“3D Printing Will Change The World“
Harvard Business Review March 2013

A Brief Synopsis of the Evolution
Orange County CI...
3D Printing Discussion Agenda
Agenda

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Origin and Early Development
A Wide Variet...
Origin and Early Development

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Stereolithography (SLA or SL; also known as optical fabrication, photosolidification, ...
A Wide Variety of 3D Printing Technologies are Now Used
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Additive manufacturing or 3D printing is a process of making a ...
http://www.microsoftstore.com/store/msusa/en_US/pdp/MakerBot-Replicator-2-Desktop-3D-Printer/productID.282577600
uGovernIT...
3D Printing System Layout
Step 1 Can be a 3D scan of
an existing object
STL File

6

Lockheed Martin
https://www.youtube.c...
3 D Scanner/Printer Allows for Replication and Fax Transmission
One Machine, Four
functions (Scan, Print, Copy,
Fax) Unit ...
Full Life Size 3D Print from Booth at the Pacific Design &
Manufacturing Event Anaheim Ca 2/11/2014
Created by Solid Conce...
3 D Printing is Experiencing Multidimensional Growth

1980

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1990

2000

2010

2020

uGovernIT™, Inc. Confidential ©
uGovernIT™, Inc. Confidential ©
uGovernIT™, Inc. Confidential ©
uGovernIT™, Inc. Confidential ©
uGovernIT™, Inc. Confidential ©
Why All the Hype
According to market research firm Gartner, the 3D printer market
will grow as much as 75% this year (2013...
Why All the Hype
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3D printing is an additive technique that uses a device to create
physical objects from ...
Why All the Hype - Advantages of 3D Printing
3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing technologies have the potential to
tra...
Where is 3D Printing in the Technology Hype Cycle?

May
Have
Peaked

Now
arriving
in the
market

Still a
Long
way to
Go

1...
3D Printing/Product Innovation is Supported by CEO Business Priorities
GEs CEO:
3D printing is “worth my time, attention, ...
Major Players and Their Offerings and Recent Growth ($10.8 Billion
By 2021- Est. by Forbes)
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Autodesk: 3D pri...
Major Players and Their Offerings and Recent Growth ($10.8 Billion
By 2021- Est. by Forbes)

RedEye/Stratasys 2.5 min http...
Consumerization: A 3D Printer in Every Home?
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Andy Bird, chairman of Walt Disney International, predicted that...
Consumerization: A 3D Printer in Every Home?

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The Makerbot team started Thingiverse, a site for sharing useful 3D-prin...
Consumerization: A 3D Printer in Every Home?

*Library of 30,000+ Downloadable STL files

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PBS Video 7 min http://video...
Costs and Business Case
Findings from a paper by a handful of intrepid engineers at Michigan Technical University
•In the ...
Consumerization: A 3D Printer (Personal 3D Printer) in Every
Home? There are Some Questions
Here's a bit of irony: 3D prin...
Service Bureaus are a Growing Business with Some Big Investments
Service Bureaus come in a variety of sizes and capability...
Service Bureaus are a Growing Business with Some Big Investments
Service Bureaus come in a variety of sizes and capability...
New Threats are Emerging
Weapons and Sabotage:
•The first successful test of a 3-D printed gun last month sent chills down...
New Threats are Emerging
Financial and Business Implications:

•By 2016, 3D printing of tissues and organs (bioprinting) w...
And of Course New Legal Implications Have Surfaced
Weapons and Sabotage:
•U.S. Sen. Charles E. Schumer, D-N.Y., has called...
Further Applications for 3D Printing Might Include:
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Reconstructing fossils in paleontology,
Replicat...
Story of a 3D Printing Company Startup

Contour Crafting: http
://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JdbJP8Gxqog&feature=player_embed...
Who Manages 3D Printing within an Organization
Organizational Role
An Engineering Program Manager- 3D Printing typically s...
Concluding Observations…open to debate
Applications of the 3D Printing technology that make sense now:

