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Studying information behavior: The Many Faces of Digital Visitors and Residents

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Connaway, L. S. (2018). Studying information behavior: The Many Faces of Digital Visitors and Residents. Presented at Bar-Ilan University, March 11, 2018, Ramat Gan, Israel.

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Studying information behavior: The Many Faces of Digital Visitors and Residents

  1. 1. Bar-Ilan University • 11 March 2018 Studying Information Behavior: The Many Faces of Digital Visitors and Residents Lynn Silipigni Connaway, PhD Senior Research Scientist & Director of User Research, OCLC connawal@oclc.org @LynnConnaway
  2. 2. About Digital Visitors and Residents • Identify how individuals engage with technology • How they acquire their information • Why they make their choices (White, Connaway, Lanclos, Hood, and Vass 2014)
  3. 3. Connaway, Lynn Silipigni, Vanessa Kitzie, Erin M. Hood and William Harvey. 2017. The Many Faces of Digital Visitors & Residents: Facets of Online Engagement. With contributions from Allison Benedetti, Agustí Canals, Liliana Gregori, Eva Ortoll Espinet, Daniel Lozano, Melissa Man, Josep Cobarsí Morales, Sara Giuliana Ricetto, Riccardo Melgrati, Eva M. Méndez Rodríguez, Andrea Sada, Peter Sidorko, Paolo Sirito, Virginia Steel, Titia van der Werf, and Esther Woo. Dublin, OH: OCLC Research. doi:10.25333/C3V63F https://www.oclc.org/content/dam/research/ publications/2017/oclcresearch-many-faces- digital-vandr-a4.pdf.
  4. 4. V&R Framework (White and Le Cornu 2011) #vandr Visitors and Residents resources http://goo.gl/vxUMRD
  5. 5. Visitor Mode • Functional use of technology • Formal need • Invisible online presence • Internet is a toolbox (White and Connaway 2011-2014)
  6. 6. Resident Mode • Visible and persistent online presence • Collaborative activity online • Contribute online • Internet is a place (White and Connaway 2011-2014)
  7. 7. Educational Stages (Connaway, White, and Lanclos 2011)
  8. 8. Engaging individuals in context #vandr Visitors and Residents resources http://goo.gl/vxUMRD Connaway and White for OCLC Research 2012
  9. 9. DATA COLLECTION TOOLS AND METHODS
  10. 10. Qualitative Research Definition A type of scientific research that: • Seeks answers to a question • Systematically uses predefined set of procedures to answer question • Collects evidence • Produces findings that: • Are not determined in advance • Apply beyond immediate boundaries of study
  11. 11. What is Qualitative Research? “…a situated activity that locates the observer in the world. It consists of a set of interpretive, material practices that make the world visible. These practices transform the world. They turn the world into a series of representations, including field notes, interviews, conversations, photographs, recordings, & memos to the self. At this level, qualitative research involves an interpretive, naturalistic approach to the world. This means that qualitative researchers study things in their natural settings, attempting to make sense of, or to interpret, phenomena in terms of the meanings people bring to them.” (Denzin and Lincoln 2005)
  12. 12. Quantitative Research Definition Quantitative research methods “use measurements and statistics to transform empirical data into numbers and to develop mathematical models that quantify behavior.” (Tracy, 2013)
  13. 13. What is Quantitative Research? • Based on the scientific method of inquiry • Theory • Problem • Hypothesis • Measurement • Validity, reliability, and level • Includes survey research and experimental research • Utilizes statistical analysis methods
  14. 14. Mixed Methods Research • Any combination of research methods • Qualitative • Quantitative • Participatory • Action • Design • Equal attention to all stages of research process • Findings should be iterative & informative (Kazmer 2017, 232-233)
  15. 15. Triangulation • Term coined by Webb et al. (1966) • Multiple methods of data collection (e.g., interviews – individual & group, observation, literature, archives) • Agree, or at least don’t contradict (Miles and Huberman 1994, 266) • Multiple investigators • Multiple contexts/situations
  16. 16. Mixed Methods “Miles, Huberman, and Saldaña also pointed out that although designing and conducting a mixed method research project involves careful planning and more effort in execution, the benefits greatly outweigh the difficulties (including philosophical ones).” (Connaway and Radford 2017, 229)
  17. 17. 4 Project Phases • Semi-structured interviews • Diaries/monthly semi- structured interviews • Written • Video • Skype or telephone • Second group of semi- structured interviews • Online survey V&R Data Collection Tools
