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Find the most innovative news on the leisure blog

  1. 1. Membranes, Produced WaterMembrane processes, have for a long time been the most preferredwater treating techniques that help in salt removal from producedwater. In these produced water management processes,salt has alwaysbeen the major element that guides operators on how they shouldmanage produced water onshore. Injecting produced water forrecovery and/or disposal underground, the salt amount will not raise amajor safety problem. However, when we intend to recycle and laterdischarge to an onshore surface body water, it is important that weensure the salt levels are low in order to avoid creation of salt relatedproblems. The processes have been designed in such a way that, whileusing the membranes, the produced water is purified by removing salt,metals and constituting inorganic chemicals.Among the membrane processes is filtration. This method is done byletting liquids pass through membranes that have small pore sizes. Themembrane therefore, acts selectively-only allowing particles smaller thanthe pores to pass through, while the suspended and dissolved particleslarge than size of membrane pores get blocked. After tests were carriedout, it was found out that the filtration membranes, produced water atdifferent levels depending with the various pore size ranges used.Therefore, various pore size ranges of filtration membranes have come toexistence. They include: reverse osmosis, nano-filtration, ultra-filtrationand micro-filtration. The energy to push the particle through the poreincreases whenever the size of the pores of the membrane decreases.Also as size of the pore decreases, the probability of fouling themembrane increases. With this kind of oscillations in behavior of particlesand pore size,membrane filtration is usually done in stages. The firsttreatment procedure serves to remove larger constituents blocking themfrom reaching to the membrane depending with the material in thewaste-water effluent.Microfiltration and/or ultrafiltration methods can be used in the firsttreatment module when the reverse osmosis has to be perfomed in thefinal process,removing salt and metals.Different chemicals are added tothe water treatment technology system forcleaning ,anti-fouling andother pretreatment stage processes.The other membrane process for removing salt from produced water isElectrodialysis. This membrane process separates ions in the solutions.Electric current is then released to the cell,causing the cations to migrateto one point and the anions to another. Here the alternating cells of most
  2. 2. concentrated constituents get to be in the membrane spaces asmigrating ions try to pass the selective permeable membrane. With theprocess being administered at a low pressure, the Electrodialysis processconsumes less energy than the reverse osmosis process.Though it is a method which has not been tried under full scaleoperations,another membrane process in use and has been identifiedfor future use is the forward osmosis process. A process which does notrequire energy from external pressure, forward osmosis is unlike thereverse osmosis where energy is required for particles to pass throughmembranes with small pores.In forward osmosis, water diffuses from astream with low osmotic pressure to a hypertonic solution which has ahigher osmotic pressure.New methods are coming up, and are currently being tested to checkfor their functionality, effectiveness and affordability as they are used indesalinating water. One of them is membrane distillation, which is aprocess facilitating the movement of particles through a hydrophobic,micropius membrane with the aid of low heat energy.
  3. 3. Fragances, shop onlineFragance is the thing which really inspires everyone. No age limit isrequired to like the smell of perfume. Some of the people can’t spend aminute without putting on any perfume. People like to spend money ontheir perfumes and prefer to buy the brand name and the latest one.There are plenty of perfumes are available in the market and differentbrands are showcasing the new and the most expensive ones as well.These are of different prices and having different levels of strongfragance.Today because of the latest technology and computerized systemspeople are shopping online and also selling products online by sitting athome. Today people are selling and buying perfumes online and fordifferent websites and online shops are available. Most of the timepeople do not have money and transport facility so that they can’t goout for shopping so this is the best options for them to pay through creditcards and place an order and get the home delivery.Tips for choosing perfume online.Today perfumes are being sold online almost everywhere in the country.There are plenty of perfumes are available with different category andprices and gives you a huge variety to choose the one on your own.These perfumes are for both male and female and for different purposelike casual, romantic wear, and common use etc. In the original marketthese perfumes are sold in very high rate which is really affordable for thenormal people. This is one of the reasons people now prefer to buyperfumes most online. They get the best Fragances and according totheir need from these online stores as well.Most of the stores are also selling the perfumes online but the rates arereasonable as compare to the market. When you go for online perfumeshopping there are few things that need to be considered and shouldkeep in mind. These things will help you to choose the best product andthe best store which is suitable for you and having the best quality.1. Best Price.When you buy fragances online you first need to look at the pricewhether the price they are offering is the right one or not or if they arecharging some extra money. These online stores are good but on theother hand they mostly show the price but not charging according tothe mentioned rates. The best way is that just visit different online stores
  4. 4. so that you will find the rates of that perfume and you will be sure thatthey are charging the right amount or not.2. Quality of product.When you do online shopping just make sure the thing and the productyou require you get the exact one and without any fault and make surein case of any defect their will be a chance of refund or exchange. Incase of any defect or the quality is not satisfying you can change it andget the other one or the change of money refund. One more thing whenchoosing the store you should also review the customers feedback andtestimonials so that it will also help you in choosing the right online storefor shopping.Fragances, shop online here.
