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Applying research methods: Investigating the Many Faces of Digital Visitors & Residents

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Connaway, L. S. (2018). Applying research methods: Investigating the Many Faces of Digital Visitors & Residents. Presented at the American University, March 29, 2018, Rome, Italy.

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Applying research methods: Investigating the Many Faces of Digital Visitors & Residents

  1. 1. Rome, Italy • 29 March 2018 Applying Research Methods: Investigating the Many Faces of Digital Visitors & Residents Lynn Silipigni Connaway, PhD Senior Research Scientist & Director of User Research, OCLC connawal@oclc.org @LynnConnaway
  2. 2. Value of Academic Libraries “To identify how and why people get information, it is necessary first to listen.” (Connaway, 2017) Image: https://www.flickr.com/photos/pjotr_savitski/2701378287 by Pjotr Savitski / CC BY 2.0
  3. 3. WAYS TO IDENTIFY HOW AND WHY PEOPLE GET INFORMATION
  4. 4. DATA COLLECTION TOOLS AND METHODS
  5. 5. What is Qualitative Research? A type of scientific research that: • Seeks answers to a question • Systematically uses predefined set of procedures to answer question • Collects evidence • Produces findings that: • Are not determined in advance • Apply beyond immediate boundaries of study Image: https://www.flickr.com/photos/katesheets/5772901616 by katesheets / CC BY-NC 2.0
  6. 6. What is Quantitative Research? • Based on the scientific method of inquiry • Theory • Problem • Hypothesis • Measurement • Validity, reliability, and level • Includes survey research and experimental research • Utilizes statistical analysis methods Image: https://www.flickr.com/photos/zoghal/372832109 by zoghal / CC BY-SA 2.0
  7. 7. Mixed Methods Research • Any combination of research methods • Qualitative • Quantitative • Participatory • Action • Design • Equal attention to all stages of research process • Findings should be iterative & informative (Kazmer 2017, 232-233) Image: https://www.flickr.com/photos/hdaparis/11288970914 by Hugh Dutton Associes / CC BY-NC-ND 2.0
  8. 8. Triangulation • Term coined by Webb et al. (1966) • Multiple methods of data collection (e.g., interviews – individual & group, observation, literature, archives) • Agree, or at least don’t contradict (Miles and Huberman 1994, 266) • Multiple investigators • Multiple contexts/situations Image: https://www.flickr.com/photos/ytwhitelight/49895159 by Amanda Graham / CC BY-NC-ND 2.0
  9. 9. Mixed Methods “Miles, Huberman, and Saldaña also pointed out that although designing and conducting a mixed method research project involves careful planning and more effort in execution, the benefits greatly outweigh the difficulties (including philosophical ones).” (Connaway and Radford 2017, 229) Image: https://www.flickr.com/photos/ikhlasulamal/4538617347 by Ikhlasul Amal / CC BY-NC 2.0
  10. 10. Semi-structured Interviews • Incredibly detailed data • Time consuming – Establishing rapport – Selecting research participants – Transcribing observations & conversationsImage: https://www.flickr.com/photos/colinsd40/15183445332 by Colin / CC BY-NC-ND 2.0
  11. 11. Diaries • Keep directions minimal and open • Offer participants a variety of ways to report • Written • Photo • Video • Audio • Data can be rich and detailed, but is self-reported • Does not require researcher presence (Connaway and Radford, 2017) Image: https://www.flickr.com/photos/10154402@N03/8421806383 by Bruce Guenter / CC BY 2.0
  12. 12. Online Surveys • Use a database, programming code, & interface to distribute surveys and collect responses • Drawbacks • Lower response rates than paper • Concerns over privacy and confidentiality • Can be spammed • Difficult to get a random sample • May underrepresent those without computers Image: https://www.flickr.com/photos/evilmutent/3440911430 by Hugo Chisholm / CC BY-SA 2.0