  18. 18. Semi-structured Interviews • Incredibly detailed data • Time consuming – Establishing rapport – Selecting research participants – Transcribing observations & conversations
  19. 19. Conducting the Interview 1. Thematizing: Clarifying the interview’s purpose 2. Designing: Defining the interview’s purpose 3. Interviewing: Conducting the interview 4. Transcribing: Creating a written verbatim text of the interview 5. Analyzing: Figuring out the meaning of data 6. Verifying: Determining the reliability & validity of the data 7. Reporting: Telling others about the findings (Connaway and Radford 2017, 244)
  20. 20. Visitors and Residents Interviews • United States • United Kingdom • Universidad Carlos III de Madrid (Madrid, Spain) • Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore (Milan, Italy) • Universitat Oberta de Catalunya (Barcelona, Spain)
  21. 21. Educational Stage Universidad Carlos III de Madrid (Madrid) United States United Kingdom Universitat Oberta de Catalunya (Barcelona) Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore (Milan) Emerging Participants 8 22 21 6 3 Establishing Participants 10 5 5 7 6 Embedding Participants 10 5 5 7 6 Experiencing Participants 10 5 5 13 5 Total 38 37 36 33 20 Visitors and Residents Interview Demographics (n=164)
  22. 22. V&R Semi-Structured Interview Questions 5. Have there been times when you were told to use a library or virtual learning environment (or learning platform), and used other source(s) instead? 6. If you had a magic wand, what would your ideal way of getting information be? How would you go about using the systems and services? When? Where? How?
  23. 23. Diaries • Keep directions minimal and open • Offer participants a variety of ways to report • Written • Photo • Video • Audio • Data can be rich and detailed, but is self-reported • Does not require researcher presence (Connaway and Radford, 2017)
  24. 24. V&R Diaries • 22 Diarists (10 UK/12 US): • 66 diaries collected • 53 follow-up diarist interviews conducted • Conducted and collected from April 2011 through October 2013 (White and Connaway 2011-2014)
  25. 25. V&R Diary Template 1. Explain a time in the past month when you were SUCCESSFUL in completing an ACADEMIC assignment. What steps did you take? 2. Think of a time fairly recently when you struggled to find appropriate resources to help you complete an ACADEMIC assignment. What happened?
  26. 26. Example: Digital Visitors and Residents Diaries
  27. 27. Online Surveys • Use a database, programming code, & interface to distribute surveys and collect responses • Drawbacks • Lower response rates than paper • Concerns over privacy and confidentiality • Can be spammed • Difficult to get a random sample • May underrepresent those without computers
  28. 28. Online Surveys vs Interviews • Response rate can be improved with email follow ups • Quicker responses • May be less expensive • Numerous existing tools to administer the survey and host data • Decrease manual entry for researcher • Can be easier to analyze
  29. 29. V&R Online Surveys • In-depth online survey • 150 participants from the US & UK • 42 Emerging • 42 Establishing • 42 Embedding • 24 Experiencing
  30. 30. Mapping Visitors and Residents Sample Maps
  31. 31. Why Mapping Exercise? • Learn about how we engage – Personally – Professionally – Individually – Collectively • Identify and better understand our identity and dynamics • Better understand users to better understand their workflows and engagement – Modify and change library offerings, modes of interaction, and communication • It is fun and interesting • Data and Discovery
  32. 32. ResidentVisitor Personal Institutional
  33. 33. ResidentVisitor Personal Institutional
  34. 34. ResidentVisitor Personal Institutional
  35. 35. Usability Testing • Degree to which a user can successfully learn & use a product to achieve a goal • Evaluation research methodology • Observation & analysis of user behavior while users use a product or product prototype to achieve a goal (Dumas and Redish 1993, 22)
  36. 36. Usability Testing: Components Comprised of three parts: 1. Pre-session interview 2. Scenario and task structured test 3. Post-session survey (Tang 2017, 278)
  37. 37. Usability Testing: Methodology • Artificial environment (laboratory) • Maintain more control • May provide more specific data on a particular feature • Natural environment • Better holistic representation of real people doing real work (Tang 2017, 278)
  38. 38. V&R Mapping App Usability Testing TASK • Think of around 10 websites you use or online activities that you regularly perform. Place each of these websites or activities on the map in a way that represents how you feel you use them (as a 'Visitor' or as a 'Resident') and the typical context in which you use them ('Personal' or 'Institutional’). PROCEDURE 1. Read the task aloud 2. Using the app, complete the task while thinking aloud 3. Indicate when they felt they had completed the task
