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People's mode of online engagement: The Many Faces of Digital Visitors and Residents


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Connaway, L. S. (2018). People's mode of online engagement: The Many Faces of Digital Visitors and Residents. Presented at the iConference, March 26, 2018, Sheffield, United Kingdom.

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People's mode of online engagement: The Many Faces of Digital Visitors and Residents

  1. 1. iConference • 26 March 2018 People’s Modes of Online Engagement: The Many Faces of Digital Visitors and Residents Lynn Silipigni Connaway, PhD Senior Research Scientist & Director of User Research, OCLC @LynnConnaway
  2. 2. Value of Academic Libraries “To identify how and why people get information, it is necessary first to watch and listen.” (Connaway, 2017) Image: by Pjotr Savitski / CC BY 2.0
  4. 4. Digital Visitors & Residents • Identify how individuals engage with technology • How they acquire their information • Why they make their choices (White, Connaway, Lanclos, Hood, and Vass 2014) Image: by David Mulder / CC BY-SA 2.0
  5. 5. V&R Framework (White & Le Cornu 2011) #vandr Visitors & Residents resources
  6. 6. Why V&R? The importance of context in information behavior (Cool & Spink, 2002) • Changes in engagement with information environment • Gap in user behavior studies • Understand motivations & expectations for using technologies • Track shifts in motivation & engagement during transition between educational stages (White & Connaway, 2011-2014; Connaway & Dickey, 2010) Image: by Nick Amoscato / CC BY 2.0
  7. 7. Engaging individuals in context #vandr Visitors & Residents resources Connaway & White for OCLC Research 2012
  9. 9. Qualitative Research “…a situated activity that locates the observer in the world. It consists of a set of interpretive, material practices that make the world visible. These practices transform the world. They turn the world into a series of representations, including field notes, interviews, conversations, photographs, recordings, & memos to the self. At this level, qualitative research involves an interpretive, naturalistic approach to the world. This means that qualitative researchers study things in their natural settings, attempting to make sense of, or to interpret, phenomena in terms of the meanings people bring to them.” (Denzin and Lincoln 2005) Image: by Arun Venkatesan / CC BY-NC 2.0
  10. 10. Quantitative Research Quantitative research methods “use measurements and statistics to transform empirical data into numbers and to develop mathematical models that quantify behavior.” (Tracy, 2013) Image: by Joe Goldberg / CC BY-SA 2.0
  11. 11. Mixed Methods Research • Any combination of research methods • Qualitative • Quantitative • Participatory • Action • Design • Equal attention to all stages of research process • Findings should be iterative & informative (Kazmer 2017, 232-233) Image: by Hugh Dutton Associes / CC BY-NC-ND 2.0
  12. 12. Mixed Methods “Miles, Huberman, and Saldaña also pointed out that although designing and conducting a mixed method research project involves careful planning and more effort in execution, the benefits greatly outweigh the difficulties (including philosophical ones).” (Connaway and Radford 2017, 229) Image: by Ikhlasul Amal / CC BY-NC 2.0
  13. 13. Triangulation • Term coined by Webb et al. (1966) • Multiple methods of data collection (e.g., interviews – individual & group, observation, literature, archives) • Agree, or at least don’t contradict (Miles and Huberman 1994, 266) • Multiple investigators • Multiple contexts/situations Image: by Amanda Graham / CC BY-NC-ND 2.0
  14. 14. Semi-structured Interviews • Incredibly detailed data • Time consuming – Establishing rapport – Selecting research participants – Transcribing observations & conversationsImage: by Colin / CC BY-NC-ND 2.0
  15. 15. Visitors & Residents Interviews • United States • United Kingdom • Universidad Carlos III de Madrid (Madrid, Spain) • Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore (Milan, Italy) • Universitat Oberta de Catalunya (Barcelona, Spain) Image: by Elena / CC BY-NC-ND 2.0
