Wiki 1


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Wiki 1

  1. 1. Who Were America‟s “Mother” and “Fathers”? America‟s Beginnings through the American Revolution Beringian Migration Mr. Ochoa Unit 1.1 Chapters 1-6
  2. 2. Unit 1.1: African Eve AFRICAN EVE • Mitochondrial Eve Theory – M. DNA is inherited from one common ancestor in Africa around 200,000 yrs. Ago • M. DNA is inherited solely from mother • M.E.T. discovered by Allan Wilson U.C. Berkley
  3. 3. Unit 1.1: African Eve Origin of Humans Today • Primates: 85 million yrs. Ago • Homo-Habilis: 2.3 million yrs. Ago • Homo-Erectus: 1.3 to 1.8 million yrs. ago, 1st to leave Africa • Homo-Sapiens: evolved around 400,000 to 250,000 yrs. ago DNA • Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) • Molecule that erodes the genetic instructions used in the development of all known forms of life • African Eve – 140,000 to 200,000 yrs. ago
  4. 4. Unit 1.1: Beringian Migration Hunter and Gatherers • Nomads – no home • Followed Animals and gathered nuts and berries • Used tools made out of bone, wood, and stone Ice Age • Period of long term reduction in temperature of Earth‟s surface and atmosphere creating ice sheets started 2.6 million yrs. ago
  5. 5. Unit 1.1: Beringian Migration Migration • Asia across Beringia to the Americas • Pangia 3 million yrs. Ago • Beringia – the area consisting of the Bering Strait and adjacent parts of Siberia + Alaska – Migration across the Bering
  6. 6. Unit 1.1: Corn Civilizations Corn/Maize • prior to 1492 corn only grew in Americas • Scientist believe corn was cultivated by N. Americans in Mexico • Corn moved North w/ N.A. + Columbus took corn back to Europe
  7. 7. Unit 1.1: Corn Civilizations Built Cities • Aztec, Mayan, Anasazi, + Mississipian cultures all relied up corn to sustain their people • Religion included maize Gods • Centeotl and Chicomecoatl ensured success of harvest • Yum Kaax protected farmers‟ fields
  8. 8. Unit 1.1: Corn Civilizations Anasazi Cliff Dwellers and Mound Builders • Anasazi were located in S.W. America – Built adobes (sundried brick) • Mound Builders were located in N. America – Constructed mounds for religious and ceremonial, burial, and elite residential purposes • A.C.D + M.B. were the 1st two civilizations in America
  9. 9. Unit 1.1: A New World New Inventions • Faster Ships • Better Compass • Portolan Map – lines on a map radiated out from compass points showing key ports, more accurate map • Magnetic Compass Rotten Meat • Spice Islands – an archipelago located in Indonesia • Rice • Nutmeg • Cloves
  10. 10. Unit 1.1: A New World Columbus and Others – Leif Erikson (1001) – reached N. tip of N.A. – Bartholomeu Dias (1488) – reached Indian Ocean – Christopher Columbus (1492) – wanted to find the Indies by heading west across the Atlantic bumped into Americas – Vasco DeGama (1498) – reached India by going around Africa – Ferdinand Magellan – circumnavigated the world (died before his crew went around the world)
  11. 11. Unit 1.1: A New World Columbian Exchange Americas to Europe, Africa, + Asia • Maize • Potato/Sweet Potato • Bean • Peanut • Squash • Pumpkin • Pepper • Pineapple • Tomato • Cocoa Europe, Africa, + Asia to Americas • Wheat • Sugar • Banana • Rice • Grape • Olive Oil • Dandelion • Horse • Pig • Cow • Goat • Chicken • Small Pox, Typhus (bacteria spread by lice or fleas
  12. 12. Unit 1.1: English or Spanish? England V. Spain • Europeans settled in Americas and brought religious conflicts with them • Queen Elizabeth encouraged English adventurers to raid Spanish colonies • King Philip wanted to end attacks sent an armada to defeat England • Anglo Spanish War – commercial rivalry, sugar was popular and land was needed The Defeat of Spanish Armada • Spain wanted to defeat England – Overthrow Queen Elizabeth – Spain‟s ships were outmaneuvered by lighter, faster English ships – The defeat marked the decline of Spain‟s power