  39. 39. V&R Mapping App • Usability tested, user approved • YouTube and comic book instructions • Create and share on social media https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6ai0ZO3lDR4
  40. 40. http://oc.lc/vrmap
  41. 41. DATA ANALYSIS TOOLS AND METHODS
  42. 42. Ethnographic Analysis • Use people’s own categories • Avoid assuming what one will find • Complementary to quantitative methods • Retain ‘richness’/‘thick description’ • Numerical compatibility (Asher 2017, 264) (Connaway and Radford 2017, 282)
  43. 43. • Contain all data sources • Create and apply codes • Enable running queries • Develop visualizations • Deliver reports (Connaway and Radford 2017) Computer-Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis Software (CAQDAS)
  44. 44. • Draw on data...in service of developing new conceptual categories • Develop inductive abstract analytic categories through systematic data analysis • Emphasize theory construction rather than description or application of current theories (Connaway and Radford 2017) Grounded Theory
  45. 45. “A major strategy for analysis of qualitative data is the use of the constant comparative method, which embraces ‘constant comparisons’ defined as ‘the analytic process of comparing different pieces of data against each other for similarities and differences.’” (Connaway and Radford 2017, 298)
  46. 46. Interviews • Conduct • Transcribe Codebook • Themes • Build Codebook NVivo • Load • Insert Codebook ICR • Code portion • Run ICR Coding • Code Transcripts • Upload to NVivo Analysis • Export Results • Calculations
  47. 47. Coding Analyzing the gathered data involves coding the responses (or placing each item in the appropriate category), tabulating the data, and statistical computations. Categories for coding generally evolve from the data, there are some common areas such as setting, situation, perspective, process, activity, event, relationship, role, practice, etc.
  48. 48. I. Place A. Internet 1. Search engine a. Google b. Yahoo 2. Social Media a. Facebook b. Twitter c. You Tube d. Flickr/ image sharing e. Blogging B. Library 1. Academic 2. Public 3. School (K-12) C. Home D. School, classroom, computer lab E. Other Visitors and Residents Codebook Excerpt
  49. 49. Theme Sub-theme Sub-theme Sub-theme Definition Example Place (I) Internet (I.A) Online, unspecified “I will go online for the subject because I know the what's online will be of better quality and more relevant to the specification than what's in the book” (2UKU2). Search Engine (I.A.1) Unspecified or unlisted search engine (i.e., Bing) “Or I’ll go back to the search engine and start again and look at all the other options that I’m able to look at” (UKS4). Google (I.A.1.a) “I would start by Googling definitely” (2UKS2). Social Media (I.A.2) Unspecified or unlisted social media (i.e., LinkedIn) “Well, I like social media, but I don't know if anything would change anything about my academics … um, the only thing that I can think of that I'll probably ever be able to think of, is the detrimental effect it has on my academics because it distracts me” (USG2). Facebook (I.A.2.a) “When I'm doing homework or coursework or something, I'll always have Facebook and Twitter open, for example, as well” (2UKS2). Twitter (I.A.2.b) “Twitter, I don't use it educationally at all” (2UKS2). Library (I.B) Unspecified library “I think first of all I would search on Google Scholar to see whether there is an e-version. Because I’m pretty comfortable reading online. And if there is not, then I will go to the library. Yes. When I have to” (UKG1). Academic (I.B.1) “The majority of the journal articles that we would read are online although frequently books are still not converted into e-books yet, so they’re frequently found in the education library” (UKG2). Visitors and Residents Codebook Excerpt
  50. 50. What is NVivo? NVivo is a qualitative data analysis computer software package produced by QSR International for qualitative and mixed methods research.
  51. 51. Google Map Analysis
  52. 52. Google FB
  53. 53. Google Google FB
  54. 54. Is there a pattern here? Pitt UCLA
  55. 55. Is there a pattern here? Pitt UCLA
  56. 56. V&R FINDINGS
  57. 57. “Humans are a valued source of information.” (Connaway et al., 2017)
  58. 58. “En temes de salut o així no solo acudir a Internet per res perquè ...poses que et fa mal un dit i acabes tenint pesta bubònica...no es fiable, a internet...lo probablement improbable és lo segur. Aquí si que acudiria a contactes reals.” (UOCG3, Male, Age 28, Computer Science) “Regarding health affairs, I usually don’t search on the internet because… you have pain in one finger and then you end up [thinking] you have the bubonic plague… It is not reliable… improbable things become sure. For this situation, I would use personal contacts.”