  13. 13. “Perhaps the most convenient method of studying the consequences of this law will be to follow the reader from the moment he enters the library to the moment he leaves it…” (Ranganathan 1931, 337) Image: https://www.flickr.com/photos/anjan58/7346141798 by anjan58 / CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 Observation
  14. 14. DATA ANALYSIS TOOLS AND METHODS
  15. 15. Coding Analyzing the gathered data involves coding the responses (or placing each item in the appropriate category), tabulating the data, and statistical computations. Categories for coding generally evolve from the data, there are some common areas such as setting, situation, perspective, process, activity, event, relationship, role, practice, etc. Image: https://www.flickr.com/photos/beggs/130718089 by Brian Jeffery Beggerly / CC BY 2.0
  16. 16. Ethnographic Analysis • Use people’s own categories • Avoid assuming what one will find • Complementary to quantitative methods • Retain ‘richness’/‘thick description’ • Numerical compatibility (Asher 2017, 264) (Connaway and Radford 2017, 282) Image: https://www.flickr.com/photos/edgarpierce/6279370863 by Edgar Pierce / CC BY 2.0
  17. 17. • Contain all data sources • Create and apply codes • Enable running queries • Develop visualizations • Deliver reports (Connaway and Radford 2017) Computer-Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis Software (CAQDAS) Image: https://www.flickr.com/photos/zeevveez/6222570825 by zeevveez / CC BY 2.0
  18. 18. • Draw on data...in service of developing new conceptual categories • Develop inductive abstract analytic categories through systematic data analysis • Emphasize theory construction rather than description or application of current theories (Connaway and Radford 2017) Grounded Theory Image: https://www.flickr.com/photos/brandsvig/6331843056 by Christer / CC BY-NC-ND 2.0
  19. 19. “A major strategy for analysis of qualitative data is the use of the constant comparative method, which embraces ‘constant comparisons’ defined as ‘the analytic process of comparing different pieces of data against each other for similarities and differences.’” (Connaway and Radford 2017, 298) Image: https://www.flickr.com/photos/chiotsrun/3748199122 by Chiot’s Run / CC BY-NC 2.0
  20. 20. Quantitative Analysis • Descriptive statistics • Parametric statistics • Non-parametric statistics Image: https://www.flickr.com/photos/ekurvine/6964282187 by Esko Kurvinen / CC BY-NC 2.0
  21. 21. FINDINGS: DIGITAL LITERACY
  22. 22. Value of Academic Libraries Image: Oxford Dictionaries, November 15, 2016, 9:00PM, https://twitter.com/oxfordwords/status/798752580872437760?lang=en
  23. 23. Value of Academic Libraries Post-truth Use Frequency Oxforddictionaries.comImage: Oxford Dictionaries, “Word of the Year 2016 is...,” English Oxford Living Dictionaries, https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/word-of-the-year/word-of-the-year-2016
  24. 24. Value of Academic Libraries The EU referendum in the UK and the presidential election in the US highlighted the importance of • identifying fake news • determining credibility, trustworthiness, and integrity of information • fact checking (Domonoske 2016; Maheshwari 2016; McCoy 2016) Image: https://www.flickr.com/photos/96310508@N06/10390540955 by Se Re / CC BY-ND 2.0
  25. 25. Value of Academic Libraries “…the whole kind of conversation around fake news is this really important example of how important it is in our daily life and civic health in order to bring critical skills to bear on understanding information and being able to critically evaluate the source of that.” (Advisory Member LM03, Research University, Secular, Private) Image: https://www.flickr.com/photos/dskley/13716083704 by Dennis Skley / CC BY-ND 2.0
  26. 26. Value of Academic Libraries “People [are] talking about the problems of educating people to be citizens more, with this election being indicative of that. This is a hard thing to confront right now because we are going to have an administration that doesn't think that's important at all.” (Provost Interviewee PP02, Research University, Non-Secular, Private) Image: http://bit.ly/2lPFoNi by Clemens V. Vogelsang / CC BY 2.0