•Mass customizatio...
3D Printing Appendix
Resources
• Overview of 3D Printing Technologies
• Core Deposition and Process Technologies
• 3D Prin...
3D Printing Technologies
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Stereolithography (SLA) is often considered the pioneer of the Rapid
Prototyping industr...
3D Printing Technologies
•Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) uses a laser to sinter powder based materials together, layerby-...
3D Printing Technologies
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ColorJet Printing (CJP) is an additive manufacturing technology
which involves two ...
3D Printing Technologies
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Plastic Jet Printing (PJP) is a solid-based rapid prototyping method that
extrudes...
The Core Deposition and Process Technology Has Expanded

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
uGovernIT™, Inc. Confid...
3D Printing System Layout

Courtesy of Texas Instruments

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uGovernIT™, Inc. Confidential ©
Block Diagram Process Overview
• DLP 3-D Printer solutions process successive layers of material to produce a 3-D physical...
Overview of leading Industrial Manufacturers Pricing

uGovernIT™, Inc. Confidential ©
3D Printing Technology Start Ups
1) MakerBot
Arguably the trendiest name in 3D printing, Brooklyn-based MakerBot is a lead...
3D Printing Technology Start Ups
4) Eyes on the Future
There are several startups — some still looking for funding — that ...
3D Printing Technology Start Ups
7) Organovo
Based in San Diego, Organovo is a biotech startup focused on the development ...
GEs Commitment is a Signal for the Industrial Marketplace
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GE’s been utilizing 3D printing for quite awhile n...
3D Printing Could Facilitate the First of Self Replicating Machines
• A self-replicating machine would need to have the ca...
A 3D Printer that Can Print a Copy of Itself

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uGovernIT™, Inc. Confidential ©
Design for 3D Printing
Things to keep in mind when designing for 3D printing:

When you're designing a 3D model for print ...
3D Printing Model Development Software
A sampling of popular 3D printing software:
•Magic: Popular with beginners and pers...
Education and Training for 3D Printing
Foundations of 3D Printing, and Introduction
to 3D Modeling
By Aaron Trocola·Owner/...
Education and Training for 3D Printing
Learn 3D Printing Technology at a College Near You

Richard Nass, Brand Director
7/...
Education and Training Materials for 3D Printing
Design and Modeling for 3D Printing Paperback– May 25, 2014
by Matthew Gr...
Open Source Impacts for 3D Printing Education
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Colleges and universities are finding more and more uses
for...
3D Printing Ecosystem of Professionals is Emerging

From Google Search

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uGovernIT™, Inc. Confidential ©
3D Printing Outputs and Images of 3D Printing Machines
Outputs:
•An amazing number of physical things can be constructed. ...
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3-D Printing_feb_13_2014