  59. 59. The future… “Una persona sàvia. M’agraden els llibres i la tecnologia, però les persones són millors.” “A wise person. I like books and technology, but people are better.” (UOCU1, Female, 19-25, Professions and Applied Sciences) The magic future would be…
  60. 60. “Wikipedia is used by individuals in all educational stages to familiarize themselves with a subject or topic.” (Connaway et al., 2017)
  61. 61. “It’s like a taboo I guess with all teachers, they just all say – you know, when they explain the paper they always say, ‘Don’t use Wikipedia.’” (Digital Visitors and Residents, USU7, Female, Age 19, Political Science) The Learning Black Market
  62. 62. “Wikipedia… it’s perfect, because it gives you the words, the things, the technical words that you need to look, keywords, so Wikipedia is always, always the first step.” (UOCG1, Male, Age 35-44, Professions and Applied Sciences)
  63. 63. “I used to seek information in Wikipedia, even my colleagues said that there are wrong things on it…but I said Enciclopedia Larousse [Traditional encyclopedia] also have mistakes…the only difference is that it is printed and is impossible to correct the mistakes once you have the printed version…Mistakes are not about technology, are about people.” (Digital Visitors and Residents, UOCFE6, Male, Age 53, Computer Science)
  64. 64. “Convenience is a priority when making decisions about what tools and sources to use.” (Connaway et al., 2017)
  65. 65. “At first I started looking online, and it was a little bit overwhelming…I ended up reaching into my mom’s cupboard and using a recipe that I found in one of her old cookbooks. The recipe was just what I was looking for...” (Digital Visitors and Residents, USS3, Emerging, Female, Age 17, High School Student) “Convenient” Isn’t Always Simple
  66. 66. Satisficing…What is enough information? “…I needed the answer, my maths, I was doing an exercise, I got stuck on a question, I still had the rest of the exercise to go and I had like an hour to do it and I just wanted the formula and the quickest way to do it was to type it into Google and it came up.” (Digital Visitors and Residents, UKS2, Female, Age 17, Secondary School Student)
  67. 67. “Participants report extensive use of search engines, especially Google, and take them for granted.” (Connaway et al., 2017)
  68. 68. Centrality of Google & search engines “…I just think it’s [VLE web site] too complicated and it’s limited, that I just carried on going on Google.” (Digital Visitors and Residents, UKS6, Emerging, Female, Age 16, Secondary School Student)
  69. 69. “Library sources are used but not recognized or attributed to the library.” (Connaway et al., 2017)
  70. 70. “The students are completely unaware of the resources that the university has in repositories, databases, etc. on their subjects. Most of the interviewees do not know the possibility of consulting books in full text, being able to develop bibliographies or access remotely the funds using virtual contexts of the campus of its university. (V&R Project Team Member, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid)
  71. 71. “Perhaps one of the more interesting actions could be to promote the library services to students and how to use them. Now, the library resources are embedded in the virtual classroom and the students are not aware of this, but in contrast, they don’t explore the full potential of academic library.” (Eva Ortoll Espinet, Universitat Oberta de Catalunya)
  72. 72. “People lack patience to wade through content silos…” (Connaway 2015, 134) “Yes, it [Matrix film plug-in to brain] - sort of makes information gathering effortless and without having to sort of manually go through and separate the chaff from the wheat.” (Digital Visitors and Residents, UKU10, Male, Age 20, Law)
  73. 73. RECOMMENDATIONS
  74. 74. Convenience • Offer a variety of services to meet needs in different contexts and situations • Become mobile-friendly or mobile-first
  75. 75. Workflows • Study and understand users’ workflows • Place library resources within those workflows
  76. 76. Discovery and Access • Improve library systems for browsing • Use metadata to: • Develop visualizations of collections • Provide information in ways users are familiar with • Encourage critical literacy skills
  77. 77. Marketing “Librarians need to market and promote tools and sources, especially one of the library’s most valuable sources, librarians.” (Connaway et al. 2017)
  78. 78. Relationship Building “People connect with other people to get their information and they often turn to those who they know and trust.” (Connaway et al. 2017)
  79. 79. The Academic Future Study the habits and practices of K-12 students to better understand our future users’ needs
  80. 80. “The creative process is not like a situation where you get struck by a single lightning bolt. You have ongoing discoveries, and there are ongoing creative revelations. Yes, it's really helpful to be marching toward a specific destination, but, along the way, you must allow yourself room for your ideas to blossom, take root, and grow.” –Carlton Cuse
  81. 81. The Many Faces of Digital Visitors & Residents: Facets of Online Engagement OCLC Report authored by: Lynn Silipigni Connaway Vanessa Kitzie Erin M. Hood William Harvey
  82. 82. Allison Benedetti Agustí Canals Liliana Gregori Eva Ortoll Espinet Daniel Lozano Melissa Man Josep Cobarsí Morales Sara Giuliana Ricetto Riccardo Melgrati Eva M. Méndez Rodríguez Andrea Sada Peter Sidorko Paolo Sirito Virginia Steel Titia van der Werf Esther Woo With contributions from:
  83. 83. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank Brittany Brannon for her assistance in preparing this presentation.
