Right-scaling Stewardship
A multi-dimensional perspective on OSU & CIC print collections

SELECTED FINDINGS
Brian Lavoie, ...
Roadmap
• Background
• The print book landscape
• Ohio State & CIC: View from the “supply side”
– Profiles of rare and cor...
Background
• Future of print books
– Declining use of print collections (OCLC/Ohio Link study);
ever-expanding array of di...
OSU/CIC print book study
• Explore regional-scale cooperative print strategy
– From an institutional (OSU) perspective
– F...
The Print Book Landscape

5
Print books: Distinct manifestations*
World:
157.4m
N. America:
49.8m
CHI-PITTS:
19.0m

12.4m
2.7m

*As represented in

Ja...
Key Insights
• Scale adds scope and depth
• Uniqueness/scarcity is relative
• Coverage requires cooperation

7
OSU & CIC

8
Size: Distinct print book manifestations

2.7 million

12.4 million
Bilateral overlap
% of OSU’s print book collection
also held by comparison institution

% of comparison institution book
c...
Distinctiveness is relative
% of local collection held by at least 1 other CIC member

PURDUE
NEBRASKA
IOWA
MICH STATE
PEN...
OSU: Rare and core
OSU’s
“core” print book asset
(~400K books)

More than 10:
14%

8 to 10:
18%

3 or less:
38%

OSU’s
“ra...
CIC: Rare and core
4 to 7:
16%

8 to 10: More than 10:
5%
3%

Total # of CIC holdings
Percent of CIC collective collection...
OSU rare & core: Language
English
German
Russian
Chinese

Japanese
French

Rare

Hebrew
Arabic
Spanish

236 distinct langu...
CIC rare & core: Language
English
German

French
Spanish
Chinese

Rare

Russian
Italian
Japanese
Arabic
Portuguese

458 di...
OSU rare & core: Age
Rare

Core

25%

Percent

20%
15%
10%

Rare:
23% published pre-1950
Core:
9% published pre-1950

5%
0...
CIC rare & core: Age
Rare

Core

25%

Percent

20%
15%

Rare:
27% published pre-1950
Core:
9% published pre-1950

10%
5%
0...
OSU rare & core: Subject
STEM: 16%

Social Sciences: 18%

Rare
Humanities: 66%
STEM: 20%

Core
Humanities: 50%

Social Sci...
CIC rare & core: Subject
STEM: 15%

Rare
Humanities: 63%
Social Sciences: 22%

Humanities: 50%

STEM: 20%

Core
Social Sci...
Some takeaways …
•

Re the three insights …
– Scale adds scope and depth: “Collective rare” ~25x larger than “collective c...
Centers of distinction

21
C

enters

reveal patterns in local investment
institutional priorities
singular strengths
Many related titles

C

omps re...
Distribution of 'Centers' among CIC Libraries
(Based on Top 25 Centers for 13 CIC Symbols)
160

58% of centers are associa...
OSU Centers and Comps
“Coverage requires cooperation”
Coverage
FAST
fst01008312
fst00848081
fst00980348
fst00807464
fst009...
Shared Centers
Opportunities to deepen collaboration

South Asia:

Africa:

Chicago & Wisconsin

Northwestern, Michigan St...
Coverage

9 of the 50 most comprehensive collections
related to Chad are held by CIC institutions

CIC
HathiTrust

Holding...
Centers and Print Management
• Shared centers represents areas of shared
investment that can be leveraged as collective
as...
Network Demand

28
Demand-side Analysis
Inbound

Outbound

CIC borrowing
• 1,215,831 requests
• 801,700 titles borrowed
• 5,160 libraries (sy...
Group and System-wide Supply for Titles Requested from CIC Libraries
> 5 libraries
< 5 libraries

12%

WorldCat Libraries
...
Aggregate CIC print book resource supports broader inter-lending economy

38% of requesting libraries are located within C...
CIC Returnable Borrowing Requests
by Source of Fulfillment
Filled by CIC

Because CIC inventory is ‘incomplete’?
Unavailab...
CIC Returnable Borrowing
Requested titles held by CIC libraries vs. non-CIC libraries
Held by CIC

257,084 titles
32%

Not...
Alternative Supply Chain: HathiTrust
Titles Borrowed by CIC Libraries
Digital surrogates available for 2-3%
of titles borr...
Policy & Strategy Implications

35
Selected Implications
• Aggregate CIC print book resource is rich and
varied; it supports thousands of libraries across
No...
Implications [cont.]
• Cumulative network demand is relatively low
compared to total collection size; most titles
are avai...
Regional Print Management
Right-Scaling Solutions
Panel and Plenary Sessions
 Right-scaling: Group, Region & System-wide ...
Questions and feedback are welcome.
lavoie@oclc.org
malpasc@oclc.org