  1. 1. “3D Printing Will Change The World“ Harvard Business Review March 2013 A Brief Synopsis of the Evolution Orange County CIO Round Table February 13, 2014 Jeff Crowell EVP, UGovernIT, Inc. uGovernIT™, Inc. Confidential ©
  2. 2. 3D Printing Discussion Agenda Agenda • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 2 Origin and Early Development A Wide Variety of Technologies Have Developed Overview of a typical 3D Printing system 3D printing is Experiencing Multidimensional Growth Evolution and Major Milestones Why All the Hype Where is 3D Printing in the Technology Hype Cycle 3D Printing/Product Innovation is Supported by CEO Business Priorities Major Players Consumerization is In process Costs and Business Case Consumerization Brings up Some Questions Service Bureaus are a Growing Business New Threats are Emerging New Legal Implications Have Surfaced Emerging Applications for 3D Printing Story of a 3D Startup Who has the leadership responsibility for 3D Programs Concluding Observations Which Are Open to Debate uGovernIT™, Inc. Confidential ©
  3. 3. Origin and Early Development • 3 Stereolithography (SLA or SL; also known as optical fabrication, photosolidification, solid free-form fabrication and solid imaging) is an additive manufacturing or 3D printing technology used for producing models, prototypes, patterns, and production parts. uGovernIT™, Inc. Confidential ©
  4. 4. A Wide Variety of 3D Printing Technologies are Now Used • Additive manufacturing or 3D printing is a process of making a three-dimensional solid object of virtually any shape from a digital model. 3D printing is achieved using an additive process, where successive layers of material are laid down in different shapes. 3D printing is also considered distinct from traditional machining techniques, which mostly rely on the removal of material by methods such as cutting or drilling (subtractive processes). • A large number of additive processes are now available. They differ in the way layers are deposited to create parts and in the materials that can be used. • Some methods melt or soften material to produce the layers, e.g. selective laser melting (SLM) or direct metal laser sintering (DMLS), selective laser sintering (SLS), fused deposition modeling (FDM) • While others cure liquid materials using different sophisticated technologies, e.g. stereolithography (SLA). • With laminated object manufacturing (LOM), thin layers are cut to shape and joined together (e.g. paper, polymer, metal) The inventor of Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) and founder of Stratasys Inc. is S. Scott Crump who has led the company throughout its 24-year history. 4 uGovernIT™, Inc. Confidential ©
  5. 5. http://www.microsoftstore.com/store/msusa/en_US/pdp/MakerBot-Replicator-2-Desktop-3D-Printer/productID.282577600 uGovernIT™, Inc. Confidential ©
  6. 6. 3D Printing System Layout Step 1 Can be a 3D scan of an existing object STL File 6 Lockheed Martin https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6Hkk3XYiU_s uGovernIT™, Inc. Confidential ©
  7. 7. 3 D Scanner/Printer Allows for Replication and Fax Transmission One Machine, Four functions (Scan, Print, Copy, Fax) Unit price is $2499 Fax One Machine, Four functions (Scan, Print, Copy, Fax) STL File One Machine, Four functions (Scan, Print, Copy, Fax) 7 uGovernIT™, Inc. Confidential ©
  8. 8. Full Life Size 3D Print from Booth at the Pacific Design & Manufacturing Event Anaheim Ca 2/11/2014 Created by Solid Concepts a company with 8 locations originally started in Valencia CA: The 6 foot 4 inch superhero character was created in two weeks with their ID-Light/SLA technology and weighs only 29 lbs. due to honeycomb construction. Many individual parts were printed and then cosmetically finished and assembled to make the figure. 8 uGovernIT™, Inc. Confidential ©
  9. 9. 3 D Printing is Experiencing Multidimensional Growth 1980 9 1990 2000 2010 2020 uGovernIT™, Inc. Confidential ©
  10. 10. uGovernIT™, Inc. Confidential ©
  11. 11. uGovernIT™, Inc. Confidential ©
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  14. 14. Why All the Hype According to market research firm Gartner, the 3D printer market will grow as much as 75% this year (2013). Most of that growth—to the tune of $536 million— will reportedly be fueled by enterprise customers, but consumers are also expected to spend $133 million on 3D printers this year. “The great transfer of wealth and jobs to the East (China) over the past two decades may have seemed a decisive tipping point. But this new technology will change again how the world leans.” Referring to how 3D printing will reduce the manufacturing competitive position of China Harvard Business Review March 2013 14 uGovernIT™, Inc. Confidential ©