  13. 13. The 13 Colonies Mr. Ochoa Unit 1.2 Chapters 1-6
  14. 14. Unit 1.1: 13 Colonies 13 Colonies • They came for religious freedom • They came for economic opportunity (tobacco) • They came to be someone/ Indentured Servants (a person who works for another for a certain time in return for living expenses and a place to live)
  15. 15. Unit 1.2: Martin Luther Protestant Reformation • Reformers who objected to the doctrines, rituals, leadership, and structure of the Roman Catholic Church • M.L. – German monk who challenged church, he did not believe people could gain external life by performing good deeds, he believed one could be saved by having faith in God
  16. 16. Unit 1.2: Martin Luther Protestant Reformation • 95 Theses (1517) – explains the discontent with the church • Roman Catholic Church – sold indulgences (pardons for sins committed in a lifetime
  17. 17. Unit 1.2: Martin Luther Puritans • Did not want to separate entirely from Church of England • Wanted reforms – Organ music – Finely decorated houses of worship – Special clothing for priests Pilgrims • 1600s English settlers who sought religious freedom in the Americas – Wanted total separation from the Church of England
  18. 18. Unit 1.2: Martin Luther Persecution • Mistreatment or punishment of certain people because of their beliefs • Many who did not follow established religion were persecuted • People had to worship secretly, if found out they could be imprisoned or put to death
  19. 19. 1.2: Martin Luther English Settlements and Charters • Charter – legal document giving certain rights to a person or company • King James I – gave the Virginia Company of London a charter to settle lands b/t present day N.C. to the Potomac River
  20. 20. Unit 1.2: Martin Luther • Problems – Swampy area – Unhealthy water – Mosquitoes spread malaria – Govt. hard to implement – Starvation – not planting enough – busy looking for gold • John Smith (soldier + explorer) – Set up rules for area/must work to eat – Got corn from N. Americans • Friendship did not last long
  21. 21. Unit 1.2: Jamestown Raleigh and Tobacco • Walter Raleigh established the lost Roanoke colony (N.C.) • With in a yr. food was low, and fighting w/ neighbors • Tobacco – helped colonies grow economically due to popularity Religious Tolerance? • Virginia – men had to acknowledge supremacy of the King and lack of Power or authority by the Pope • Idea was to ensure Church of England would remain supreme
  22. 22. Unit 1.2: New England Colonies Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, and New Hampshire Mayflower + Plymouth • Mayflower – 100 men, women, and children were on ship, landed on Cape Cod (Mass.) • Called it Plymouth b/c Mayflower sailed from the port of Plymouth, England
  23. 23. Unit 1.2: New England Colonies Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, and New Hampshire Church and Democracy • Pilgrims realized they would not land in Virginia (rules would not apply – who would govern?) • Not all colonist on Mayflower were pilgrims • 41 male passengers made rules and signed the Mayflower Compact – Laws were for the general good of the colony
  24. 24. Unit 1.2: New England Colonies Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, and New Hampshire “City on a Hill” • John Winthrop (1630) wrote A Model of Christian Charity while traveling on a ship towards New England • Winthrop believed that everyone would admire and emulate the Puritan city on a hill (Massachusetts's Bay Colony)
  25. 25. Unit 1.2: Middle Colonies New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware Trade • Cash crops – can be sold for profit in the market • Exported so much they became known as the bread basket colonies • Delaware and Hudson Rivers made trade easy
