Employee Relations

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  • Ombudsman - A man who investigates complaints and mediates fair settlements, especially between aggrieved parties.
  • Caucusing : Hold or form a group or meeting.
  • Employee Relations

    1. 1. EMPLOYEE RELATIONS Session 1 12/03/2013
    2. 2. Introduction • Among the most fundamental aspects of employee relations are job design and related position descriptions. Well designed jobs provide employee satisfaction and optimise productivity. Jobs need to be designed with the understanding that:  they are required by the organisation;  they have relevance and meaning;  they provide opportunities for professional growth;  they reflect good management practices;  they reflect a positive attitude towards employees through an adequately resourced working environment; and  they provide job satisfaction and remuneration 9/10/2013 2 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi
    3. 3. TRADE UNION • A group of workers joined together to protect their own interests and to be more powerful when negotiating with their employers. 9/10/2013 3 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi
    4. 4. HISTORY OF TRADE UNIONS 9/10/2013 4 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi
    5. 5. 9/10/2013 5 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi
    6. 6. 9/10/2013 6 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi
    7. 7. AIMS OF TRADE UNIONS • To improve the pay. • To improve working conditions • To support training and development • To ensure that their members interests are considered during decision making. 9/10/2013 7 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi
    8. 8. TYPES OF TRADE UNIONS • General Union: skilled and unskilled workers performing different jobs in different industries. • Industrial Unions: different workers in the same industry. • Craft Unions: small unions for skilled workers, performing the same or similar work in different industries. • White collar Unions: professionals who perform the same or similar tasks in different industries. 9/10/2013 8 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi
    9. 9. Pay Bargaining • Negotiating with the employers of a business on behalf of their members over issues of pay. It is an example of collective bargaining. 9/10/2013 9 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi
    10. 10. List of employer associations • Confederation of British Industry • Federation of Small Businesses • Institute of Directors. 9/10/2013 10 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi
    11. 11. Trade Union Congress • The Trades Union Congress (TUC) is a national trade union centre, a federation of trade unions in the United Kingdom, representing the majority of trade unions. There are fifty-eight affiliated unions with a total of about 6.5 million members. • TUC policy is made at its annual Congress, which meets for four days each year during September. • Affiliated unions can send delegates to Congress, with the number of delegates they can send proportionate to their size. 9/10/2013 11 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi
    12. 12. Theoretical perspectives • Pluralist – Pluralist theory emphasizes the representative function of management and trade unions, and it reinforces the value (and legitimacy) of collective bargaining. Pluralists recognize organizations within management and within unions as legitimate. They believe that management's primary function is to coordinate, communicate and persuade, rather than control or demand. • Unitarist – The unitarist theory of industrial relations emphasizes the co- dependency of employers and employees. To a unitarist, an organization is an integrated, friendly and collaborative whole. Unitarists do not favor employee unions. Unitarism has a peternalistic approach where it demands loyalty of all employees. 9/10/2013 12 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi
    13. 13. Cont… • Radical – Radical theory sees industrial relations as a necessary (but not ideal) result of employees protecting themselves from powerful big-business. Radicals believe that profit-hungry corporations have no regard (aside from legal obligations) for their employees, and are willing to profit off of them at any available opportunity. • Marxist – The marxist theory of industrial relations claims that capitalism breeds corruption and greed, leaving the employees to suffer while corporations rake in profits. Marxists claim that institutions would be far better employers if run as state organizations, while compensation would be standardized to promote a co-operative, non-competitive work environment. 9/10/2013 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 13
    14. 14. UNIT 2 – Session 2 13/03/2013
    15. 15. CONFLICT AND DISPUTE • Conflict: (a) A state of open, often prolonged fighting; a battle or war. (b) A state of disharmony between incompatible or antithetical persons, ideas, or interests; a clash. (c) In Psychology, it is a psychic struggle, often unconscious, resulting from the opposition or simultaneous functioning of mutually exclusive impulses, desires, or tendencies. (d) Opposition between characters or forces in a work of drama or fiction, especially opposition that motivates or shapes the action of the plot. Dispute: (1) To argue about; debate. (2)To question the truth or validity of; doubt: Her friends disputed her intentions. (3) To strive to win (a prize, for example); contest for: Our team disputed the visitors' claim to the championship. (4) To strive against; resist: disputed the actions of his competitors. 9/10/2013 15 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi
    16. 16. What is conflict ? • “Any opposition or difference of wishes, needs, statements, arguments, actions or principles between two or more staff members, or between staff members and the Organization.” 9/10/2013 16 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi
    17. 17. • Deal with conflicts and grievances in a timely manner • Costs of conflicts :  Direct costs for handling formal cases  Hidden costs of conflicts ( wasted time, loss of skilled staff, low morale/productivity, health costs) 9/10/2013 17 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi
    18. 18. Formal and informal channels Informal • Ombudsman • Self-help/help of colleagues, friends, supervisors, Human Resource officers, Executive Office, etc. Formal • Administrative review • Joint Appeals Board • Specialized resource procedures • Administrative Tribunal 9/10/2013 18 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi
    19. 19. ………………… Informal • Early resolution • Proactive/Preventive • Win-win solution • Before conflict escalation • No administrative decisions are required • No record keeping Formal • Time consuming • Reactive • Judgments/decisions • Win-lose solution • After conflict occurrence • Administrative decisions required • Record keeping 9/10/2013 19 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi
    20. 20. The role of the Ombudsman • As a facilitator of conflict resolution: –by providing advice on resources available, informal mediation, informal fact finding, referral, etc. • As an agent for change (systemic issues): –by making recommendations for change on policies and procedures 9/10/2013 20 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi
    21. 21. ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION • Negotiation – Back and forth communication between parties. – It is voluntary, private and confidential – Quick and inexpensive – Informal and unstructured – No third party is involved – Negotiated agreements can be enforceable – Can result in a win-win solution 9/10/2013 21 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi
    22. 22. If negotiation is unsuccessful, then………… • Mediation – A voluntary process in which an impartial person helps in communication and promotes reconciliation. – The mediator is a facilitator and do not make decisions or force agreements (agreements can be creative in nature). – They can give suggestions. – Can go in for joint or separate caucusing. – Mediations are held in the office of the mediator or other agreed locations. 9/10/2013 22 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi
    23. 23. …………… • Mediated agreement can become a contract and be enforceable. • Can result in a win-win solution 9/10/2013 23 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi
    24. 24. • Arbitration – Submission of a disputed matter to an impartial person for decision. – It is an out of court method for resolving disputes. – The arbitrator will control the process , listen to the situation and make the decision. – Like a trial only one side will prevail. Unlike trials appeal rights are limited. – There can me one or more than one arbitrator (mostly 3). 9/10/2013 24 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi
    25. 25. ……………… – The results can be binding if all parties have previously agreed to be bound by the decision. In that case an arbitrators awards can be reduced to judgment in a court and thus be enforceable. – In non-binding arbitration, a decision can become final if all parties agree to accept it or it may serve to help you evaluate the case and start a settlement talk. – You will usually be represented by an attorney during arbitration. 9/10/2013 25 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi
    26. 26. CONFLICT RESOLUTION Session 3 Date : 02 April 2013
    27. 27. Steps for Conflict resolution • What are the signs of conflict? • Who is in conflict? • What is causing conflict? • How do you manage conflict? • Do you need help? • How can you prevent conflict in future? 9/10/2013 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 27
    28. 28. General response to conflict • Fight : shouting or loosing your temper. Try to subdue the conflict • Flight: turn your back on what is going on. By ignoring the problem you hope it will go away. • Freeze : not knowing how to react you become passive. You might begin to deal with the issue but things drift or become drawn out through indecision. 9/10/2013 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 28
    29. 29. What are the signs of conflict? • Witness a heated exchange. • A meeting turns into a stand off. • Motivation drops- fewer people volunteer to take up new tasks and there is little employee input at team meetings and briefings. • Behaviour changes- people make derogatory remarks. • Productivity falls- there will be more queries and complaints due to lack of cooperation. • Sickness absence increase – unhappiness leads to depression or stress. • Responses to staff attitude or surveys indicate underlying dissatisfaction 9/10/2013 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 29
    30. 30. Who is in conflict? • Conflict between individuals involving: – Colleagues – Employees and their managers. • Conflict between groups involving: – Teams – Large group of employees and the management 9/10/2013 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 30
    31. 31. Conflict between individuals- reasons • Colleagues – Clash of personalities – Strong difference of opinion over work – An overspill from personal issues outside work. • An employee and their manager – Your management style is too authoritarian – You favor other colleagues when assigning tasks. 9/10/2013 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 31