  84. 84. References Asher, Andrew. 2017. “On Ethnographic Research: How do Students Find the Information They Need?” In Research Methods for Library and Information Science, 6th ed., edited by Lynn Silipigni Connaway and Marie L. Radford, 264. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited. Connaway, Lynn S., David White, and Donna Lanclos. 2011. “Visitors and Residents: What motivates engagement with the digital information environment?” Proceedings of the 74th ASIS&T Annual Meeting 48: 1-7. Connaway, Lynn Silipigni, and Marie L. Radford. 2017. Research Methods for Library and Information Science, 6th ed. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited. Connaway, Lynn Silipigni, and Timothy J. Dickey. 2010. The Digital Information Seeker: Report of Findings from Selected OCLC, RIN, and JISC User Behavior Projects. http://www.jisc.ac.uk/media/documents/publications/reports/2010/digitalinformationseekerreport.pdf. Connaway, Lynn Silipigni, Vanessa Kitzie, Erin M. Hood and William Harvey. 2017. The Many Faces of Digital Visitors & Residents: Facets of Online Engagement. With contributions from Allison Benedetti, Agustí Canals, Liliana Gregori, Eva Ortoll Espinet, Daniel Lozano, Melissa Man, Josep Cobarsí Morales, Sara Giuliana Ricetto, Riccardo Melgrati, Eva M. Méndez Rodríguez, Andrea Sada, Peter Sidorko, Paolo Sirito, Virginia Steel, Titia van der Werf, and Esther Woo. Dublin, OH: OCLC Research. https://www.oclc.org/content/dam/research/publications/2017/oclcresearch-many-faces-digital-vandr-a4.pdf.
  85. 85. References Connaway, Lynn Silipigni, Vanessa Kitzie, Erin M. Hood and William Harvey. 2017. The Many Faces of Digital Visitors & Residents: Facets of Online Engagement. With contributions from Allison Benedetti, Agustí Canals, Liliana Gregori, Eva Ortoll Espinet, Daniel Lozano, Melissa Man, Josep Cobarsí Morales, Sara Giuliana Ricetto, Riccardo Melgrati, Eva M. Méndez Rodríguez, Andrea Sada, Peter Sidorko, Paolo Sirito, Virginia Steel, Titia van der Werf, and Esther Woo. Dublin, OH: OCLC Research. doi:10.25333/C3V63F. Denzin, Norman K., and Yvonna S. Lincoln. 2005. The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research, 4th ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Dumas, Joseph S., and Janice C. Redish. 1993. A Practical Guide to Usability Testing. Portland, OR: Intellect Books. Kazmer, Michelle. 2017. “Mixed Methods.” In Research Methods for Library and Information Science, 6th ed., edited by Lynn Silipigni Connaway and Marie L. Radford, 232-233. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited. Khoo, M., Rozaklis, L., & Hall, C. (2012). A survey of the use of ethnographic methods in the study of libraries and library users. Library and Information Science Research, 34(2), 82-91.