  26. 26. Unit 1.2: Middle Colonies New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware Major Cities – New York & Philly New York • Settled by Dutch – to encourage farming officials granted large parcels of land to rich families – in return they agreed to settle at least 50 European families • King Charles (Eng.) took over area and gave it to his brother, Duke of York, and he renamed it New York Philly • Largest city during the time • Became the site of the First Continental Congress (1774)
  27. 27. Unit 1.2: Middle Colonies New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware Quakers – Penn • Penn came from a wealthy English family, joined Quakers (Protestant Reformers) • Quakers believed all people were equal, allowed women to preach in public, refused to remove hats in the presence of nobles, despised all war, and refused to serve in the army • Most despised, Charles II gave Penn a charter • Penn believed land belonged to N.A. and insisted settlers should pay for land
  28. 28. Unit 1.2: Southern Colonies Maryland, Virginia, N. Carolina, S. Carolina, Georgia Slavery • S. Colonies need a lot of workers to grow crops • 1st tried to slave N.A. but many died b/c of disease • Many were mistreated and some fled Cash Crops Indigo (blue dye), Rice, + Tobacco
  29. 29. Unit 1.2: 13 Colonies Religious Freedom, Economic Opportunity • Reasons for people to leave England and start a life 3 Types: New England, Middle, and Southren • New England - Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, and New Hampshire • Middle - New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware • Southern - Maryland, Virginia, N. Carolina, S. Carolina, and Georgia
  30. 30. American Revolution Mr. Ochoa Unit 1.3 Chapters 1-6
  31. 31. Unit 1.3: French and Indian War France vs. England With Indian Tribes Choosing Sides • Both wanted territory (Ohio River Valley) • English settlers tried to trade w/ Indians, France disliked • N.A. lived in O.R.V. for centuries didn't want to give up land • War got too big and N.A. picked sides • William Johnson (Eng. Trader and official) – helped gained Iroquois support – gained N.A. support in O.R.V. – Charged lower prices than the French for trade goods
  32. 32. Unit 1.3: French and Indian War Colonist Learn to Fight (GW) • G. Washington became major in the militia in Virginia (British Territory) • G.W. built a fort where the Ohio River is formed • Trained and led 150 men into Ohio (1754) • French soldiers retreated Britain Wants Colonies to Pay for War • Mercantilist System – govt. control foreign trade is important for ensuring the military security of the country • Colonies expected to serve the colonial power – Pay taxes
  33. 33. Unit 1.3: Taxes and Boycotts Tax Sugar (Rum) 1764 • Sugar Act put new taxes on molasses Boycott led by Sam Adams • S.A. loved politics, talent in organizing people Stamp Act 1765 • Taxes on legal documents such as wills, diplomas, + marriage papers, etc. Townshend Acts 1767-68 • Taxed goods such as glass, paper, paint, lead + tea • Can search without good reason
  34. 34. Unit 1.3: Boston Massacre 1770 Sam Adams, “No Taxation…” • Colonist should no pay taxes without representation in British Parliament Committes of Correspondence Spread the Word/Unite Colonies • Members wrote letters and pamphlets reporting on events in Massachusetts, became tool in every colony
  35. 35. Unit 1.3: Boston Massacre 1770 Snowball Fight Gone Bad • March 5th, 1770 – people gathered around outside the Custom House (Boston) • People began throwing snowballs, oyster shells, + chunks of ice at soldiers • Soldier panicked + fired a shots into a crowd • 5 people die – Sam Maverick (17) + Crispus Attucks (American Sailor) • Outraged followed – Boston Massacre
  36. 36. Unit 1.3: Tea Tax 1773 1st Direct Tax – on People…Hated! • Tea brought to colonies by British East India Company • B.E.I.C. was in financial trouble • British Parliament taxed tea as symbol as their right to tax Stamp Act Congress – Colonies Unite to get rid of it • It almost offended every colonist Declaratory Act! • Parliament repealed Stamp Act because British trade was hurting