  16. 16. Educational Stage Universidad Carlos III de Madrid (Madrid) United States United Kingdom Universitat Oberta de Catalunya (Barcelona) Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore (Milan) Emerging Participants 8 22 21 6 3 Establishing Participants 10 5 5 7 6 Embedding Participants 10 5 5 7 6 Experiencing Participants 10 5 5 13 5 Total 38 37 36 33 20 Visitors & Residents Interview Demographics (n=164)
  17. 17. V&R Semi-Structured Interview Questions 5. Have there been times when you were told to use a library or virtual learning environment (or learning platform), and used other source(s) instead? 6. If you had a magic wand, what would your ideal way of getting information be? How would you go about using the systems and services? When? Where? How? Image: by Valerie Everett / CC BY-SA 2.0
  18. 18. Diaries • Keep directions minimal and open • Offer participants a variety of ways to report • Written • Photo • Video • Audio • Data can be rich and detailed, but is self-reported • Does not require researcher presence (Connaway and Radford, 2017) Image: by Bruce Guenter / CC BY 2.0
  19. 19. V&R Diary Template 1. Explain a time in the past month when you were SUCCESSFUL in completing an ACADEMIC assignment. What steps did you take? 2. Think of a time fairly recently when you struggled to find appropriate resources to help you complete an ACADEMIC assignment. What happened? Image: by tiltti / CC BY 2.0
  20. 20. V&R Diaries • 22 Diarists (10 UK/12 US): • 66 diaries collected • 53 follow-up diarist interviews conducted • Conducted & collected from April 2011 through October 2013 (White & Connaway 2011-2014) Image: by Tekke / CC BY-ND 2.0
  21. 21. V&R Online Surveys • In-depth online survey • 150 participants from the US & UK • 42 Emerging • 42 Establishing • 42 Embedding • 24 Experiencing Image: by Nicholas L. / CC BY-NC 2.0
  23. 23. Coding Analyzing the gathered data involves coding the responses (or placing each item in the appropriate category), tabulating the data, & statistical computations. Categories for coding generally evolve from the data, there are some common areas such as setting, situation, perspective, process, activity, event, relationship, role, practice, etc. Image: by Brian Jeffery Beggerly / CC BY 2.0
  24. 24. Ethnographic Analysis • Use people’s own categories • Avoid assuming what one will find • Complementary to quantitative methods • Retain ‘richness’/‘thick description’ • Numerical compatibility (Asher 2017, 264) (Connaway and Radford 2017, 282) Image: by Edgar Pierce / CC BY 2.0
  25. 25. • Draw on service of developing new conceptual categories • Develop inductive abstract analytic categories through systematic data analysis • Emphasize theory construction rather than description or application of current theories (Connaway & Radford 2017) Grounded Theory Image: by Christer / CC BY-NC-ND 2.0
  26. 26. “A major strategy for analysis of qualitative data is the use of the constant comparative method, which embraces ‘constant comparisons’ defined as ‘the analytic process of comparing different pieces of data against each other for similarities and differences.’” (Connaway & Radford 2017, 298) Image: by Chiot’s Run / CC BY-NC 2.0
  27. 27. I. Place A. Internet 1. Search engine a. Google b. Yahoo 2. Social Media a. Facebook b. Twitter c. You Tube d. Flickr/ image sharing e. Blogging B. Library 1. Academic 2. Public 3. School (K-12) C. Home D. School, classroom, computer lab E. Other Visitors & Residents Codebook Excerpt Image: by Evelyn Berg / CC BY-NC-ND 2.0