  86. 86. References Miles, Matthew B., and A. Michael Huberman. 1994. Qualitative Data Analysis: A Sourcebook. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications. Miles, Matthew B., Michael Huberman, and Johnny Saldaña, eds. 2014. Qualitative Data Analysis: A Methods Sourcebook, 3rd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Prabha, Chandra, Lynn Silipigni Connaway, Lawrence Olszewski, and Lillie Jenkins. 2007. “What is enough? Satisficing information needs.” Journal of Documentation 63, no. 1: 74–89. http://www.oclc.org/content/dam/research/publications/newsletters/prabha-satisficing.pdf. QSR International. 2015. “NVivo Products.” Accessed November 12. http://www.qsrinternational.com/NVivo- Products. Tang, Rong. 2017. “Usability Research.” In Research Methods for Library and Information Science, 6th ed., edited by Lynn Silipigni Connaway and Marie L. Radford, 277-278. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited. Tracy, S. J. 2013. Qualitative research methods: Collecting evidence, crafting analysis, communicating impact. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell.
  87. 87. References Webb, Eugene J., Donald T. Campbell, Richard D. Schwartz, and Lee Sechrest. 1966. Unobtrusive Measures: Nonreactive Research in the Social Sciences, Vol. 111. Chicago: Rand McNally. White, David S., and Lynn Silipigni Connaway. 2011-2014. Visitors & Residents: What Motivates Engagement with the Digital Information Environment. Funded by JISC, OCLC, and Oxford University. http://www.oclc.org/research/activities/vandr/. White, David S., and Lynn Silipigni Connaway. 2011-2014. Visitors & Residents: What Motivates Engagement with the Digital Information Environment. Funded by JISC, OCLC, and Oxford University. http://www.oclc.org/research/activities/vandr/.
  88. 88. Image Attributions Slide 2: https://www.flickr.com/photos/27805557@N08/5088872975 by JoesSistah / CC BY-NC 2.0 Slide 5: https://www.flickr.com/photos/28481088@N00/11186264874 by tanakawho / CC BY 2.0 Slide 6: http://www.flickr.com/photos/15216811@N06/8521338394 by N i c o l a / CC BY 2.0 Slide 10: https://www.flickr.com/photos/katesheets/5772901616 by katesheets / CC BY-NC 2.0 Slide 11: https://www.flickr.com/photos/ddrmaxgt37/387453140 by Arun Venkatesan / CC BY-NC 2.0 Slide 12: https://www.flickr.com/photos/oliverjd/6199717869 by Oliver Dunkley / CC BY-NC 2.0 Slide 13: https://www.flickr.com/photos/dawncreations/2894171562 by I am just Dawn Marie / CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 Slide 14: https://www.flickr.com/photos/edgewoodchembiocenter/32447188374 by U.S. Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center’s photostream / CC BY 2.0 Slide 15: https://www.flickr.com/photos/wandrus/8434921527 by William Andrus / CC BY 2.0, color altered Slide 16: https://www.flickr.com/photos/ikhlasulamal/4538617347 by Ikhlasul Amal / CC BY-NC 2.0 Slide 17: https://www.flickr.com/photos/vamapaull/3775032790 by Paul Istoan / CC BY-NC 2.0 Slide 18: https://www.flickr.com/photos/colinsd40/15183445332 by Colin / CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 Slide 19: https://www.flickr.com/photos/meanestindian/903380690 by Meena Kadri / CC BY 2.0 Slide 20: https://www.flickr.com/photos/elena_87/2567662128 by Elena / CC BY-NC-ND 2.0
  89. 89. Image Attributions Slide 22: https://www.flickr.com/photos/photophilde/4353228184 by photophilde / CC BY-SA 2.0 Slide 23: https://www.flickr.com/photos/deserontoarchives/3301215262 by Deseronto Archives / No known copyright restrictions Slide 24: https://www.flickr.com/photos/vek/4785218372 by Kevin Spencer / CC BY-NC 2.0 Slide 25: https://www.flickr.com/photos/elliotmar/8913124849 by Elliot Margolies / CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 Slide 26: https://www.flickr.com/photos/dancingpapa2007/3674686528 by Naoki Tomeno / CC BY 2.0 Slide 27: https://www.flickr.com/photos/evilmutent/3440911430 