliographyDe Rosa, C. (2005). Perceptions of libraries and information resources: A report to the OCLC membership.Dublin, Ohio: OCLC Online Computer Library Center (p.1-17).De Rosa, C. (2006). College students perceptions of libraries and information resources: A report to the OCLCmembership. Dublin, Ohio: OCLC Online Computer Library Center.Dervin, B., Connaway, L. S., & Prabha, C. 2003-2006. Sense-making the information confluence: The whys andhows of college and university user satisficing of information needs. Funded by the Institute of Museum andLibrary Services (IMLS). http://www.oclc.org/research/activities/imls.htmlDe Santis, N. (2012, January 6). On Facebook, librarian brings 2 students from the early 1900s to life. Chronicle ofHigher Education. Retrieved from http://chronicle.com/blogs/wiredcampus/on-facebook-librarian-brings-two-students-from-the-early-1900s-to-life/34845Kolowich, S. (2011, 22 August). Study: College students rarely use librarians’ expertise. USA Today. Retrievedfrom: http://www.usatoday.com/news/education/story/2011-08-22/Study-College-students-rarely-use-librarians-expertise/50094086/1Mathews, B. (2012). Think like a startup: A white paper to inspire library entrepreneurialism [White paper].Retrieved from http://chronicle.com/blognetwork/theubiquitouslibrarian/2012/04/04/think-like-a-startup-a-white-paper/Priestner, A., & Tilley, E. (2012). Personalising library services in higher education: The boutique approach.Farnham, Surrey, England : Ashgate.
  24. 24. The world’s libraries. Connected.Selected BibliographyRadford, M. L., Connaway, L. S., Shah, C. (2011-2013). Cyber Synergy: Seeking Sustainability throughCollaboration between Virtual Reference and Social Q&A Sites. Funded by the Institute of Museum andLibrary Services (IMLS), Rutgers University, and OCLC.http://www.oclc.org/research/activities/synergy/default.htmResearch Information Network. (2006). Researchers and discovery services: Behaviour, perceptions and needs.London: Research Information Network.Research Information Network. (2009). E-journals: Their use, value and impact. London: Research InformationNetwork.Wasserman, S. (2012, June 18). The Amazon effect. The Nation. Retrieved fromhttp://www.thenation.com/article/168125/amazon-effectWhite, D., & Connaway, L. S. (2011). Visitors and residents: What motivates engagement with the digitalinformation environment. Funded by JISC, OCLC, and Oxford University.http://www.oclc.org/research/activities/vandr/White, D. S., & Le Cornu, A. (2011). Visitors and Residents: A new typology for online engagement. FirstMonday, 16(9). Retrieved fromhttp://firstmonday.org/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/ojs/index.php/fm/article/viewArticle/3171/3049Wong, W., Stelmaszewska, H., Bhimani,N., Barn, S., & Barn, B. (2009). User behaviour in resource discovery:Final report. http://www.jisc.ac.uk/whatwedo/programmes/inf11/userbehaviourbusandecon.aspxZickuhr, K. , Rainie, L., & Purcell, K. (2013). Library services in the digital age. Pew Internet and American LifeProject.
  25. 25. The world’s libraries. Connected.Special thanks to Alyssa Darden, OCLCResearch, for assistance in preparation ofthis presentation
  26. 26. The world’s libraries. Connected.Questions &DiscussionLynn Silipigni Connaway, Ph. Dconnawal@oclc.org

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