  28. 28. Theme Sub-theme Sub-theme Sub-theme Definition Example Place (I) Internet (I.A) Online, unspecified “I will go online for the subject because I know the what's online will be of better quality and more relevant to the specification than what's in the book” (2UKU2). Search Engine (I.A.1) Unspecified or unlisted search engine (i.e., Bing) “Or I’ll go back to the search engine and start again and look at all the other options that I’m able to look at” (UKS4). Google (I.A.1.a) “I would start by Googling definitely” (2UKS2). Social Media (I.A.2) Unspecified or unlisted social media (i.e., LinkedIn) “Well, I like social media, but I don't know if anything would change anything about my academics … um, the only thing that I can think of that I'll probably ever be able to think of, is the detrimental effect it has on my academics because it distracts me” (USG2). Facebook (I.A.2.a) “When I'm doing homework or coursework or something, I'll always have Facebook and Twitter open, for example, as well” (2UKS2). Twitter (I.A.2.b) “Twitter, I don't use it educationally at all” (2UKS2). Library (I.B) Unspecified library “I think first of all I would search on Google Scholar to see whether there is an e-version. Because I’m pretty comfortable reading online. And if there is not, then I will go to the library. Yes. When I have to” (UKG1). Academic (I.B.1) “The majority of the journal articles that we would read are online although frequently books are still not converted into e-books yet, so they’re frequently found in the education library” (UKG2). Visitors & Residents Codebook Excerpt
  29. 29. Background image: by Jean-Pierre Bluteau / CC BY-NC 2.0
  30. 30. Quantitative Analysis • Descriptive statistics • Parametric statistics • Non-parametric statistics Image: by Esko Kurvinen / CC BY-NC 2.0
  32. 32. Value of Academic Libraries Image: Oxford Dictionaries, November 15, 2016, 9:00PM,
  33. 33. Value of Academic Libraries Post-truth Use Frequency Oxforddictionaries.comImage: Oxford Dictionaries, “Word of the Year 2016 is...,” English Oxford Living Dictionaries,
  34. 34. Value of Academic Libraries The EU referendum in the UK and the presidential election in the US highlighted the importance of • identifying fake news • determining credibility, trustworthiness, and integrity of information • fact checking (Domonoske 2016; Maheshwari 2016; McCoy 2016) Image: by Se Re / CC BY-ND 2.0
  35. 35. Value of Academic Libraries “…the whole kind of conversation around fake news is this really important example of how important it is in our daily life and civic health in order to bring critical skills to bear on understanding information and being able to critically evaluate the source of that.” (Advisory Member LM03, Research University, Secular, Private) Image: by Dennis Skley / CC BY-ND 2.0
  36. 36. Value of Academic Libraries “People [are] talking about the problems of educating people to be citizens more, with this election being indicative of that. This is a hard thing to confront right now because we are going to have an administration that doesn't think that's important at all.” (Provost Interviewee PP02, Research University, Non-Secular, Private) Image: by Clemens V. Vogelsang / CC BY 2.0
  37. 37. Value of Academic Libraries Determining trustworthy sources of information is difficult in today’s environment Image: by Michelle Grewe / Public Domain
  38. 38. Value of Academic Libraries Millennials and Post-Millennials, although at ease with information technology, struggle with the evaluation of online sources. (Connaway, Lanclos, & Hood, 2013; Connaway, White, Lanclos, & Le Cornu, 2013; Stanford History Education Group, 2016) Image: by Rodney Gomez / CC BY 2.0
  39. 39. Value of Academic Libraries “It depends. It depends who’s made the website or what I have been told about the website or whether I know about it at all. But — it sounds silly — but sometimes you can just tell whether a website looks reliable or not depending on how professional [it] looks and who’s written it.” (Digital Visitors and Residents, UKU6, Female, Age 19, Emerging) Image: by Bob Muller / CC BY-NC 2.0
  40. 40. Value of Academic Libraries “I always stick with the first thing that comes up on Google because I think that’s the most popular site which means that’s the most correct.” (Digital Visitors and Residents, USS1, Female, Age 17, High School Student) Image: by InSapphoWeTrust / CC BY-SA 2.0
  41. 41. Value of Academic Libraries “That's a YouTube video. No thank you. …anybody could have uploaded that.” (Researching Students’ Information Choices, G22)
  42. 42. Value of Academic Libraries Image: by Michelle Grewe / Public Domain In information seeking, convenience is key… But it depends on context and situation.
