Taking Our PulseThe OCLC Research Survey ofSpecial Collections and Archives Jackie Dooley     [took 45 minutes, 75 in audi...
Overview                       • Survey population                       • Project objectives                       • Data...
What’s wrong with this [big] picture?        • Overall collections size is growing        • Use is increasing        • Too...
Project objectives    1. Obtain current data to determine changes       across the ARL libraries since 1998    2. Expand A...
Survey population        Libraries surveyed: 275        Rate of response: 61% (169)        Five membership organizations  ...
Respondents by type of institutionOCLC Research Survey of Special Collections and Archives, ALCTS forum, 10 Jan 2011   6
Printed volumes in overall libraryOCLC Research Survey of Special Collections and Archives, ALCTS forum, 10 Jan 2011   7
Change in overall library fundingOCLC Research Survey of Special Collections and Archives, ALCTS forum, 10 Jan 2011   8
“Your three most challenging issues” **        1. Space: 64%        1. Born-digital materials: 37%        2. Digitization:...
Assessment: Action item      Develop and promulgate metrics that enable       standardized measurementof key elements     ...
Key to percentages:                              Red = % of respondents                              Black = numerical dat...
Collections: Growth      Mean ARL collections growth since 1998           • Books: 50%           • Archives/manuscripts: 5...
Collections: Acquisitions         Purchase vs. gift              • 57% of books are purchased                 • 50/50 inst...
Collections: Acquisitions Funding     ARL          • Mean: $488,000                       Oberlin          • Median:$200,0...
Collections: Acquisitions       Hundreds of new collecting directions             • #1: gift             • #2: new institu...
Collections       Materials deaccessioned             • Reported by 33 respondents (20%)             • Most frequent reaso...
Collections: Action items      Identify barriers that limit collaborative        collection development. Define key       ...
User services: Onsite visits        Percent of each type of user             • Faculty/staff: 9%             • Graduate st...
Changes in level of use by type of user            Note: Numbers of respondents.OCLC Research Survey of Special Collection...
Changes in use by format             Note: Numbers of respondents.OCLC Research Survey of Special Collections and Archives...
Changes in users’ methods of contact                    Note: Numbers of respondents.OCLC Research Survey of Special Colle...
Access to uncataloged/unprocessed materials              Note: Numbers of respondents.OCLC Research Survey of Special Coll...
Use of digital cameras       Users may employ personal digital cameras in        the special collections reading room: 87%...
Interlibrary loanOCLC Research Survey of Special Collections and Archives, ALCTS forum, 10 Jan 2011   24
Web-based communication methodsOCLC Research Survey of Special Collections and Archives, ALCTS forum, 10 Jan 2011   25
User services: Action items       Develop and liberally implement exemplary        policies to facilitate rather than inhi...
Cataloging and metadata       Online catalog records             • Books: 85%             • Maps: 42%             • Archiv...
Change in size of backlogs          Note: Numbers of respondents.OCLC Research Survey of Special Collections and Archives,...
Cataloging and metadata: Action items       Compile, disseminate, and adopt a slate of        replicable, sustainable meth...
Archival management      Archival finding aids            • Online: 44%            • Print-only or in local silos: 30%    ...
Encoding of archival finding aids           Note: Percentages of respondents.OCLC Research Survey of Special Collections a...
Archival management      Finding aids tools are not standardized            • Most commonly used: word processing,database...
Archival management: Action item      Convert legacy finding aids using affordable       methodologies to enable Internet ...
DigitizationOCLC Research Survey of Special Collections and Archives, ALCTS forum, 10 Jan 2011   34
Special collections involvement in digitization    projectsOCLC Research Survey of Special Collections and Archives, ALCTS...
Large-scale digitization of special collections           Definition: Systematic reproduction of entire collections using ...
Licensed content          Content licensed to commercial firms for           digitization: 26%             C.f. Principles...
Digitization: Action items        Develop models for large-scale digitization of         special collections, including me...
Born-digital archival materials                     In a nutshell …                           • Undercollected            ...
Born-digital archival materials      • Holdings reported by: 35%         • Percent held by top two libraries: 51%         ...
Responsibility for born-digital archival materialsOCLC Research Survey of Special Collections and Archives, ALCTS forum, 1...
Born-digital materials already heldOCLC Research Survey of Special Collections and Archives, ALCTS forum, 10 Jan 2011   42
Impediments to born-digital management               Note: Respondents could check all that apply.OCLC Research Survey of ...