    32. 32. Conflict between groups- reasons • Teams – Rivalry between colleagues. – Disagreement over a teams goals or shared values. – Resentment that one team is not pulling its weight. 9/10/2013 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 32
    33. 33. • Groups of employees and management ( it is often created by the classic ‘ us and them’ mentality) - a general resentment towards senior management. - Poor moral and low level of motivation. - It can be focused on specific issues like health and safety, rates of pay, redundancies, lack of proper consultation. 9/10/2013 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 33
    34. 34. What is causing conflict? • Poor management • Unfair treatment • Unclear job roles • inadequate training • Poor communication • Poor work environment • Lack of equal opportunities • Bullying and harassment 9/10/2013 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 34
    35. 35. Conflict can also be sparked off by: • The personalities involved ( personality mix can be affected when a new member joins) • Learnt behavior – the way you have been taught to behave, behavior you had copied, or your own strategy to cope with a problem. • Our changing needs and expectations- Conflict at work can often be caused when employers ignore the needs of employees or set unrealistic expectations. • Ignoring common values ( ignoring natural justice) • Unresolved problems from the past-distinguish between demands and interests. • Increase in work load or changes in the organisation. 9/10/2013 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 35
    36. 36. How to manage a conflict? • Develop a strategy: – How to prevent the conflict. – How to manage the conflict. – When and how to seek outside help like mediation and conciliation. – When a dispute may be referred to higher authority. 9/10/2013 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 36
    37. 37. Managing conflict between individuals • Have quite word – talking and listening to employees, giving them time and space to express their feelings and concerns often help to clear the air. • Investigate informally- take the time to gather relevant information about those involved. • Use the internal procedures if the conflict has moved to a more formal stage. • Upgrade your soft skills since a manager needs a great deal of sensitivity and empathy. • Consider getting a third part help like mediation 9/10/2013 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 37
    38. 38. Managing conflict between groups • Improve the way you communicate and consult with employees. – Ensure that the communication is timely relevant and concise. – Check whether consulting with employees is legally approved. – Use dispute resolution procedures. – Promote joint decision making. – Use problem solving cycle. 9/10/2013 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 38
    39. 39. • Form representative structures like – working groups to deal with specific issues like absence level, work patterns etc. – Permanent consultative groups. – Collective bargaining. Where employers negotiate terms and conditions of employment with trade union representatives. 9/10/2013 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 39
    40. 40. • Use problem solving cycles. 9/10/2013 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 40 1.Name the problem & set goals. 2 Analyze the problem 3. Collect data 4. Analyze the data 5. Search for solutions 6. Analyze solutions 7. Create action plan. 8. Evaluate the plan PROBLEM SOLVED
    41. 41. • Use dispute resolution procedures. • Consider outside help. • What is the difference between MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION? 9/10/2013 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 41
    42. 42. How to prevent future conflicts? • Put the system and procedures in place. – Establish formal procedures – Explain plans – Listen – Reward fairly – Work safely 9/10/2013 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 42
    43. 43. • Develop relationships. – Value employees – Treat Fairly – Encourage initiatives – Balance personal and business needs. – Develop new skills • Work together. – Build trust between employees representatives and management. 9/10/2013 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 43
    44. 44. COLLECTIVE BARGAINING AND NEGOTIATION Session 4 03 April 2013/09/04/2013 9/10/2013 44 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi
    45. 45. Collective bargaining • It is an industrial relations mechanism or tools and is an aspect of negotiation between employers and a group of employees aimed at reaching agreements that regulate working conditions. 9/10/2013 45 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi
    46. 46. The collective bargaining process comprises of five core steps • Prepare: This phase involves composition of a negotiation team. The negotiation team should consist of representatives of both the parties with adequate knowledge and skills for negotiation. • Discuss: Here, the parties decide the ground rules that will guide the negotiations. 9/10/2013 46 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi
    47. 47. • Propose: This phase involves the initial opening statements and the possible options that exist to resolve them. • Bargain: negotiations are easy if a problem solving attitude is adopted. This stage comprises the time when ‘what ifs’ and ‘supposals’ are set forth and the drafting of agreements take place. 9/10/2013 47 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi
    48. 48. • Settlement: Once the parties are through with the bargaining process, a consensual agreement is reached upon wherein both the parties agree to a common decision regarding the problem or the issue. This stage is described as consisting of effective joint implementation of the agreement through shared visions, strategic planning and negotiated change. 9/10/2013 48 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi
    49. 49. Types of Collective Bargaining • Distributive Bargaining-: In this One party’s gain is another party’s loss. • Integrative Bargaining-: In this both the parties may gain or at least neither party loses. • Attitudinal Structuring-: When there is backlog of bitterness between both the parties then attitudinal structuring is required to make smooth industrial relations. • Intra-Organisational Bargaining-: There can be conflicting groups in both mgt.& unions also so there is need to achieve consensus in these groups. 9/10/2013 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 49
    50. 50. NEGOTIATION • “Negotiation involves two or more parties with competing or conflicting interests or needs, working towards an agreement on how they will cooperate.” Every time you negotiate, you have to make choices that affect whether you achieve a successful outcome for your business. 9/10/2013 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 50
    51. 51. Planning Your Negotiation • Plan Both Your Approach To The Subject Under Negotiation, • And Your Tone • And Communication Style. 9/10/2013 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 51
    52. 52. In Approaching The Subject Of Your Negotiations: • Set your objectives clearly in your own mind (including your minimum acceptable outcome, your anticipated outcome and your ideal outcome) • Determine what you'll do if the negotiation, or A particular outcome, fails • Determine your needs, the needs of the other party and the reasons behind them • List, rank and value your issues (and then consider concessions you might make) 9/10/2013 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 52
    53. 53. Cont… • Analyse the other party (including their objectives and the information they need) • Research the market and consult with colleagues and partners • Rehearse the negotiation • Write an agenda - discussion topics, participants, location and schedule. • In deciding your communication style, familiarise yourself with successful negotiating strategies. Arm yourself with a calm, confident tone and a set of considered responses and strategies to the tactics you anticipate. 9/10/2013 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 53
    54. 54. Engaging With The Other Party During The Negotiation • Introduce yourself and articulate the agenda. Demonstrate calm confidence. • Propose - make your first offer. The other party will also make proposals. You should rarely accept their first offer. Evidence suggests that people who take the first proposal are less satisfied and regret their haste. • Check your understanding of the other party´s proposal. 9/10/2013 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 54
    55. 55. Cont.. • Remember your objectives. • Discuss concepts and ideas. • Consider concessions, then make and seek concessions. • Suggest alternative proposals and listen to offered suggestions. • Paraphrase others' suggestions to clarify and acknowledge proposals. • Give and take 9/10/2013 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 55
    56. 56. Closing The Negotiation • Take a moment to revisit your objectives for the negotiation. Once you feel you are approaching an outcome that is acceptable to you: • Look for closing signals, Eg. – Fading counter-arguments – Tired body language from the other party – Negotiating positions converging • Articulate agreements and concessions already made • Make 'closing' statements, Eg. – 'That suggestion might work.' – 'Right. Where do I sign?' • Get agreements in writing as soon as you can. • Follow up promptly on any commitments you have made. 9/10/2013 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 56
    57. 57. Possible outcomes • Avoid/Ignore: Each negotiator shows low concern for his own interests and the interests of the other. Hence, they reach an outcome that is inferior to one they could have reached had they been better informed. • Accommodate/Compete: Two negotiators thoughtfully employing an individual and interactive negotiation perspective can expect to work their way toward some solution set where one or the other can maximize his or her gains. • Compromise: The negotiators, still skillfully employing their individual and interactive negotiation perspectives can agree to compromise and divide the pie equally. • Collaborate: Negotiators who take advantage of opportunities to employ a joint decision-making perspective, can seek integrative solutions. 9/10/2013 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 57
    58. 58. Capitulation (Soft Negotiation) • Gives value to the relationship and may not be able to separate the issues from the persons • Has reaching an agreement as its primary goal • Makes concessions in favor of the relationship • Makes offers and changes positions easily • Accepts one-sided losses just so an agreement can be reached • Avoids contest of will and yields easily to pressure 9/10/2013 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 58