  27. 27. Value of Academic Libraries Determining trustworthy sources of information is even harder online. Image: https://www.flickr.com/photos/gabbysol/21510538432 by Michelle Grewe / Public Domain
  28. 28. Value of Academic Libraries Millennials and Post-Millennials, although at ease with information technology, struggle with the evaluation of online sources. (Connaway, Lanclos, & Hood, 2013; Connaway, White, Lanclos, & Le Cornu, 2013; Stanford History Education Group, 2016) Image: https://www.flickr.com/photos/142500385@N08/27577398941/ by Rodney Gomez / CC BY 2.0
  29. 29. Value of Academic Libraries “It depends. It depends who’s made the website or what I have been told about the website or whether I know about it at all. But — it sounds silly — but sometimes you can just tell whether a website looks reliable or not depending on how professional [it] looks and who’s written it.” (Digital Visitors and Residents, UKU6, Female, Age 19, Emerging) Image: https://www.flickr.com/photos/bobx-nc/14056106583/ by Bob Muller / CC BY-NC 2.0
  30. 30. Value of Academic Libraries “I always stick with the first thing that comes up on Google because I think that’s the most popular site which means that’s the most correct.” (Digital Visitors and Residents, USS1, Female, Age 17, High School Student) Image: https://www.flickr.com/photos/skinnylawyer/6337956175/ by InSapphoWeTrust / CC BY-SA 2.0
  31. 31. Value of Academic Libraries “That's a YouTube video. No thank you. …anybody could have uploaded that.” (Researching Students’ Information Choices, G22)
  32. 32. Value of Academic Libraries Image: https://www.flickr.com/photos/gabbysol/21510538432 by Michelle Grewe / Public Domain In information seeking, convenience is key… But it depends on context and situation.
  33. 33. “At first I started looking online, and it was a little bit overwhelming…I ended up reaching into my mom’s cupboard and using a recipe that I found in one of her old cookbooks. The recipe was just what I was looking for...” (Digital Visitors and Residents, USS3, Emerging, Female, Age 17, High School Student) “Convenient” Isn’t Always Simple Image: https://www.flickr.com/photos/29233640@N07/8395962128 by Robert Couse-Baker / CC BY 2.0
  34. 34. “Regarding health affairs, I usually don’t search on the internet because… you have pain in one finger and then you end up [thinking] you have the bubonic plague… For this situation, I would use personal contacts.” (UOCG3, Male, Age 28, Computer Science) Image: https://www.flickr.com/photos/zachduffy/2634956354 by Zach Duffy / CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 “Humans are a valued source of information.” (Connaway et al., 2017)
  35. 35. Satisficing…What is enough information? “…I needed the answer, my maths, I was doing an exercise, I got stuck on a question, I still had the rest of the exercise to go and I had like an hour to do it and I just wanted the formula and the quickest way to do it was to type it into Google and it came up.” (Digital Visitors and Residents, UKS2, Female, Age 17, Secondary School Student) Image: https://www.flickr.com/photos/irchriscdk/13946605527 by Chris de Kok / CC BY 2.0
  36. 36. Centrality of Google & search engines Image: https://www.flickr.com/photos/alessandrogrussu/16989214337 by Alessandro Grussu / CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 “You spend many hours with Saint Google. We entrust ourselves to Saint Google and that solves it for us.” (Digital Visitors and Residents, UOCFI6, Male, Age 53, Arts & Humanities)
  37. 37. “It’s like a taboo I guess with all teachers, they just all say – you know, when they explain the paper they always say, ‘Don’t use Wikipedia.’” (Digital Visitors and Residents, USU7, Female, Age 19, Political Science) The Learning Black Market Image: https://www.flickr.com/photos/asuranlv/8784338892 by Eduards Osis / CC BY-NC 2.0