Born-digital materials: Action items      Define the characteristics of born-digital materials       that warrant manageme...
Changes in staffing levels            Note: Numbers of respondents.OCLC Research Survey of Special Collections and Archive...
Education and training needsOCLC Research Survey of Special Collections and Archives, ALCTS forum, 10 Jan 2011   46
Staffing       Retirements likely within five years: 9%       Multiple special collections units/depts: 25%OCLC Research S...
Staffing: Action items        Confirm high-priority areas in which education         and training opportunities are not ad...
Taking our Pulse                   The OCLC Research Survey of                  Special Collections and Archives     http:...
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Taking Our Pulse: The OCLC Research Survey of Special Collections and Archives

  1. 1. Taking Our PulseThe OCLC Research Survey ofSpecial Collections and Archives Jackie Dooley [took 45 minutes, 75 in audience] OCLC Research Program Officer ALCTS Midwinter Forum 10 January 2011
  2. 2. Overview • Survey population • Project objectives • Data & action itemsOCLC Research Survey of Special Collections and Archives, ALCTS forum, 10 Jan 2011 2
  3. 3. What’s wrong with this [big] picture? • Overall collections size is growing • Use is increasing • Too many materials remain “hidden” • Backlogs continue to grow • Staffing is stable • 75% of library budgets have been cutOCLC Research Survey of Special Collections and Archives, ALCTS forum, 10 Jan 2011 3
  4. 4. Project objectives 1. Obtain current data to determine changes across the ARL libraries since 1998 2. Expand ARL’s survey population 3. Enable institutions to place themselves in the context of norms 4. Provide data to support decision-making 5. Recommend actions based on survey resultsOCLC Research Survey of Special Collections and Archives, ALCTS forum, 10 Jan 2011 4
  5. 5. Survey population Libraries surveyed: 275 Rate of response: 61% (169) Five membership organizations • Association of Research Libraries • Canadian Association of Research Libraries • Independent Research Libraries Association • Oberlin Group • RLG PartnershipOCLC Research Survey of Special Collections and Archives, ALCTS forum, 10 Jan 2011 5
  6. 6. Respondents by type of institutionOCLC Research Survey of Special Collections and Archives, ALCTS forum, 10 Jan 2011 6
  7. 7. Printed volumes in overall libraryOCLC Research Survey of Special Collections and Archives, ALCTS forum, 10 Jan 2011 7
  8. 8. Change in overall library fundingOCLC Research Survey of Special Collections and Archives, ALCTS forum, 10 Jan 2011 8
  9. 9. “Your three most challenging issues” ** 1. Space: 64% 1. Born-digital materials: 37% 2. Digitization: 35% ** Funding and staffing were disallowed. Respondents could name up to three challenges.OCLC Research Survey of Special Collections and Archives, ALCTS forum, 10 Jan 2011 9
  10. 10. Assessment: Action item Develop and promulgate metrics that enable standardized measurementof key elements of special collections use and management.OCLC Research Survey of Special Collections and Archives, ALCTS forum, 10 Jan 2011 10
  11. 11. Key to percentages: Red = % of respondents Black = numerical dataOCLC Research Survey of Special Collections and Archives, ALCTS forum, 10 Jan 2011 11
  12. 12. Collections: Growth Mean ARL collections growth since 1998 • Books: 50% • Archives/manuscripts: 50% • Audio: 240% • Visual and moving image: 300% • Microforms: decreased 80% Special collections in remote storage: 67%OCLC Research Survey of Special Collections and Archives, ALCTS forum, 10 Jan 2011 12
  13. 13. Collections: Acquisitions Purchase vs. gift • 57% of books are purchased • 50/50 institutional and special funds • 18% of other formats are purchased Source of funding • Institutional: 38% • Special: 62%OCLC Research Survey of Special Collections and Archives, ALCTS forum, 10 Jan 2011 13
  14. 14. Collections: Acquisitions Funding ARL • Mean: $488,000 Oberlin • Median:$200,000 •Mean: $53,000 •Median:$18,000 CARL • Mean: $293,000 RLG • Median: $103,000 •Mean: $724,000 IRLA •Median: $268,000 • Mean: $821,000 • Median: $167,000OCLC Research Survey of Special Collections and Archives, ALCTS forum, 10 Jan 2011 14