    59. 59. Confrontation (Hard Negotiation) • Considers the other party as an adversary • Has victory as its primary goal • Is hard on people and on the problem • Makes threats and is critical of the other party’s positions • Considers one-sided gains as the end result of the agreement • Searches for even a singly acceptable position • Tries to win a contest of will and will apply pressure 9/10/2013 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 59
    60. 60. Negotiator Utility Assessment Substantive gains • These are the typical things we think of as the subject of the negotiation and expressed in measurable terms such as the price of a car. Although negotiators’ ideas about their interests may change over the course of the negotiation, they need to come away with some sense of substantive satisfaction; a sense that they got what they came for. 9/10/2013 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 60
    61. 61. Cont..  Fairness • Even if they get what they want, parties will not be satisfied if they think the process was not "fair.“ This is a subjective assessment, but a powerful one.  Reputation • Negotiation is a social activity that revolves around the relationships of those at the negotiating table and the relationships of negotiators and their constituents. In this sense, negotiators have a reputation to uphold, be it a reputation for winning, for fairness, or honesty. Everyone needs to feel heard and respected. Should a negotiator feel his or her reputation was damaged for some reason, the negotiation can fail or an agreement may not prove durable. 9/10/2013 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 61
    62. 62. Cont.. Justice • Negotiators often measure their success by the success or failure of other parties. For many, wrongs must be made right and others must account for their actions. This may be an underlying interest that does not surface in the deliberations. It is subtle yet powerful 9/10/2013 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 62
    63. 63. • For some strategic reason, I can never be what I ought to be until you are what you ought to be.” --Martin Luther King, Jr. 9/10/2013 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 63
    64. 64. • “We must all learn to live together as brothers or we will perish together as fools. We are tied together in the single garment of destiny, caught in an inescapable network of mutuality. And whatever affects one directly affects all indirectly 9/10/2013 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 64
    65. 65. Assignment • Conduct a workshop on “developing negotiation skills”. 9/10/2013 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 65
    66. 66. Topics • Consultation and employee participation • Industrial democracy and employee participation • Employee involvement techniques • Empowerment 9/10/2013 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 66
    67. 67. Employee Communication and Consultation Unit – 4 Date : 23/04/2013
    68. 68. What is employee communication and consultation?? • Employee communication means the provision and exchange of information and instructions which enable an organization to function efficiently and employees to be properly informed about developments. • Consultation is the process by which management and employees or their representatives jointly examine and discuss issues of mutual concern. It involves seeking acceptable solution to problems through a genuine exchange of views and information. It does not remove the right of managers in decision making. It just impose an obligation that the views of the employees will be sought and considered before decision making. 9/10/2013 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 68
    69. 69. Why are communication and consultation important??? 9/10/2013 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 69 • Improve organization performance • Improve management performance and decision making • Improve employee performance and commitment • Help develop trust • Increase job satisfaction • Encourage a more flexible working environment
    70. 70. Who should take the responsibility for communication and consultation?? 9/10/2013 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 70 • Senior management – A communication and consultation policy is a particularly effective way of communication • Line managers and supervisors • Trade unions
    71. 71. What should be communicated? 9/10/2013 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 71 • Information about the conditions of employment • Information about the job • Information about the organization – Objectives and policies – Past and present performance and progress • Financial performance like sales, income and expenditure, turnover, assets and liabilities, cash flow, return on investment etc has to be made public by law. – Future plans and prospects
    72. 72. The process of employee communication 9/10/2013 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 72 • Effective communication should be- – Clear, easily understood and concise. – Presented objectively. – In a manageable form to avoid rejection – Regular and systematic – Relevant, local and timely – Open to questions being asked and answered. • Methods of communication – Spoken and written – Direct and indirect
    73. 73. Face to face methods of communicating 9/10/2013 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 73 • Group meetings – team briefings, quality circles etc • Cascade networks – a procedure to pass on the information quickly. • Large scale meeting – allow limited opportunity for the employees to respond. • Interdepartmental briefings – meeting between managers to reduce inconsistent decision making. All the above methods enable discussions, questioning and feedbacks. They provide opportunity for the employees to contribute their ideas.