©2013 OCLC. This work is licensed under a Creative C...
For Discussion

40
Right-scaling Stewardship
• To what degree is the CIC responsible for
long-term stewardship of widely-held print
book titl...
“Above the Institution” strategies
• Does your library engage in cooperative
collection development or management
programs...
Local, group, network demand
• What do you know about print book
circulation and inter-lending trends at your
institution?...
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Right-scaling stewardship: CIC and OSU print book collections

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Webinar for CIC library directors and collection managers on results of OCLC Research analysis of CIC and OSU print book collections. 16 January 2014

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Right-scaling stewardship: CIC and OSU print book collections

  1. 1. Right-scaling Stewardship A multi-dimensional perspective on OSU & CIC print collections SELECTED FINDINGS Brian Lavoie, Research Scientist Constance Malpas, Program Officer 16 January 2014 CIC Webinar
  2. 2. Roadmap • Background • The print book landscape • Ohio State & CIC: View from the “supply side” – Profiles of rare and core • Centers of distinction & Network demand – Local and group dimensions • Policy and strategy implications – Regional Print Management symposium • Discussion
  3. 3. Background • Future of print books – Declining use of print collections (OCLC/Ohio Link study); ever-expanding array of digital alternatives – Resources supporting print needed for new service priorities • Trends in cooperative print management – Locus of print management moving above the institution – Regions favored as appropriate scale of cooperation – “Distributed consolidation”: local collections supplemented by shared, centralized collections • Questions – What to manage locally? – What to manage above the institution?
  4. 4. OSU/CIC print book study • Explore regional-scale cooperative print strategy – From an institutional (OSU) perspective – From a consortial (CIC) perspective • Based on shared, centrally managed core and network of local collections • Counterfactual – Use WorldCat bibliographic & holdings data to simulate this organizational structure • Findings intended to inform, not prescribe – Do not necessarily reflect intentions of OSU or CIC – Not making recommendations, but an evidence base to inform strategic planning – Specific to OSU/CIC; patterns of analysis of broader interest 4
  5. 5. The Print Book Landscape 5
  6. 6. Print books: Distinct manifestations* World: 157.4m N. America: 49.8m CHI-PITTS: 19.0m 12.4m 2.7m *As represented in January 2013
  7. 7. Key Insights • Scale adds scope and depth • Uniqueness/scarcity is relative • Coverage requires cooperation 7
  8. 8. OSU & CIC 8
  9. 9. Size: Distinct print book manifestations 2.7 million 12.4 million
  10. 10. Bilateral overlap % of OSU’s print book collection also held by comparison institution % of comparison institution book collection also held by OSU OSU vis-à-vis CIC CIC vis-à-vis OSU MICHIGAN ILLINOIS CHICAGO WISCONSIN INDIANA MINNESOTA IOWA PENN STATE MICH STATE NORTHWESTERN NEBRASKA PURDUE PURDUE NEBRASKA PENN STATE MICH STATE IOWA NORTHWESTERN INDIANA MINNESOTA ILLINOIS MICHIGAN WISCONSIN CHICAGO 49 49 46 44 43 41 37 37 35 32 26 20 59 58 48 48 47 42 39 39 35 34 34 31
  11. 11. Distinctiveness is relative % of local collection held by at least 1 other CIC member PURDUE NEBRASKA IOWA MICH STATE PENN STATE NORTHWESTERN OHIO STATE INDIANA MINNESOTA WISCONSIN ILLINOIS MICHIGAN CHICAGO # of Books 0.9m 1.2m 2.1m 2.0m 2.1m 2.0m 2.7m 3.0m 2.9m 3.9m 3.8m 3.9m 4.1m Overlap w/CIC 0.93 0.93 0.89 0.88 0.85 0.83 0.83 0.83 0.81 0.80 0.79 0.76 0.76
  12. 12. OSU: Rare and core OSU’s “core” print book asset (~400K books) More than 10: 14% 8 to 10: 18% 3 or less: 38% OSU’s “rare” print book asset (~1 m books) Total # of CIC holdings Percent of OSU collection 4 to 7: 30%
  13. 13. CIC: Rare and core 4 to 7: 16% 8 to 10: More than 10: 5% 3% Total # of CIC holdings Percent of CIC collective collection CIC’s “core” print book asset (~400K books) 3 or less: 76% CIC’s “rare” print book asset (~9.4 m books)
  14. 14. OSU rare & core: Language English German Russian Chinese Japanese French Rare Hebrew Arabic Spanish 236 distinct languages Others English German Core French Others 65 distinct languages
  15. 15. CIC rare & core: Language English German French Spanish Chinese Rare Russian Italian Japanese Arabic Portuguese 458 distinct languages Others English German French Spanish Core Russian Latin Italian Greek, Ancient Others 67 distinct languages