by Hugo Chisholm / CC BY-SA 2.0 Slide 28: https://www.flickr.com/photos/joceykinghorn/12800643745 by Jocelyn Kinghorm / CC BY-SA 2.0 Slide 29: https://www.flickr.com/photos/spadgy/313251515 by John Ward / CC BY 2.0 Slide 35: https://www.flickr.com/photos/deanhochman/14481958642 by Dean Hochman / CC BY 2.0 Slide 36: https://www.flickr.com/photos/teagrrl/269862000 by tracy ducasse / CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 Slide 37: https://www.flickr.com/photos/nationwideclassifieds/3120876337 by Brian Hanson / CC BY-NC 2.0 Slide 38: https://www.flickr.com/photos/bala_/1446860364 by Bala Sivakumar / CC BY-SA 2.0 Slide 42: https://www.flickr.com/photos/respres/6041698098 by Jeff Turner / CC BY 2.0 Slide 43: https://www.flickr.com/photos/flakepardigm/4687752030 by Tyler Nienhouse / CC BY 2.0
  90. 90. Image Attributions Slide 44: https://www.flickr.com/photos/adambindslev/4727853016 by Adam Bindslev / CC BY-NC 2.0 Slide 45: https://www.flickr.com/photos/chiotsrun/3748199122 by Chiot’s Run / CC BY-NC 2.0 Slide 46: https://www.flickr.com/photos/beggs/130718089 by Brian Jeffery Beggerly / CC BY 2.0 Slide 48: https://www.flickr.com/photos/eberg/5930730983/ by Evelyn Berg / CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 Slide 51: https://www.flickr.com/photos/37718677955@N01/36699914 by clickykbd / CC BY-NC-SA 2.0 Slide 58, 61, 65, 68, 71: https://www.flickr.com/photos/gabbysol/21510538432 by Michelle Grewe / Public Domain Slide 59: https://www.flickr.com/photos/caseyann/1250856017/ by Casey Smith / CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 Slide 60: https://www.flickr.com/photos/kgregory/4675828550/ by Katie Mollon / CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 Slide 62: https://www.flickr.com/photos/mrsdkrebs/11625280293 by Denise Krebs / CC BY 2.0 Slide 63: https://www.flickr.com/photos/mayopants/4021073588/ by stateofplace / CC BY-NC 2.0 Slide 64: http://www.flickr.com/photos/20452143@N08/3841271286 by Adam DeClercq / CC BY-NC-SA 2.0 Slide 66: http://www.flickr.com/photos/95792332@N00/3226023555 by Jacob Davies / CC BY-SA 2.0 Slide 67: https://www.flickr.com/photos/akash_k/125489887 by Akash Kataruka / CC BY-ND 2.0 Slide 69: https://www.flickr.com/photos/thomashawk/307750722 by Thomas Hawk / CC BY-NC 2.0
  91. 91. Image Attributions Slide 70: https://www.flickr.com/photos/34547181@N00/15031497490 by Philippe Put / CC BY 2.0 Slide 72: https://www.flickr.com/photos/steve_way/38027571414 by steve_w / CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 Slide 73: https://www.flickr.com/photos/oldpatterns/5485738658 by Peter Lee / CC BY-NC 2.0 Slide 74: https://www.flickr.com/photos/birdwatcher63/5367727228/ by Brian Fuller / CC BY-ND 2.0 Slide 76: https://www.flickr.com/photos/osde-info/3202591932 by osde8info / CC BY-SA 2.0 Slide 77: https://www.flickr.com/photos/quisnovus/5431133518 by quisnovus / CC BY-NC 2.0 Slide 78: https://www.flickr.com/photos/rpgmaster94/3975604741 by Matthew Fauver / CC BY 2.0 Slide 79: https://www.flickr.com/photos/andrewpaulcarr/374881911 by Andrew Carr / CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 Slide 80: https://www.flickr.com/photos/maitreyoda/7894174262 by Rog01 / CC BY-SA 2.0 Slide 81: https://www.flickr.com/photos/teejaybee/606926494 by teejaybee / CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 Slide 82: https://www.flickr.com/photos/hunty66/390350345 by Pete Hunt / CC BY-NC 2.0 Slide 83: https://www.flickr.com/photos/eltpics/9674285302 by eltpics / CC BY-NC 2.0 Slide 84: https://www.flickr.com/photos/littlestar19/4086086968 by littlestar19 / CC BY-NC 2.0 Creative Commons licenses: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/
  92. 92. Questions & Discussion Lynn Silipigni Connaway, PhD Senior Research Scientist & Director of User Research, OCLC connawal@oclc.org @LynnConnaway

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