  15. 15. Why All the Hype • • • • • • • 3D printing is an additive technique that uses a device to create physical objects from digital models. While the technology behind 3D printing has been around (and commercialized) for decades, devices are only recently started to show up on the mainstream consumer’s radar. Every week stories appear of plans for 3D-printed modular cities, cars, or moon bases made from the lunar dust. Then, there are designs for the construction of utilitarian robots with an ability to endlessly replicate themselves. These could eventually reach giant proportions and work to construct whole cities using 3D printing techniques. As the technology behind 3D printing evolves and prices drop – by 2016, Gartner predicts that enterprise-class 3D printers will be available for under $2,000 – there may be no limit to what could feasibly be 3D printed. Driving this market is a new generation of crowd sourced, open-source entrepreneurs focused on businesses and enthusiast consumers, and chasing established industrial players. The following is a new opportunity hype video: http://3dprinterprofits.com/ 5 Min 15 uGovernIT™, Inc. Confidential ©
  16. 16. Why All the Hype - Advantages of 3D Printing 3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing technologies have the potential to transform whole industries and completely shift entire business models. The question is not if 3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing will effect product development and innovation, but how and when it will happen and whether or organizations will be ready? There are many benefits: •3D printing can present a lower cost of entry for a new business •Eliminate segments of the supply chain •Simplify R&D •Reduce product development time •Reduce production costs in some cases •Reduce energy costs by 50% •Reduce material costs by up to 90% compared to traditional manufacturing •Reduce inventory carrying costs (even if the per-unit production cost is higher, it will be more than offset by the elimination of shipping and of buffer inventories) •Eliminate the need to develop jigs, fixtures, dies, tools and other components http://www.3ders.org/articles/20140204-5-disruptions-caused-by-3d-printing-according-to-mckinsey.html 16 The Management Roundtable October 18, 2013, Chicago, IL and Fortus 3D Production Systems brochure uGovernIT™, Inc. Confidential ©
  17. 17. Where is 3D Printing in the Technology Hype Cycle? May Have Peaked Now arriving in the market Still a Long way to Go 17 uGovernIT™, Inc. Confidential ©
  18. 18. 3D Printing/Product Innovation is Supported by CEO Business Priorities GEs CEO: 3D printing is “worth my time, attention, money, and effort,” Jeffrey Immelt, chief executive of GE, said at an Atlantic conference today on the future of manufacturing in Washington, D.C. Also known as “additive manufacturing,” 3D printing involves a machine using a digital model to design a solid, complex product from various materials, from a simple sculpture, to a shoe, to — perhaps? — an airplane turbine. Immelt said he understood the difference between “a cartoon” and an idea that’s “worth spending a lot of time on”: and that 3D printing clearly fits in the latter category. “3-D printing helps you make the product from the core up so you have less waste,” he told Greg Ip, economics editor of The Economist. “The tool is cheaper, the time is faster. If all I thought 3-D printing could do was shoes, I wouldn’t be talking about it.” GEs Point of View: There is a lot of talk about how great 3D printing is already, and how it is going to change the world. Some people believe this is just all hype or a fad that is going to end soon. While this may or bay not be true for the home user, in industry it is a real game changer. Source: theatlantic PwC's 17th Annual Global CEO survey 18 4 Min http ://3dprintingindustry.com/2013/12/21/avio-aero-ges-vision-industr / uGovernIT™, Inc. Confidential ©
  19. 19. Major Players and Their Offerings and Recent Growth ($10.8 Billion By 2021- Est. by Forbes) • • • • • Autodesk: 3D printing is amazing, but you can’t print if you don’t have a digital file, a computer modeled version that communicates with the printer itself. That’s where AutoCAD software from Autodesk comes into play. The company supports major industries, inventors, entrepreneurs, and even consumers with its apps and full suite of software. It has seen a 40 percent gain in the last 12 months. 