  16. 16. OSU rare & core: Age Rare Core 25% Percent 20% 15% 10% Rare: 23% published pre-1950 Core: 9% published pre-1950 5% 0% Decade
  17. 17. CIC rare & core: Age Rare Core 25% Percent 20% 15% Rare: 27% published pre-1950 Core: 9% published pre-1950 10% 5% 0% Decade
  18. 18. OSU rare & core: Subject STEM: 16% Social Sciences: 18% Rare Humanities: 66% STEM: 20% Core Humanities: 50% Social Sciences: 30%
  19. 19. CIC rare & core: Subject STEM: 15% Rare Humanities: 63% Social Sciences: 22% Humanities: 50% STEM: 20% Core Social Sciences: 30%
  20. 20. Some takeaways … • Re the three insights … – Scale adds scope and depth: “Collective rare” ~25x larger than “collective core”; language diversity ~2x “collective rare” vs. “OSU rare” – Uniqueness is relative: no single CIC member accounts for more than half of OSU’s collection; CIC as a whole accounts for 83% – Coverage requires cooperation: Three-quarters of CIC collective collection held by 3 or fewer members • Re the two fundamental questions … – Rare print book in institutional /collective collection: • Highly likely to be non-English-language • Highly likely to be humanities-focused • Probably older than average – Core print book in institutional/collective collection: • Almost certainly English language • Even chance that book is humanities or social sciences/STEM • Probably more recent than average – Profiles virtually identical at both scales: micro (OSU) & macro (CIC) – First step toward characterizing areas of convergence & divergence in local and collective collecting decisions 20
  21. 21. Centers of distinction 21
  22. 22. C enters reveal patterns in local investment institutional priorities singular strengths Many related titles C omps reflect scope of local holdings coverage of global literature cooperative synergies Many representative works More information: http://outgoing.typepad.com/outgoing/2013/05/ centers-and-coverage.html 22
  23. 23. Distribution of 'Centers' among CIC Libraries (Based on Top 25 Centers for 13 CIC Symbols) 160 58% of centers are associated with single CIC member 140 Topical Centers 120 “Scale adds scope and depth” 100 80 60 40 20 0 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 Libraries in Group 5 4 3 2 1
  24. 24. OSU Centers and Comps “Coverage requires cooperation” Coverage FAST fst01008312 fst00848081 fst00980348 fst00807464 fst00954398 fst01205076 fst00812274 fst01108635 fst00812533 fst00869145 compared to WorldCat 67.20% 61.20% 59.80% 43.80% 36.80% 33.10% 30.30% 26.90% 23.70% 20.40% Heading Manuscripts, Church Slavic Cartoonists Israeli poetry American wit and humor, Pictorial Hebrew poetry Ohio—Columbus Arabic fiction Science fiction, American Arabic poetry Comic books, strips, etc. OSU Rank compared to OSU Rank other compared to WorldCat other libraries CIC libraries 1 1 4 1 13 1 10 11 13 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1
  25. 25. Shared Centers Opportunities to deepen collaboration South Asia: Africa: Chicago & Wisconsin Northwestern, Michigan State, Indiana, Chicago . . . Women & Literature: 12 of 13 libraries &c
  26. 26. Coverage 9 of the 50 most comprehensive collections related to Chad are held by CIC institutions CIC HathiTrust Holding Libraries (OCLC symbols) 26
  27. 27. Centers and Print Management • Shared centers represents areas of shared investment that can be leveraged as collective asset – Candidates for ‘above the institution’ management • Institutionally distinctive centers may be important differentiators for library, university ‘brand’ – Local management priority • Coverage requires cooperation – Preserving scope of collective resource is a shared responsibility 27
  28. 28. Network Demand 28
  29. 29. Demand-side Analysis Inbound Outbound CIC borrowing • 1,215,831 requests • 801,700 titles borrowed • 5,160 libraries (symbols) filled requests from 29 CIC libraries CIC lending • 1,330,831 requests • 888,996 titles requested • 29 CIC libraries (symbols) filled requests from 5,266 libraries • Avg. requests per title: 1.45 • Avg. holdings per title: 138 (median = 44) • 84% books • Avg. requests per title: 1.43 • Avg. holdings per title: 128 (median = 43) • 90% books Analysis based on all returnable CIC borrows/loans placed via WCRS 1 Jan 2006-10 May 2013 29