  43. 43. “At first I started looking online, and it was a little bit overwhelming…I ended up reaching into my mom’s cupboard and using a recipe that I found in one of her old cookbooks. The recipe was just what I was looking for...” (Digital Visitors and Residents, USS3, Emerging, Female, Age 17, High School Student) “Convenient” Isn’t Always Simple Image: by Robert Couse-Baker / CC BY 2.0
  44. 44. “Regarding health affairs, I usually don’t search on the internet because… you have pain in one finger and then you end up [thinking] you have the bubonic plague… For this situation, I would use personal contacts.” (UOCG3, Male, Age 28, Computer Science) Image: by Zach Duffy / CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 “Humans are a valued source of information.” (Connaway et al., 2017)
  45. 45. “You spend many hours with Saint Google. We entrust ourselves to Saint Google and that solves it for us.” (Digital Visitors & Residents, UOCFI6, Male, Age 53, Arts & Humanities) Image: by allen watkin / CC BY-SA 2.0
  46. 46. “Wikipedia… it’s perfect, because it gives you the words, the things, the technical words that you need to look, keywords, so Wikipedia is always, always the first step.” (UOCG1, Male, Age 35-44, Professions and Applied Sciences) Image: by stateofplace / CC BY-NC 2.0
  47. 47. “It’s like a taboo I guess with all teachers, they just all say – you know, when they explain the paper they always say, ‘Don’t use Wikipedia.’” (Digital Visitors and Residents, USU7, Female, Age 19, Political Science) The Learning Black Market Image: by Eduards Osis / CC BY-NC 2.0
  48. 48. “The students are completely unaware of the resources that the university has in repositories, databases, etc. on their subjects. Most of the interviewees do not know the possibility of consulting books in full text, being able to develop bibliographies or access remotely the virtual texts of the university campus.” (V&R Project Team Member, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid) Image: by steve_w / CC BY-NC-ND 2.0
  49. 49. “Perhaps one of the more interesting actions could be to promote the library services to students and how to use them. Now, the library resources are embedded in the virtual classroom and the students are not aware of this, but in contrast, they don’t explore the full potential of academic library.” (Eva Ortoll Espinet, Universitat Oberta de Catalunya) Image: by Peter Lee / CC BY-NC 2.0
  50. 50. “People lack patience to wade through content silos…” (Connaway 2015, 134) “Yes, it [Matrix film plug-in to brain] - sort of makes information gathering effortless and without having to sort of manually go through and separate the chaff from the wheat.” (Digital Visitors and Residents, UKU10, Male, Age 20, Law) Image: by Peter Miller / CC BY-NC-ND 2.0
  51. 51. Value of Academic Libraries “Because, most likely, I won't be able to see the book, just a little abstract, and that might not be helpful because I won't get the entire information, just a part of it. That gets frustrating.” (Researcing Students’ Information Choices, S07) Image: by John Loo / CC BY 2.0
  52. 52. Value of Academic Libraries Image: by Michelle Grewe / Public Domain Critical thinking skills are a primary concern of university administrators and are crucial for developing an informed citizenry. (Connaway et al., 2017; Najmabadi, 2017)
  53. 53. Value of Academic Libraries “I do not think the learning stops after [students graduate]. How do we set our students up for success? How do they reach the outcomes that we want for them? How do we have them thinking about, and in particular for libraries, how do they think about that down the road as, using public libraries and the resources we have there as well?” (Provost Interviewee PP06, Research University, Secular, Public) Image: by Benjamin Ho / CC BY-NC-ND 2.0
  54. 54. Value of Academic Libraries “We should be helping people learn how to think, learn how to be skeptical, learn how to use critical thinking skills, learn how to be self- reflective. I think because those things are so much harder to assess and to demonstrate we have not done as good a job telling that story.” (Provost Interviewee PP10, College, Non- secular, Private) Image: by Andréia Bohner / CC BY 2.0
  56. 56. It’s time for a change “…have an opportunity to become part of users’ social networks and to put resources in the context of users’ information needs.” (Connaway 2015, 23) Image: by / CC BY-SA 2.0
  57. 57. Build digital communities Integrate into users’ digital worlds Image: by Sten Frenke / CC BY-SA 2.0
  58. 58. Allison Frick, left, (Glendale Free Library in Pennsylvania) and Christina Riehman-Murphy (Penn State) organized an information literacy event focused on women and science. Photo: Courtesy Allison Frick Information literacy with Wikipedia
  59. 59. 96% of higher education instructors consider Wikipedia more valuable for teaching digital literacy than traditional assignments 2017 Wiki Education Foundation report tcomes_using_Wikipedia- based_Assignments_Fall_2016_Research_Report.pdf Editing Wikipedia promotes digital information literacy
  60. 60. Social Media Presence
  61. 61. Special Events & Activities
  62. 62. Special Events & Activities
  63. 63. “Nearly 60 percent of the world’s people are still offline.” (Pattillo 2016) Image: by Backgrounds Etc / CC BY 2.0
  64. 64. “We do go to the library or somewhere quiet where we can just get our work done together...” (UKU3, Female, Age 19, French and Italian) Virtual & physical space for socializing and group work Image: by James F Clay / CC BY-NC 2.0
  65. 65. Value of Academic Libraries Align ourselves with institutional priorities and contribute to the development of critical thinking skills Image: by Patrick Dalton / CC BY-NC-ND 2.0
  66. 66. Value of Academic Libraries Take the lead in collaborating with other educators to incorporate critical literacy into the curriculum. Image: by midori_iko / CC BY-NC-ND 2.0
  67. 67. “By focusing on relationship building instead of service excellence, organizations can uncover new needs and be in position to make a stronger impact.” (Mathews 2012) Image: by marco magrini / CC BY-NC-ND 2.0
  68. 68. Connaway, Lynn Silipigni, Vanessa Kitzie, Erin M. Hood and William Harvey. 2017. The Many Faces of Digital Visitors & Residents: Facets of Online Engagement. With contributions from Allison Benedetti, Agustí Canals, Liliana Gregori, Eva Ortoll Espinet, Daniel Lozano, Melissa Man, Josep Cobarsí Morales, Sara Giuliana Ricetto, Riccardo Melgrati, Eva M. Méndez Rodríguez, Andrea Sada, Peter Sidorko, Paolo Sirito, Virginia Steel, Titia van der Werf, and Esther Woo. Dublin, OH: OCLC Research. doi:10.25333/C3V63F publications/2017/oclcresearch-many-faces- digital-vandr-a4.pdf.