63 percent over 24 months. Stratasys: With its acquisition of MakerBot, the company leaped into the consumer market, or at least the professional amateur (pro-am) market. Stratasys Ltd. (Nasdaq: SSYS) is the corporate entity formed in 2012 by the merger of 3D printing companies Stratasys Inc. and Objet Ltd., based in Minneapolis, Minn. and Rehovot, Israel. The company manufactures 3D printers and materials for prototyping and production. Prior to merging, the two companies’ revenues totaled $277 million for 2011. Its patented FDM® and Objet inkjet-based processes produce prototypes or manufactured goods directly from 3D CAD files or other 3D content. Stratasys owns the RedEye service bureau. Already a dominant player in large scale, high end 3D printers, they have seen a 60 percent increase this year and 324 percent over the last two years. 3D Systems DDD: This company has captured the attention of many Wall Street analysts due to its product mix (mostly high end industrial 3D printers, but also a growing consumer line), strong patents, and its sales of high margin materials. It has seen a 155 percent gain in the last 12 months and an astounding 845 percent over two years. Dassault Systemes: (DASTY) With its SolidWorks software, France-based Dassault Systemes has one of the best known software packages for 3D designers and creators. Their stock only shows a 10 percent growth over the last 12 months, but over two years it is closer to 55 percent. Shapeways: Shapeways.com is the world's leading 3D Printing marketplace and community. We harness 3D Printing to help everyone make and share designs with the world, making product design more accessible, personal, and inspiring. On April 24, 2013 venture capital firm Andreessen Horowitz led a huge $30 million socalled Series C round of financing for Shapeways. Forbes 12/30/2013 19 uGovernIT™, Inc. Confidential ©
  20. 20. Major Players and Their Offerings and Recent Growth ($10.8 Billion By 2021- Est. by Forbes) RedEye/Stratasys 2.5 min http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3-4DL2njmVE 20 Forbes 12/30/2013 uGovernIT™, Inc. Confidential ©
  21. 21. Consumerization: A 3D Printer in Every Home? • • • 21 Andy Bird, chairman of Walt Disney International, predicted that 3D printers will be in every home within a decade. "I think every home within 10 years, probably less than that, will have its own 3D printer, just as many homes now have a 2D or laser printer," said Bird on the first day of the Abu Dhabi Media Summit, an annual three-day event in the capital of the United Arab Emirates. Bird said that the technology would "revolutionize" the way the world works, and the technology has always been used in the media and entertainment industries. He added that Disney was already looking at ways to utilize the technology in its theme parks. In 2012, Disney World launched the "Carbon Freeze-Me" that let visitors to the Star Wars Weekends to get a chance to try the coolest use for 3D printing technology and relive the famous carbon freezing scene from The Empire Strikes Back. In this year's 'Star Wars' weekend Disney offered visitors the chance to put their face on a 3D-printed Stormtrooper figurine. "We'll be working with technology where we can easily capture the facial features of every guest... and put it on to dolls," Bird said on the Abu Dhabi Media Summit. Disney's D-Tech Me experience helped push ordinary girls to become princesses with help of photo cameras, 3D scanners and 3D printers. Girls can choose one of seven different Disney Princesses including Ariel, Aurora, Belle, Cinderella, Rapunzel, Snow White and Tiana and hair, skin and eye color of the figurine. uGovernIT™, Inc. Confidential ©
  22. 22. Consumerization: A 3D Printer in Every Home? 22 The Makerbot team started Thingiverse, a site for sharing useful 3D-printable designs. The site already offers tons of useful designs for downloading and printing out on a Makerbot or other 3D printer. The designs range from a printable pair of glasses to a printable mini Rubix cube to printable replacement parts and upgrades for the 3D printers themselves. uGovernIT™, Inc. Confidential ©
  23. 23. Consumerization: A 3D Printer in Every Home? *Library of 30,000+ Downloadable STL files 23 PBS Video 7 min http://video.pbs.org/video/2339671486/ uGovernIT™, Inc. Confidential ©
  24. 24. Costs and Business Case Findings from a paper by a handful of intrepid engineers at Michigan Technical University •In the study, [Associate Professor Joshua] Pearce and his team chose 20 common household items listed on Thingiverse. Then they used Google Shopping to determine the maximum and minimum cost of buying those 20 items online, shipping charges not included. •Next, they calculated the cost of making them with 3D printers. The conclusion: it would cost the typical consumer from $312 to $1,944 to buy those 20 things compared to $18 to make them in a weekend. Opensource 3D printers for home use have price tags ranging from about $350 to $2,000. Making the very conservative assumption a family would only make 20 items a year, Pearce's group calculated that the printers would pay for themselves