  15. 15. Collections: Acquisitions Hundreds of new collecting directions • #1: gift • #2: new institutional direction • #3: faculty suggestion Cooperative collection development • Mostly informal/regional • Very few formal arrangements (5%)OCLC Research Survey of Special Collections and Archives, ALCTS forum, 10 Jan 2011 15
  16. 16. Collections Materials deaccessioned • Reported by 33 respondents (20%) • Most frequent reasons • Transferred to more appropriate institution (13) • Returned to donor (5) • Transferred to general stacks (4) Preservation • Audiovisual materials are at “code blue”OCLC Research Survey of Special Collections and Archives, ALCTS forum, 10 Jan 2011 16
  17. 17. Collections: Action items Identify barriers that limit collaborative collection development. Define key characteristics and desired outcomes of effective collaboration. Take collective action to share resources for cost-effective preservation of at-risk audiovisual materials.OCLC Research Survey of Special Collections and Archives, ALCTS forum, 10 Jan 2011 17
  18. 18. User services: Onsite visits Percent of each type of user • Faculty/staff: 9% • Graduate students: 5% • Undergraduates: 12% • Visiting scholars/researchers: 24% • Local community: 7% • “Other”: 43%OCLC Research Survey of Special Collections and Archives, ALCTS forum, 10 Jan 2011 18
  19. 19. Changes in level of use by type of user Note: Numbers of respondents.OCLC Research Survey of Special Collections and Archives, ALCTS forum, 10 Jan 2011 19
  20. 20. Changes in use by format Note: Numbers of respondents.OCLC Research Survey of Special Collections and Archives, ALCTS forum, 10 Jan 2011 20
  21. 21. Changes in users’ methods of contact Note: Numbers of respondents.OCLC Research Survey of Special Collections and Archives, ALCTS forum, 10 Jan 2011 21
  22. 22. Access to uncataloged/unprocessed materials Note: Numbers of respondents.OCLC Research Survey of Special Collections and Archives, ALCTS forum, 10 Jan 2011 22
  23. 23. Use of digital cameras Users may employ personal digital cameras in the special collections reading room: 87% C.f. Lisa Miller, et al. “Capture and Release”: Digital Cameras in the Reading Room. OCLC Research, 2010. http://www.oclc.org/research/publications/library/2010/2010- 05.pdfOCLC Research Survey of Special Collections and Archives, ALCTS forum, 10 Jan 2011 23
  24. 24. Interlibrary loanOCLC Research Survey of Special Collections and Archives, ALCTS forum, 10 Jan 2011 24
  25. 25. Web-based communication methodsOCLC Research Survey of Special Collections and Archives, ALCTS forum, 10 Jan 2011 25
  26. 26. User services: Action items Develop and liberally implement exemplary policies to facilitate rather than inhibit access to and interlibrary loan of rare and unique materials.OCLC Research Survey of Special Collections and Archives, ALCTS forum, 10 Jan 2011 26
  27. 27. Cataloging and metadata Online catalog records • Books: 85% • Maps: 42% • Archival formats: 50% or less ARLs show minimal improvement in “exposing hidden collections” Backlogs • Decreased: 59% (books), 44% (other) • Increased: 25% (books), 41% (other)OCLC Research Survey of Special Collections and Archives, ALCTS forum, 10 Jan 2011 27
  28. 28. Change in size of backlogs Note: Numbers of respondents.OCLC Research Survey of Special Collections and Archives, ALCTS forum, 10 Jan 2011 28
  29. 29. Cataloging and metadata: Action items Compile, disseminate, and adopt a slate of replicable, sustainable methodologies for cataloging and processing to facilitate exposure of materials that remain hidden and stop the growth of backlogs. Develop shared capacities to create metadata for published materialssuch as maps and printed graphics for which cataloging resources appear to be scarce.OCLC Research Survey of Special Collections and Archives, ALCTS forum, 10 Jan 2011 29
  30. 30. Archival management Archival finding aids • Online: 44% • Print-only or in local silos: 30% Simplified processing techniques • Always: 18% • Sometimes: 57%OCLC Research Survey of Special Collections and Archives, ALCTS forum, 10 Jan 2011 30
  31. 31. Encoding of archival finding aids Note: Percentages of respondents.OCLC Research Survey of Special Collections and Archives, ALCTS forum, 10 Jan 2011 31
  32. 32. Archival management Finding aids tools are not standardized • Most commonly used: word processing,databases • Archivists Toolkit: 34% • Archon: 11% Institutional archives • Reports to library: 87% • Responsible for records management: 70%OCLC Research Survey of Special Collections and Archives, ALCTS forum, 10 Jan 2011 32