  38. 38. “Wikipedia… it’s perfect, because it gives you the words, the things, the technical words that you need to look, keywords, so Wikipedia is always, always the first step.” (UOCG1, Male, Age 35-44, Professions and Applied Sciences) Image: https://www.flickr.com/photos/mayopants/4021073588/ by stateofplace / CC BY-NC 2.0
  39. 39. “Library sources are used but not recognized or attributed to the library.” (Connaway et al., 2017) Image: https://www.flickr.com/photos/gabbysol/21510538432 by Michelle Grewe / Public Domain
  40. 40. “The students are completely unaware of the resources that the university has in repositories, databases, etc. on their subjects. Most of the interviewees do not know the possibility of consulting books in full text, being able to develop bibliographies or access remotely the funds using virtual contexts of the campus of its university. (V&R Project Team Member, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid) Image: https://www.flickr.com/photos/steve_way/38027571414 by steve_w / CC BY-NC-ND 2.0
  41. 41. “Perhaps one of the more interesting actions could be to promote the library services to students and how to use them. Now, the library resources are embedded in the virtual classroom and the students are not aware of this, but in contrast, they don’t explore the full potential of academic library.” (Eva Ortoll Espinet, Universitat Oberta de Catalunya) Image: https://www.flickr.com/photos/oldpatterns/5485738658 by Peter Lee / CC BY-NC 2.0
  42. 42. “People lack patience to wade through content silos…” (Connaway 2015, 134) “Yes, it [Matrix film plug-in to brain] - sort of makes information gathering effortless and without having to sort of manually go through and separate the chaff from the wheat.” (Digital Visitors and Residents, UKU10, Male, Age 20, Law) Image: https://www.flickr.com/photos/pmillera4/12162109155 by Peter Miller / CC BY-NC-ND 2.0
  43. 43. Value of Academic Libraries “Because, most likely, I won't be able to see the book, just a little abstract, and that might not be helpful because I won't get the entire information, just a part of it. That gets frustrating.” (Researcing Students’ Information Choices, S07) Image: https://www.flickr.com/photos/johnloo/7424050476 by John Loo / CC BY 2.0
  44. 44. Value of Academic Libraries Image: https://www.flickr.com/photos/gabbysol/21510538432 by Michelle Grewe / Public Domain Critical thinking skills are a primary concern of university administrators and are crucial for developing an informed citizenry. (Connaway et al., 2017; Najmabadi, 2017)
  45. 45. Value of Academic Libraries “I do not think the learning stops after [students graduate]. How do we set our students up for success? How do they reach the outcomes that we want for them? How do we have them thinking about, and in particular for libraries, how do they think about that down the road as, using public libraries and the resources we have there as well?” (Provost Interviewee PP06, Research University, Secular, Public) Image: https://www.flickr.com/photos/benhosg/32627578042 by Benjamin Ho / CC BY-NC-ND 2.0
  46. 46. Value of Academic Libraries “We should be helping people learn how to think, learn how to be skeptical, learn how to use critical thinking skills, learn how to be self- reflective. I think because those things are so much harder to assess and to demonstrate we have not done as good a job telling that story.” (Provost Interviewee PP10, College, Non- secular, Private) Image: https://www.flickr.com/photos/deia/6461457 by Andréia Bohner / CC BY 2.0
  47. 47. RECOMMENDATIONS: INFORMATION LITERACY
  48. 48. It’s time for a change “Librarians have an opportunity to become part of users’ social networks and to put resources in the context of users’ information needs.” (Connaway 2015, 23) Image: https://www.flickr.com/photos/68532869@N08/17470913285/ by Japanexperterna.se / CC BY-SA 2.0
  49. 49. “Nearly 60 percent of the world’s people are still offline.” (Pattillo 2016) Image: https://www.flickr.com/photos/backgroundsetc/3424524913 by Backgrounds Etc / CC BY 2.0