quickly, in a few months to a few years. •Assuming the 25 h of necessary printing for the selected products is evenly distributed throughout the year these savings provide a simple payback time for the RepRap in 4 months to 2 years and provide an ROI between >200% and >40%. •As both upgrades and the components that are most likely to wear out in the RepRap can be printed and thus the lifetime of the distributing manufacturing can be substantially increased, the unavoidable conclusion from this study is that the RepRap is an economically attractive investment for the average US household already. •It appears clear that as RepRaps improve in reliability, continue to decline in cost and both the number and assumed utility of open-source designs continues growing exponentially, open-source 3-D printers will become a mass-market mechatronic device. Life-cycle economic analysis of distributed manufacturing with open-source 3-D printers 24 uGovernIT™, Inc. Confidential ©
  25. 25. Consumerization: A 3D Printer (Personal 3D Printer) in Every Home? There are Some Questions Here's a bit of irony: 3D printing is suffering from an image problem •This maker movement has been plagued by a reputation for producing plastic knickknacks via complicated, costly machines that are really only suitable for businesses. If 3D printing wants to court mainstream customers—and it badly does—it needs to change this image. •With the hype and attention on consumer 3D printing ramping up, 2014 might be a make-it-or-breakit year for the industry. And that has spurred the major players—and growing competition—to focus on driving down prices and making their machines simpler to use. Those are key steps toward boosting mainstream appeal of 3D printing, but it will take more than that. •Much more. Like showing people what they can do with this technology, and why they need it in their homes. •If there's a single issue the 3D printer needs to address, this is it: There's no way 3D printing will take off as a consumer technology until the industry figures out how to make people want it. •No wonder companies are marketing lower prices and simpler features on their 3D printers. XYZ Printing, for example, homed in on the common "assembly required" aspect of 3D printers by showcasing its fully-built, plug-and-play "da Vinci," a line of printers that "uses easy-load filament cartridges," a booth rep said at the Consumer Electronics Show. But that's not the only reason da Vinci's a noteworthy entry: The company will be offering it in March for the bargain price of $499. Author: Adriana Lee Publish date: January 21, 2014 in 2014 Say Media Inc. PC Pro Magazine Assessment: 3D Printing the Myths and the Reality http://www.pcpro.co.uk/features/383671/3d-printing-the-myths-and-the-reality uGovernIT™, Inc. Confidential ©
  26. 26. Service Bureaus are a Growing Business with Some Big Investments Service Bureaus come in a variety of sizes and capability: •Large Corporate: RedEye (Worldwide Headquarters 8081 Wallace Road, Eden Prairie, MN 55344) is one of the largest rapid prototyping and 3D printing companies in the world. We solve complex product design and manufacturing challenges through 3D printing to help engineers and companies bring products to market faster. RedEye is a business unit of Stratasys and was launched in 2005. http://pages.redeyeondemand.com/101a3DPrintingCompany.html?mm_campaign=414FE30CC0E13392ABEEC403CE68CF49&keyword=%2B3d%20%2B •Regional Businesses: Source Graphics (1530 N Harmony Circle Anaheim, CA 92807) makes 3D printing accessible to everyone. We can readily output physical models from your 3D CAD files with an easy 3D printing process. We utilize the latest 3D rapid prototyping solutions, serving a wide variety of applications and fields, such as education, healthcare, and the arts. Our qualified team can help you find the 3D rapid prototyping solution that’s right for you. As a 3D service bureau we provide both additive and subtractive technology solutions. Whether your model calls for a quick 3D build in color at a low cost, or a higher accuracy more finished 3D model we have the right systems to provide the correct technology solution for all your 3D printing needs. Our ability to make 3D parts at almost half the cost of other service providers using SLA, FDM, SLS or CNC machines is a key reason why we are the vendor of choice for many design and manufacturing companies in the U.S. ( Thank you to Sy Hussaini President Source Graphics for offering his input to this presentation) •Small Local Start ups: THINGIFY, INC. (16 Technology – 106 Irvine, CA 92618) offers a service that starts with Brainstorming of ideas. Whether it is a finalized concept or if you need help bringing your idea to the next stage. We offer 3D modeling services to help take your concept and translate to a working 3D model that is 3D print ready. If you have a ready to print 3D model, send it to us and we can give you a quote. Projects can start from any phase. We're here to help creators express their ideas in 3D, and enable them to bring their ideas from Think to Thing. 26 uGovernIT™, Inc. Confidential ©