  30. 30. Group and System-wide Supply for Titles Requested from CIC Libraries > 5 libraries < 5 libraries 12% WorldCat Libraries 5 to 9 libraries 8% 10 to 24 libraries 17% 25 to 99 libraries > 99 libraries > 99 libraries 34% 29% 88% held by 5 or more libraries in WorldCat “Uniqueness/scarcity is relative” < 5 libraries 63% CIC Libraries 25% 12% 37% held by 5 or more libraries in CIC 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% Percent of Titles Requested 70% 80% 90% 100%
  31. 31. Aggregate CIC print book resource supports broader inter-lending economy 38% of requesting libraries are located within ChiPitts 51% of request volume originates within ChiPitts region Distributed curation requires deliberate coordination 31
  32. 32. CIC Returnable Borrowing Requests by Source of Fulfillment Filled by CIC Because CIC inventory is ‘incomplete’? Unavailable? Hard to find/request? Filled by Non-CIC 520,448 43% 695,383 57% More than half of all CIC requests were filled by non-CIC libraries N= 1,215,831 requests placed 1 Jan 2006 - 10 May 2013
  33. 33. CIC Returnable Borrowing Requested titles held by CIC libraries vs. non-CIC libraries Held by CIC 257,084 titles 32% Not held by CIC Lack of availability or discoverability? What impact will UBorrow have? 544,616 titles 68% CIC collective collection looks sufficient to meet 68% of demand N = 801,700 titles requested 1 Jan 2006 – 10 May 2013 compared to CIC/non-CIC holdings as of June 2013
  34. 34. Alternative Supply Chain: HathiTrust Titles Borrowed by CIC Libraries Digital surrogates available for 2-3% of titles borrowed and loaned by CIC Titles Loaned by CIC Libraries 34
  35. 35. Policy & Strategy Implications 35
  36. 36. Selected Implications • Aggregate CIC print book resource is rich and varied; it supports thousands of libraries across North America – Institution and group-scale decisions about print retention will affect larger library system • ~75% of CIC print book collection is held by fewer than 4 CIC libraries, yet system-wide supply of these resources is comparatively abundant – Shared print strategy will need to assess strength of external partnerships if CIC is to reduce in-group holdings 36
  37. 37. Implications [cont.] • Cumulative network demand is relatively low compared to total collection size; most titles are available from alternative suppliers – Removing frictions in discovery/delivery of collective CIC resource may increase its value • 30% of titles loaned by CIC libraries, and 20% of titles borrowed by CIC, are duplicated by HathiTrust; 3% or less are available as public domain – CIC shared print strategy should be articulated in coordination with HathiTrust 37
  38. 38. Regional Print Management Right-Scaling Solutions Panel and Plenary Sessions  Right-scaling: Group, Region & System-wide Approaches  Selecting for Sustainability: Shared Monographs  Service Models: 21st Century Operations Keynote speakers: Carol Diedrichs, Roger Schonfeld, Brian Lavoie & Constance Malpas Hear from organizations shaping the future of print management CIC, HathiTrust, Ithaka S+R, MCLS, Maine Shared Collections, OSU OCLC Research, OhioLINK, Orbis-Cascade, ReCAP * sponsors 27-28 March 2014 OCLC Conference Center, Dublin OH Registration details forthcoming 38
  39. 39. Questions and feedback are welcome. lavoie@oclc.org malpasc@oclc.org ©2013 OCLC. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Suggested attribution: “This work uses content from [presentation title] © OCLC, used under a Creative Commons Attribution license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/”
  40. 40. For Discussion 40
  41. 41. Right-scaling Stewardship • To what degree is the CIC responsible for long-term stewardship of widely-held print book titles vs. distinctive or uniquely-held titles? • Would your university library consider a strategy that relies on external (non-CIC) stewardship guarantees for “commodity” titles or works? 41
  42. 42. “Above the Institution” strategies • Does your library engage in cooperative collection development or management programs with other CIC libraries? With non-CIC libraries? If you partner with non-CIC libraries, is it for reasons of geographic proximity, distinctive collection strengths, past partnership or something else? • How is your library leveraging CIC investments in HathiTrust in its current print book management strategy? 42
  43. 43. Local, group, network demand • What do you know about print book circulation and inter-lending trends at your institution? • Over the past five to ten years has internal or external demand for your monographic collections increased, decreased or remained about the same? 43

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