  37. 37. Unit 1.3: Intolerable Acts, 1774 Duties on Glass, Lead, Paint • Series of laws passed by British Parliament – some put taxes on certain items Hancock’s Ship…British Soldiers • Part of acts, no ship could enter or leave port of Boston until tea was paid for • Quartering Act – colonist have to house British Soldiers Continental Congress • Committee of Correspondence – spread news of I.A. • 1st C.C. backed Mass. Boycott on all British goods (Georgia did not send delegates)
  38. 38. Unit 1.3: Lexington Concord, 1775 British Seize Weapons • Minutemen – volunteers, collected weapons + gunpowder • Created large storage of arms in Concord (18 miles from Boston) • April 18th, 1775 – 700 British troops went to seize weapons Paul Revere • Midnight Rider – rode horse towards concord “The Redcoats are coming”
  39. 39. Unit 1.3: Lexington Concord, 1775 Lexington/Concord • 70 m.m. were waiting, British told them to go home • Colonist were outnumbered + began to leave • A shot was fired (unknown), 8 men killed • British found no weapons • On way back, 300 m.m. waiting – 73 British soldiers killed, 200 wounded or missing • Battles of Lexington and Concord spread
  40. 40. Unit 1.3: 2nd Congress; Bunker Hill, 1775 Olive Branch Petition • 2nd C.C. – delegates sent letter to King George • Declared loyalty to King + wanted to repeal I.A. • George became enraged, sent 200,000 more troops Washington From An Army • G.W. set up a Continental Army • G.W. was appointed commander
  41. 41. Unit 1.3: 2nd Congress; Bunker Hill, 1775 Declaration of Independence • Bunker Hill first major battle of the Revolution • Thomas Paine wrote Common Sense – Colonist did not owe anything to Britain – Urged independence – Popular writing
  42. 42. Unit 1.3: Declaration of Independence, 1776 Congress • Created a committee to create a document Written by Thomas Jefferson (with Help) • Jefferson wrote it July 2nd (John Adams, Ben Franklin, Robert Livingston, + Roger Sherman) • Free and independent states 3 Parts: A. Inalienable Rights B. King George is a Tyrant C. People Have Right to Form own Government
  43. 43. Unit 1.3: British Victories 1777 New York – Narrow Escape • General Howe + thousands of redcoats invaded N.Y. • Washington‟s men were outnumbered with no Navy • Battle of Long Island – 1,400 Americans killed • To escape, Washington retreated N. Washington – Not a Good Tactical General • Howe captured Philly + defeated Americans in Brandywine and Germantown
  44. 44. Unit 1.3: Saratoga 1777 General Gates Wins, Turning Point in War • Ended British threats of N.E. • Uplifted spirits – Washington‟s army was suffering defeats French Agrees to Help • French becomes ally of U.S. • 1776 – Ben Franklin went to Paris to persuade Louis XVI • France recognized America as a new nation
  45. 45. Unit 1.3: Valley Forge 1778 Freezing, Dying, Sodiers Tough it Out • Winter of „77 – ‟78 • Slept on frozen ground, no shoes, wrapped cloth around feet, frost bite, + disease Washington’s Greatest Moment • Patriots helped with supplies • V.F. was bleakest moment
  46. 46. Unit 1.3: Yorktown 1781 Decisive Battle, End War – Gen. Cornwallis Surrenders • Cornwallis conquered Virginia + cut off supplies to the S. • Sent troops to attack Charlottesville – Thomas Jefferson had to flee • Lafayette fought Cornwallis – Corn. Ordered to send army to NY but retreaded to Yorktown • Washington trapped them in a peninsula • Many deaths + supplies running low, he surrendered French Fleet Keeps British From Escaping • Admiral De Grasse closed the trap once in Chesapeake Bay
  47. 47. Unit 1.3: Treaty of Paris 1783 Negotiated by • 1783 – Congress sent Ben Franklin, John Adams, John Jay, + Henry Laurens America’s Boundaries Set • British recognized the U.S. as independent • Atlantic to Mississippi River, N. border was the Great Lakes, S. stopped at Florida (Spain)