    74. 74. Written methods of communication 9/10/2013 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 74 • Company handbooks, Employee information notes, house journals, newsletters, departmental bulletins, notices, individual letters to employees. – Effective where the need for the information is important or permanent. – The topic requires detailed explanation – Accuracy and precision in wording are essential – The audience is widespread and large – A back up is needed to oral communication – There is need for permanent record.
    75. 75. Consultation 9/10/2013 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 75 • Timing and content – Working conditions – New ways of working – Output and quality – Training – Health and safety – New equipments – Staffing levels – welfare • The legal aspects of consultation
    76. 76. Employee Involvement 9/10/2013 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 76 • Employee involvement means that every employee is regarded as a unique human being, not just a cog in a machine, and each employee is involved in helping the organization meet its goals. Each employee’s input is solicited and valued by his/her management. Employees and management recognize that each employee is involved in running the business.
    77. 77. Employee Empowerment 9/10/2013 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 77 • Employee empowerment is a somewhat different concept. It means that in addition to involving employees in running the business, employees and management recognize that many problems or obstacles to achieving organizational goals can be identified and solved by employees. Employee empowerment means that management recognizes this ability, and provides employees with the tools and authority required to continuously improve their performance. The management states its expectations about employees recognizing and solving problems, and empowers them to do so.
    78. 78. Cont… 9/10/2013 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 78 • Many people confuse communication systems such as team briefings with involvement. Involvement, however is more than just the exchange of information. It is the gradual but radical delegation of control to those closest to the process itself. • Employees who have been trained, empowered, and recognized for their achievements see their jobs and their companies from a different perspective. They feel personally responsible for its performance. • The best way to obtain a genuine commitment from people is to involve them in the project from the beginning.
    79. 79. Cont… 9/10/2013 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 79 • Even if the original ideas are not theirs, the process of designing, planning and assessing will automatically pull them into the stream of things. • Managers who try to take back some of that power end up with bitter, frustrated, and disillusioned employees. • Performance will suffer, and future attempts to involve employees will be met with cynicism. • The cultural effect being sought is a sense of ownership of the company among its employees. This can have remarkable effects on employees’ commitment to the company and the type of activities they will undertake. In the distribution arm of Coca – Cola Beverages for example, one can see warehousemen with business cards who actively promoted the product in their own time at events where the Coke name was present, in sponsorship or just the provision of drinks.
    80. 80. Keys to Involvement 9/10/2013 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 80 • Financial. Share ownership and profit distribution plans can help to foster an interest in a company’s affairs at the competitive level which is often hard to get across in the normal day to day routine of workplace activity. • Job security. Doubt as to whether you will still be with the company next week are hardly likely to encourage a sense of belonging. • The structure of the work organization; in particular, job design can influence the degree of control an employee has over his or her work and, with that, the degree of personal responsibility felt for the outcomes and quality of work.