  50. 50. “We do go to the library or somewhere quiet where we can just get our work done together...” (UKU3, Female, Age 19, French and Italian) Space for socializing and group work Image: https://www.flickr.com/photos/jamesclay/14867901948 by James F Clay / CC BY-NC 2.0
  51. 51. oc.lc/oclc-wikilib Allison Frick, left, (Glendale Free Library in Pennsylvania) and Christina Riehman-Murphy (Penn State) organized an information literacy event focused on women and science. Photo: Courtesy Allison Frick Information literacy with Wikipedia
  52. 52. 96% of higher education instructors consider Wikipedia more valuable for teaching digital literacy than traditional assignments 2017 Wiki Education Foundation report https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Student_Learning_Ou tcomes_using_Wikipedia- based_Assignments_Fall_2016_Research_Report.pdf Editing Wikipedia promotes digital information literacy
  53. 53. Social Media Presence
  54. 54. Special Events & Activities
  55. 55. Special Events & Activities
  56. 56. Value of Academic Libraries Libraries have an opportunity to align themselves with institutional priorities and contribute to the development of critical thinking skills Image: https://www.flickr.com/photos/27518426@N03/3617723004 by Patrick Dalton / CC BY-NC-ND 2.0
  57. 57. Value of Academic Libraries “I see that [libraries] play a role as a partner, facilitating both learning and doing in new and different ways, both helping all of us to embrace information in critical and yet meaningful ways.” (Provost Interviewee PP03, Research University, Secular, Private) Image: https://www.flickr.com/photos/thyagohills/5009884654/ by Thyago - SORG|FX / CC BY 2.0
  58. 58. Value of Academic Libraries Take the lead in collaborating with other educators to incorporate critical literacy into the curriculum and promote information professionals’ expertise. Image: https://www.flickr.com/photos/midori_iko/2599635309 by midori_iko / CC BY-NC-ND 2.0
  59. 59. “By focusing on relationship building instead of service excellence, organizations can uncover new needs and be in position to make a stronger impact.” (Mathews 2012) Image: https://www.flickr.com/photos/marcomagrini/698692268/ by marco magrini / CC BY-NC-ND 2.0
  60. 60. “Library is a growing organism.” (Ranganathan 1931) Use what you know. Learn what you don’t know. Engage in new ways. Image: http://www.flickr.com/photos/96043955@N05/15190222775 by Ryan Hickox / CC BY-SA 2.0
  61. 61. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank Brittany Brannon for her assistance in preparing this presentation.
  62. 62. References Asher, A. (2017). “On Ethnographic Research: How do Students Find the Information They Need?” In Research Methods for Library and Information Science, 6th ed., edited by Lynn Silipigni Connaway and Marie L. Radford, 264. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited. Connaway, L. S. (2016). “#Librariesinlife: The Convenience Imperative.” Next, March 7, http://www.oclc.org/blog/main/librariesinlife-the-convenience-imperative/. Connaway, L. S. (2016). “Is Anything More Important than Convenience?” Next, May 24, http://www.oclc.org/blog/main/is- anything-more-important-than-convenience/. Connaway, L. S. (2017, August 25). Can you believe it? How to determine credibility in the era of fake news. Inside ASIS&T President’s Column, August 2017. Connaway, L. S. (2017, June 19). Putting the library in the life of the user: Listen, then lead, to promote a unique and compelling role for academic libraries. Guest of Choice, Choice360 blog. Retrieved from http://www.choice360.org/blog/putting-the-library-in-the-life-of-the-user Connaway, L. S. (comp. 2015). The Library in the Life of the User: Engaging with People Where They Live and Learn. Dublin, OH: OCLC Research. http://www.oclc.org/content/dam/research/publications/2015/oclcresearch-library-in-life-of-user.pdf. Connaway, L. S., & Dickey, T. J. (2010). “The Digital Information Seeker: Report of Findings from Selected OCLC, RIN, and JISC User Behavior Projects.” http://www.jisc.ac.uk/media/documents/publications/reports/2010/digitalinformationseekerreport.pdf.