  5. 5. Spanish Courses in MadridIt’s no secret that if you want to eat French-fries then no place could bebetter than The United States of America. As it is an American food. Inthe same way if you want to learn the language Spanish then you haveto look at the place of its origin, Spain. But Spain isn’t that specific orgood location it still needs a look more closely. Madrid, the cosmopolitancity and the capital of Spain, no place could be better than that to learnSpanish. It is a place where the thoughts of the new generation blendflawlessly with the old and vice-versa respecting each-other andunderstanding the importance of the other one. Its magnificent art,culture, architecture and legendary night-life has established andelevated its value on the commercial as well as financial front. It is apulsating and alive city full of joyous experiences which are unique intheir own way.Many universities welcome the student with a comfortable and freshenvironment in which to study Spanish. No matter which program youchoose to learn Spanish, whether it is the usual general program or aspecial Spanish exam preparation course, DELE, or the executive coursewhich helps you on the formal business front, you tend to benefit by allthe necessary facilities, like video libraries, reading rooms, or a healthycompetitive environment which helps you focus on your skills, pushingyou to greater heights and demanding your dedication andcommitment if you want to stay on top.All the universities provide you with ample of time to rub and practiceyour skills while motivating and encouraging you to perform well underpressure and helping you devote more time in the classroom making youself-dependant to understand the concepts well and at greater ease.Their intense teaching provides students with the idea about the hardwork and smart work at the same time.In many Spanish teaching universities the skilled teaching staff has beentrained in PPP style, which means presentation, practice and production.The teaching is structured into many levels like, low, high, extras andfinally confidence to communicate, so as not to leave out on any key-feature of learning. Teachers often conduct fun-activities to keep thechildren on track and help them develop the fun feeling not beingbugged by the boredom while learning a completely different and newconcept of language.
  6. 6. The books consume only 40% of the learning rest is assembled intovarious other activities like reading, writing, and practicing it outside withconfidence. Reading improves according to the time spent in practicingand once your master reading, writing itself gets on your hand thencomes practicing the new language outside with right attitude whichpeople often find a bit difficult during the early stages. As we all have ourhesitation while playing a game we have little knowledge of, but as thetime passes and the teaching progresses, gradually the practice alsogets better. Once you control your fears, then you can easily expresseverything with the right attitude and expertise. So, Say it!More info of spanish courses in Madrid: click here.
  7. 7. Tips when Choosing Flats and Apartments inBarcelonaOpting to rent one of those flats and apartments in Barcelona is definitelya better idea than checking in a hotel. Today, this beautiful Cataloniacity is a top tourist destination that hotel room rates have skyrocketed. Athalf the price of the cheapest hotel in Barcelona, one can enjoy moreprivacy, greater comfort and utter convenience in these holiday homes.There is nothing difficult about looking for these flats and apartments inBarcelona. Since the city expects thousands of guests from all over theworld everyday, there are hundreds of these scattered in the city centersand even in the surrounding barrios or neighborhoods. However, it is veryimportant to do the house-hunting in the planning phase of the trip andnot after one got off the plane.For guidance, here is a list of the things which should be consideredwhen choosing a holiday home in Barcelona:Location, Location, Location…Naturally, the first thing which must be taken note of is the location of theflat or apartment. More often than not, tourists decide to stay in places inthe city centers since it is thought to be more convenient. Then again,there are others who prefer the peace and quiet of the suburbs ormaybe hear the crashing of the waves against the shore. Surprisingly,one can find city convenience, the old feel of the city and some tipicalin Barcelona – the Gothic Quarter.Total Floor Area, Number of Rooms, etc.The second most important thing to look for in Barcelona apartments is itssize. For couples, a one-bedroom apartment would be enough.However, large families or groups of friends will, naturally, require biggerspace. Usually, those located in the suburbs are more spaciouscompared to those in the central business districts and those very closeto well-known and often-visited tour spots.Comfort and ConvenienceSee that the flat or apartment is well-equipped with everything neededfor the stay from pillows and blankets in the bedroom to pots and pans inthe kitchen . While some tourists do not need to have a TV or internetconnection, these facilities are huge plus-points. Obviously, the placeshould be clean as well.
  8. 8. CostPrice should not matter when one wants to have the best holidayvacation ever. But smart travelers still consider this since they want tospend their money in more recreational activities such as touring, diningand shopping. Flats and apartments in Barcelona that are very neartourist destinations would be more expensive.Travel agents usually do the search for flats and apartments in Barcelonafor their clients. Most of the time, they will be the ones referring these,actually. However, it would still be smarter to browse through the internetbased on the pointers mentioned earlier.For those who do not want to be bothered with the research and opt tosign up with a travel agency, it is very important to choose one whichhas a local office in Barcelona. It is easier to complain and resolve theissues in case there are problems with the holiday home. you want to know more