  27. 27. Service Bureaus are a Growing Business with Some Big Investments Service Bureaus come in a variety of sizes and capability: GROWit™ (20918 Bake Parkway, Suite 106 Lake Forest, CA 92630 Main: (949) 305-4004) is a privately held additive manufacturing company located in Lake Forest, California, dedicated to improving design through engineering and rapid prototyping. We strive to be at the cutting edge, bringing both knowledge and resources directly to customers. With our team of engineers, we help guide customers to the process that best suits their specific application, without holding a bias to a specific platform or technology. Founded in 2007, GROWit™ was the first service bureau to acquire the Connex 500 multi-material printing technology and is currently a world-leader with this technology. Our in-house manufacturing and experienced staff works with you to provide exceptional customer service and deliver the fastest, highest quality parts at a competitive price. 27 uGovernIT™, Inc. Confidential ©
  28. 28. New Threats are Emerging Weapons and Sabotage: •The first successful test of a 3-D printed gun last month sent chills down many of our spines. What’s the use of background checks if people can simply make guns themselves with production devices in their homes? •But experts point out these weapons may be hard to perfect and perhaps they are not what we should be worried about right now. •For example, 3-D printing already allows you to fabricate new, lightweight parts for aircraft -- and that can significantly cut fuel consumption. But it also opens the door to making counterfeit parts for commercial or defense operations, designed for sabotage. •And the advent of bioprinting (printing with biological materials, including cells and tissues) expands the possibilities even further. Today, we can print ears, as Popular Science reported; in the near future, a terrorist might be able to print ricin. Counterfeiting: •Copying isn’t just something that retailers have to worry about: The U.S. Defense Department has already had problems with (normally manufactured) counterfeit parts that can compromise military equipment and endanger soldiers, as CNN reported. There’s a fear 3-D printing could make it easier for flawed parts to enter the supply chain, or allow other governments to replicate U.S. military technology -- say, from a crashed drone, helicopter or plane. •A variation of 3D printing involves chemputing which uses chemical inks to assemble a chemistry set similar to those found in professional labs. This ability to print drugs on demand necessarily raises the prospect that people might print out recreational drugs -- or worse. The formula for cocaine isn’t exactly a trade secret. Nor is the formula for chlorine gas, a crude chemical weapon used by Germans in World War I and Iraqi insurgents in the mid-2000s. •In the past, the easiest way for a competitor to replicate your product was by reverse engineering it. However, with 3D printing, that part or product can be replicated much faster and easily since the need to develop jigs, fixtures, dies, tools and other components will be eliminated By Roxanne Palmer International Business Times on May 24 2013 10:22 PM 28 uGovernIT™, Inc. Confidential ©
  29. 29. New Threats are Emerging Financial and Business Implications: •By 2016, 3D printing of tissues and organs (bioprinting) will cause a global debate about regulating the technology or banning it for both human and nonhuman use. Near Term Flag: The U.S. Food and Drug Administration or comparable agency in a developed nation that is charged with evaluating all medical proposals will introduce guidelines that prohibit the bioprinting of life-saving 3D printed organs and tissues without its prior approval by end of 2015. •By 2018, 3D printing will result in the loss of at least $100 billion per year in intellectual property globally. Near Term Flag: At least one major western manufacturer will claim to have had intellectual property (IP) stolen for a mainstream product by thieves using 3D printers who will likely reside in those same western markets rather than in Asia by 2015. •The plummeting costs of 3D printers, scanners and 3D modeling technology, combined with improving capabilities, makes the technology for IP theft more accessible to wouldbe criminals. Importantly, 3D printers do not have to produce a finished good in order to enable IP theft. The ability to make a wax mold from a scanned object, for instance, can enable the thief to produce large quantities of items that exactly replicate the original. Gartner Reveals Top Predictions for IT Organizations and Users for 2014 and Beyond 29 uGovernIT™, Inc. Confidential ©