  69. 69. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank Brittany Brannon for her assistance in preparing this presentation.
  70. 70. References Asher, A. (2017). “On Ethnographic Research: How do Students Find the Information They Need?” In Research Methods for Library and Information Science, 6th ed., edited by Lynn Silipigni Connaway and Marie L. Radford, 264. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited. Connaway, L. S. (2016). “#Librariesinlife: The Convenience Imperative.” Next, March 7, Connaway, L. S. (2016). “Is Anything More Important than Convenience?” Next, May 24, anything-more-important-than-convenience/. Connaway, L. S. (2017, August 25). Can you believe it? How to determine credibility in the era of fake news. Inside ASIS&T President’s Column, August 2017. Connaway, L. S. (2017, June 19). Putting the library in the life of the user: Listen, then lead, to promote a unique and compelling role for academic libraries. Guest of Choice, Choice360 blog. Retrieved from Connaway, L. S. (comp. 2015). The Library in the Life of the User: Engaging with People Where They Live and Learn. Dublin, OH: OCLC Research. Connaway, L. S., & Dickey, T. J. (2010). “The Digital Information Seeker: Report of Findings from Selected OCLC, RIN, and JISC User Behavior Projects.”
  71. 71. References Connaway, L. S., Dickey, T. J., & Radford, M. L. (2011). “‘If It Is too inconvenient I’m not going after it:’ Convenience as a Critical Factor in Information-Seeking Behaviors.” Library & Information Science Research 33, no. 3: 179–190. Connaway, L. S., & Faniel, I. M. (2014). Reordering Ranganathan: Shifting user behaviors, shifting priorities. Dublin, OH: OCLC Research. ranganathan-2014.pdf. Connaway, L. S., Harvey, W., Kitzie, V., and Mikitish, S. 2017. Action-Oriented Research Agenda on Library Contributions to Student Learning and Success. January 10, 2017. Connaway, L. S., Kitzie, V., Hood, E. M., & Harvey, W. (2017). The Many Faces of Digital Visitors & Residents: Facets of Online Engagement. With contributions from Allison Benedetti, Agustí Canals, Liliana Gregori, Eva Ortoll Espinet, Daniel Lozano, Melissa Man, Josep Cobarsí Morales, Sara Giuliana Ricetto, Riccardo Melgrati, Eva M. Méndez Rodríguez, Andrea Sada, Peter Sidorko, Paolo Sirito, Virginia Steel, Titia van der Werf, and Esther Woo. Dublin, OH: OCLC Research. doi:10.25333/C3V63F. Connaway, L. S., Lanclos, D. M., & Hood, E. M. (2013, December 6). “I always stick with the first thing that comes up on Google…” Where people go for information, what they use, and why. EDUCAUSE Review Online. Retrieved from for-information-what-they-use-and-why
  72. 72. References Connaway, L. S., & Radford, M. L. (2017). Research Methods for Library and Information Science, 6th ed. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited. Connaway, L. S., Seadle, M., Julien, H., & Kasprak, A. (2017). Digital literacy in the era of fake news: Key roles for information professionals. ASIS&T President’s Invited Panel. Connaway, L. S., White, D., Lanclos, D., & Le Cornu, A. (2013). Visitors and Residents: What motivates engagement with the digital information environment? Information Research, 18(1). Retrieved from 1/infres181.html Dervin, B., Connaway, L. S., & Prabha, C. (2003-2006). Sense-making the Information Confluence: The Whys and Hows of College and University User Satisficing of Information Needs. Funded by the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS). DeSantis, N. (2012). “On Facebook, Librarian Brings 2 Students From the Early 1900s to Life.” The Chronicle of Higher Education, January 6. 1900s-to-life/34845. Domonoske, C. 2016. “Students Have ‘Dismaying’ Inability to Tell Fake News from Real, Study Finds.” NPR, November 23, fake-news-from-real.