  63. 63. References Connaway, L. S., Dickey, T. J., & Radford, M. L. (2011). “‘If It Is too inconvenient I’m not going after it:’ Convenience as a Critical Factor in Information-Seeking Behaviors.” Library & Information Science Research 33, no. 3: 179–190. Connaway, L. S., & Faniel, I. M. (2014). Reordering Ranganathan: Shifting user behaviors, shifting priorities. Dublin, OH: OCLC Research. http://www.oclc.org/content/dam/research/publications/library/2014/oclcresearch-reordering- ranganathan-2014.pdf. Connaway, L. S., Harvey, W., Kitzie, V., and Mikitish, S. 2017. Action-Oriented Research Agenda on Library Contributions to Student Learning and Success. January 10, 2017. http://www.oclc.org/content/dam/research/themes/acrl-research-agenda-jan-2017.pdf. Connaway, L. S., Kitzie, V., Hood, E. M., & Harvey, W. (2017). The Many Faces of Digital Visitors & Residents: Facets of Online Engagement. With contributions from Allison Benedetti, Agustí Canals, Liliana Gregori, Eva Ortoll Espinet, Daniel Lozano, Melissa Man, Josep Cobarsí Morales, Sara Giuliana Ricetto, Riccardo Melgrati, Eva M. Méndez Rodríguez, Andrea Sada, Peter Sidorko, Paolo Sirito, Virginia Steel, Titia van der Werf, and Esther Woo. Dublin, OH: OCLC Research. doi:10.25333/C3V63F. Connaway, L. S., Lanclos, D. M., & Hood, E. M. (2013, December 6). “I always stick with the first thing that comes up on Google…” Where people go for information, what they use, and why. EDUCAUSE Review Online. Retrieved from http://er.educause.edu/articles/2013/12/i-always-stick-with-the-first-thing-that-comes-up-on-google---where-people-go- for-information-what-they-use-and-why
  64. 64. References Connaway, L. S., & Radford, M. L. (2017). Research Methods for Library and Information Science, 6th ed. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited. Connaway, L. S., Seadle, M., Julien, H., & Kasprak, A. (2017). Digital literacy in the era of fake news: Key roles for information professionals. ASIS&T President’s Invited Panel. Connaway, L. S., White, D., Lanclos, D., & Le Cornu, A. (2013). Visitors and Residents: What motivates engagement with the digital information environment? Information Research, 18(1). Retrieved from http://informationr.net/ir/18- 1/infres181.html Dervin, B., Connaway, L. S., & Prabha, C. (2003-2006). Sense-making the Information Confluence: The Whys and Hows of College and University User Satisficing of Information Needs. Funded by the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS). http://www.oclc.org/research/activities/past/orprojects/imls/default.htm. DeSantis, N. (2012). “On Facebook, Librarian Brings 2 Students From the Early 1900s to Life.” The Chronicle of Higher Education, January 6. http://chronicle.com/blogs/wiredcampus/on-facebook-librarian-brings-two-students-from-the-early- 1900s-to-life/34845. Domonoske, C. 2016. “Students Have ‘Dismaying’ Inability to Tell Fake News from Real, Study Finds.” NPR, November 23, http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2016/11/23/503129818/study-finds-students-have-dismaying-inability-to-tell- fake-news-from-real.