    81. 81. Cont.. 9/10/2013 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 81 • Studies of organizations moving toward cell-based manufacturing and team structures in job design frequently show falling absenteeism, higher productivity and better quality of output as a result of the greater sense of involvement and decision making responsibility which comes with these systems. Digital Equipment for example use a derivative of autonomous work groups called “High Performance Work Design”. The company feel they have achieved better quality, higher output, lower inventory and faster and more accurate decision making. These changes are not just confined to the high tech end of manufacturing. Emcar, a clothing manufacturer, changed from traditional production lines to “Autonomous Work Groups” (AWGs), with individual piecework being replaced by a group bonus. As a result, absenteeism and labor turnover dropped to well below industry norms and productivity increased. Turnaround times on average orders were reduced from 6-8 weeks to just 4.
    82. 82. Key actions for employee involvement and empowerment 9/10/2013 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 82 • Giving employee the responsibility • Training employee to accept responsibility • Communicating and giving feedback • Giving rewards and recognition Basically a happy and satisfied employee is productive employee who insure the employer’s profit and continued existence of the company and the worker’s jobs.
    83. 83. Expected Results / Benefits 9/10/2013 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 83 • Employee involvement and empowerment approaches aim at enhancing responsibility, increasing authority, and making jobs challenging and interesting to employees, based on their abilities and the needs of the organization. • The return on such nominal investments will come in the form of higher levels of employee motivation, creativity, productivity, and commitment.
    84. 84. Successful companies believe that the only way to compete is through employees who 9/10/2013 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 84 • are in the best position to ensure and improve the quality of product or service. • are best able to lower costs by eliminating waste throughout the process. • are in the best position to speed up their processes by reducing cycle times • are the ideal agents of change when they are in touch with their processes, trained through education and experience, and empowered to act decisively
    85. 85. IMPLEMENTATION PROCEDURES FOR EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT 9/10/2013 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 85 • Facilitating Employee Involvement: One of the most important tasks faced by any management team is motivating it’s organization’s members. • Listening: A Basic Involvement Tool. It encourages people to open up, and to become involved. • Suggestion Programs: Another Involvement Tool. The format for these programs usually involves suggestion boxes and forms throughout the facility, with periodic management review of suggestions and feedback to the people making the suggestions
    86. 86. Life after Listening: What Comes Next? 9/10/2013 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 86 • Not every suggestion will be implemented, but all should be answered. The simple act of listening to employees raises their expectations for improvement. Listening and then failing to provide feedback on the status of a suggestion or improvement idea is probably worse than not listening at all. If managers don’t listen, employees will only suspect that management doesn’t value their ideas. If managers listen and then fail to provide any feedback, the suspicion will be confirmed.
    87. 87. A Few Obstacles and Recommended Solutions 9/10/2013 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 87 • Negativism in reviewing employee recommendations for improvement: If the idea does not make sense, explain why in honest terms. If employees are adamant about the improvement recommendation’s soundness, reconsider it with an open mind. We’ve seen more than a few improvement recommendations implemented after initially being disapproved. • Fear is another strong negative motivation,: Any employee involvement and empowerment effort that is attempted over a foundation of fear will collapse
    88. 88. Cont.. 9/10/2013 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 88 • Failure to respond to employee recommendations is another sure- fire way to kill an employee involvement and empowerment effort. If management does not acknowledge employee recommendations, employees will rapidly conclude that management has no interest in their ideas. Management must acknowledge all improvement recommendations, including the ones that are not deemed feasible. • Punish anyone as a result of a continuous improvement recommendation. While this seems so unlikely a course of action as a hardly be worth mentioning. Let’s consider the earlier examples. Suppose a manager comments that a suggestion makes goods sense, but expresses disappointment that the idea had not been recognized and implemented earlier. Comments of that nature are essentially reprimands, and should be avoided at all costs.
    89. 89. THANK YOU 9/10/2013 Ms Soorya Soman, Faculty, Birmingham Gradutae School Kochi 89

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