  33. 33. Archival management: Action item Convert legacy finding aids using affordable methodologies to enable Internet access. Resist the urge to upgrade or expand the data. Develop tools to facilitate conversion from local databases.OCLC Research Survey of Special Collections and Archives, ALCTS forum, 10 Jan 2011 33
  34. 34. DigitizationOCLC Research Survey of Special Collections and Archives, ALCTS forum, 10 Jan 2011 34
  35. 35. Special collections involvement in digitization projectsOCLC Research Survey of Special Collections and Archives, ALCTS forum, 10 Jan 2011 35
  36. 36. Large-scale digitization of special collections Definition: Systematic reproduction of entire collections using streamlined production methods that account for special needs.OCLC Research Survey of Special Collections and Archives, ALCTS forum, 10 Jan 2011 36
  37. 37. Licensed content Content licensed to commercial firms for digitization: 26% C.f. Principles to Guide Vendor/Publisher Relations in Large- Scale Digitization Projects of Special Collections Materials. ARL policy, approved July 2010. http://www.arl.org/bm~doc/principles_large_scale_digitization.pdfOCLC Research Survey of Special Collections and Archives, ALCTS forum, 10 Jan 2011 37
  38. 38. Digitization: Action items Develop models for large-scale digitization of special collections, including methodologies for selection of appropriate collections, security, safe handling, sustainable metadata creation, and ambitious productivity levels. Determine the scope of the existing corpus of digitized rare books, differentiating those available as open access from those that are licensed.Identify the most important gaps and implement collaborative projects to complete the corpus.OCLC Research Survey of Special Collections and Archives, ALCTS forum, 10 Jan 2011 38
  39. 39. Born-digital archival materials In a nutshell … • Undercollected • Undercounted • Undermanaged • Unpreserved • InaccessibleOCLC Research Survey of Special Collections and Archives, ALCTS forum, 10 Jan 2011 39
  40. 40. Born-digital archival materials • Holdings reported by: 35% • Percent held by top two libraries: 51% • Percent held by top 13 libraries: 93% • Digital materials currently held by: 79% • Assignment of responsibility for born-digital management made by: 55% • Education/training needed by: 83%OCLC Research Survey of Special Collections and Archives, ALCTS forum, 10 Jan 2011 40
  41. 41. Responsibility for born-digital archival materialsOCLC Research Survey of Special Collections and Archives, ALCTS forum, 10 Jan 2011 41
  42. 42. Born-digital materials already heldOCLC Research Survey of Special Collections and Archives, ALCTS forum, 10 Jan 2011 42
  43. 43. Impediments to born-digital management Note: Respondents could check all that apply.OCLC Research Survey of Special Collections and Archives, ALCTS forum, 10 Jan 2011 43
  44. 44. Born-digital materials: Action items Define the characteristics of born-digital materials that warrant management as “special collections.” Define a reasonable set of basicsteps for initiatingan institutional program for responsibly managing born-digital archival materials. Develop use cases and cost models for selection, management, and preservation of born- digital archival materials.OCLC Research Survey of Special Collections and Archives, ALCTS forum, 10 Jan 2011 44
  45. 45. Changes in staffing levels Note: Numbers of respondents.OCLC Research Survey of Special Collections and Archives, ALCTS forum, 10 Jan 2011 45
  46. 46. Education and training needsOCLC Research Survey of Special Collections and Archives, ALCTS forum, 10 Jan 2011 46
  47. 47. Staffing Retirements likely within five years: 9% Multiple special collections units/depts: 25%OCLC Research Survey of Special Collections and Archives, ALCTS forum, 10 Jan 2011 47
  48. 48. Staffing: Action items Confirm high-priority areas in which education and training opportunities are not adequate for particular segments of the professional community. Exert pressure on appropriate organizations to fill the gaps.OCLC Research Survey of Special Collections and Archives, ALCTS forum, 10 Jan 2011 48
  49. 49. Taking our Pulse The OCLC Research Survey of Special Collections and Archives http://www.oclc.org/research/publications/library/20 10/2010-11.pdfOCLC Research Survey of Special Collections and Archives, ALCTS forum, 10 Jan 2011 49

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