  65. 65. References English Oxford Living Dictionaries. 2016. “Word of the Year 2016 Is…” Accessed August 23. https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/word-of-the-year/word-of-the-year-2016. Frick, R., Streams, S., Sengul-Jones, M., Arlitsch, K., & Mixter, J. (2017). OCLC Research Update. ALA Annual Conference, Chicago, Illinois, June 26, 2017. Kazmer, M. (2017). “Mixed Methods.” In Research Methods for Library and Information Science, 6th ed., edited by Lynn Silipigni Connaway and Marie L. Radford, 232-233. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited. Kraft, A., and Williams, Jr., A. F. (2016). “#Shelfies are Encouraged: Simple, Engaging Library Instruction with Hashtags.” College & Research Libraries News 77, no. 1 (2016): 10-13. Lawrence University. “Library Events.” (n.d.) https://www.lawrence.edu/library/about/events. Maheshwari, S. (2016). “How Fake News Goes Viral: A Case Study.” The New York Times, November 20, https://www.nytimes.com/2016/11/20/business/media/how-fake-news-spreads.html. Mathews, B. (2012). Think Like a Startup: A White Paper to Inspire Library Entrepreneurialism. http://chronicle.com/blognetwork/theubiquitouslibrarian/2012/04/04/think-like-a-startup-a-white-paper/. McCoy, T. (2016). “For the ‘New Yellow Journalists,’ Opportunity Comes in Clicks and Bucks.” The Washington Post, November 20, https://www.washingtonpost.com/national/for-the-new-yellow-journalists-opportunity-comes-in- clicks-and-bucks/2016/11/20/d58d036c-adbf-11e6-8b45-f8e493f06fcd_story.html.
  66. 66. References Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative Data Analysis: A Sourcebook. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications. Miles, M. B., Huberman, M., & Saldaña, J., eds. (2014). Qualitative Data Analysis: A Methods Sourcebook, 3rd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Najmabadi, S. (2017). “How Colleges Can Teach Students to Be Good Citizens.” The Chronicle of Higher Education, January 13. Prabha, C., Connaway, L. S., Olszewski, L., & Jenkins, L. (2007). “What is enough? Satisficing information needs.” Journal of Documentation 63, no. 1: 74–89. http://www.oclc.org/content/dam/research/publications/newsletters/prabha- satisficing.pdf. Ranganathan, S. R. (1931). The five laws of library science. London: Edward Goldston, Ltd. Simon, H. (1955). “A behavioral model of rational choice.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 69, no. 1: 99-118. Stanford History Education Group. (2016). Evaluating information: The cornerstone of civic online reasoning. Retrieved from https://sheg.stanford.edu/upload/V3LessonPlans/Executive Summary 11.21.16.pdf. Steiner, P. (1993, July 5). On the internet. [Cartoon] The New Yorker. Retrieved from https://condenaststore.com/featured/on-the-internet-peter-steiner.html. Tang, R. (2017). “Usability Research.” In Research Methods for Library and Information Science, 6th ed., edited by Lynn Silipigni Connaway and Marie L. Radford, 277-278. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited.
  67. 67. References University of Minnesota. (n.d.). “Managing Stress on the Road to Finals Week.” https://twin-cities.umn.edu/managing- stress-road-finals-week. Webb, E. J., Campbell, D. T., Schwartz, R. D., & Sechrest, L. (1966). Unobtrusive Measures: Nonreactive Research in the Social Sciences, Vol. 111. Chicago: Rand McNally. White, D. S., & Connaway, L. S. (2011-2014). Visitors & Residents: What Motivates Engagement with the Digital Information Environment. Funded by JISC, OCLC, and Oxford University. http://www.oclc.org/research/activities/vandr/. Wiki Education Foundation. (2016). Student Learning Outcomes using Wikipedia-based Assignments Fall 2016 Research Report. Prepared by Zachary James McDowell and Mahala Dyer Stewart. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Student_Learning_Outcomes_using_Wikipedia- based_Assignments_Fall_2016_Research_Report.pdf&page=2. World Bank. (2016). “World Development Report 2016: Digital Dividends.” Washington, D.C.: World Bank. www.worldbank.org/en/publication/wdr2016. Quoted in Gary Pattillo. 2016. “Fast Facts.” College & Research Libraries News 77, no. 3: 164.
  68. 68. Questions & Discussion Lynn Silipigni Connaway, PhD Senior Research Scientist & Director of User Research, OCLC connawal@oclc.org @LynnConnaway

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