  73. 73. References English Oxford Living Dictionaries. 2016. “Word of the Year 2016 Is…” Accessed August 23. English Oxford Living Dictionaries. 2017. “Word of the Year 2017 Is…” Accessed March 25, 2018. Frick, R., Streams, S., Sengul-Jones, M., Arlitsch, K., & Mixter, J. (2017). OCLC Research Update. ALA Annual Conference, Chicago, Illinois, June 26, 2017. Kazmer, M. (2017). “Mixed Methods.” In Research Methods for Library and Information Science, 6th ed., Lynn Silipigni Connaway and Marie L. Radford, 232-233. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited. Kraft, A., and Williams, Jr., A. F. (2016). “#Shelfies are Encouraged: Simple, Engaging Library Instruction with Hashtags.” College & Research Libraries News 77, no. 1 (2016): 10-13. Lawrence University. “Library Events.” (n.d.) Maheshwari, S. (2016). “How Fake News Goes Viral: A Case Study.” The New York Times, November 20, Mathews, B. (2012). Think Like a Startup: A White Paper to Inspire Library Entrepreneurialism.
  74. 74. References McCoy, T. (2016). “For the ‘New Yellow Journalists,’ Opportunity Comes in Clicks and Bucks.” The Washington Post, November 20, clicks-and-bucks/2016/11/20/d58d036c-adbf-11e6-8b45-f8e493f06fcd_story.html. Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative Data Analysis: A Sourcebook. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications. Miles, M. B., Huberman, M., & Saldaña, J., eds. (2014). Qualitative Data Analysis: A Methods Sourcebook, 3rd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Najmabadi, S. (2017). “How Colleges Can Teach Students to Be Good Citizens.” The Chronicle of Higher Education, January 13. Prabha, C., Connaway, L. S., Olszewski, L., & Jenkins, L. (2007). “What is enough? Satisficing information needs.” Journal of Documentation 63, no. 1: 74–89. satisficing.pdf. Ranganathan, S. R. (1931). The five laws of library science. London: Edward Goldston, Ltd. Simon, H. (1955). “A behavioral model of rational choice.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 69, no. 1: 99-118. Stanford History Education Group. (2016). Evaluating information: The cornerstone of civic online reasoning. Retrieved from Summary 11.21.16.pdf.
  75. 75. References Steiner, P. (1993, July 5). On the internet. [Cartoon] The New Yorker. Retrieved from University of Minnesota. (n.d.). “Managing Stress on the Road to Finals Week.” stress-road-finals-week. Webb, E. J., Campbell, D. T., Schwartz, R. D., & Sechrest, L. (1966). Unobtrusive Measures: Nonreactive Research in the Social Sciences, Vol. 111. Chicago: Rand McNally. White, D. S., & Connaway, L. S. (2011-2014). Visitors & Residents: What Motivates Engagement with the Digital Information Environment. Funded by JISC, OCLC, and Oxford University. Wiki Education Foundation. (2016). Student Learning Outcomes using Wikipedia-based Assignments Fall 2016 Research Report. Prepared by Zachary James McDowell and Mahala Dyer Stewart. Retrieved from based_Assignments_Fall_2016_Research_Report.pdf&page=2. World Bank. (2016). “World Development Report 2016: Digital Dividends.” Washington, D.C.: World Bank. Quoted in Gary Pattillo. 2016. “Fast Facts.” College & Research Libraries News 77, no. 3: 164.
  76. 76. Questions & Discussion Lynn Silipigni Connaway, PhD Senior Research Scientist & Director of User Research, OCLC @LynnConnaway