  30. 30. And of Course New Legal Implications Have Surfaced Weapons and Sabotage: •U.S. Sen. Charles E. Schumer, D-N.Y., has called for legislation banning 3-D printed guns, noting that such weapons can bypass metal detectors. California state Sen. Leland Yee, D-8th District, has also called for new laws. But experts point out these weapons may be hard to perfect and perhaps they are not what we should be worried about right now. •Yee’s team is still working on language for a legislative proposal -- one of the challenges is settling on the precise legal term that explains the function of a 3-D printer. •While individual politicians might say they’re focusing on the product and not on the manufacturing device, there are some rumblings in Washington of the possibility of registering 3-D printers and restricting the dissemination of blueprints. •California legislators are concerned about “ghost guns” firearms that people build and assemble that do not come with a serial number on the firearm and undergo a background check. (Senate Bill 808 is aimed at correcting this situation. Counterfeiting: •Virginia Tech researcher Thomas A. Campbell told International Business Times. “The same thing occurred with the Internet; the same thing occurred with cell phones.” •Part of Campbell’s job is to think about the fast-evolving nature of 3-D printing, particularly in the field of counterfeiting. •“It’s really hard to grasp what one or two regulations are needed,” 3-D printing security analyst McNulty said. “My biggest concern would be if we used these concerns as justification not to invest in the continued exploration and development of this technology.” •“The whole idea of regulating 3-D printing is enormously difficult to conceptualize,” Darren S. Cahr, an intellectual-property attorney with Drinker Biddle & Reath LLP, said in a phone interview. “Not to say that people haven’t tried. But people have been using injection molding, or tools and dyes, to make things for decades -- and centuries in some cases. It’s just not feasible to try and regulate everyone out there who can use a manufacturing process to make something.” By Roxanne Palmer International Business Times on May 24 2013 10:22 PM and OC Register 30 uGovernIT™, Inc. Confidential ©
  31. 31. Further Applications for 3D Printing Might Include: • • • • • • • • • • Reconstructing fossils in paleontology, Replicating ancient and priceless artifacts in archaeology, Reconstructing bones and body parts in forensic pathology, Reconstructing heavily damaged evidence acquired from crime scene investigations. Used for building construction. Possible use in tissue engineering applications in which organs and body parts are built using inkjet techniques. Possible to use 3D printing techniques to create chemical compounds, China has committed almost $500 million towards the establishment of 10 national 3-D printing development institutes • In 2013, Chinese scientists began printing ears, livers and kidneys, with living tissue. Researchers in China have been able to successfully print human organs using specialized 3D bio printers that use living cells instead of plastic. One of these advances is the use of 3D printers is to produce casts that are created to mimic the bones that they are supporting. These custom-fitted casts are open, which allow the wearer to scratch any itches and also wash the damaged area In 2012, the U.S.-based group Defense Distributed disclosed plans to "[design] a working plastic gun that could be downloaded and reproduced by anybody with a 3D printer.“ Defense Distributed has also designed a 3D printable AR-15 type rifle lower receiver (capable of lasting more than 650 rounds) and a 30 round M16 magazine. In May 2013, the United States Department of State demanded that they remove the instructions from their website. Contour Crafting 12 min http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JdbJP8Gxqog&feature=player_embedded 31 uGovernIT™, Inc. Confidential ©
  32. 32. Story of a 3D Printing Company Startup Contour Crafting: http ://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JdbJP8Gxqog&feature=player_embedded https://www.kickstarter.com/projects/aiorobotics/zeus-the-worlds-first-all-in-one-3d-copy-machine 32 uGovernIT™, Inc. Confidential ©
  33. 33. Who Manages 3D Printing within an Organization Organizational Role An Engineering Program Manager- 3D Printing typically serves as member of management and is considered a senior level consulting within the organization. As such, the Engineering Program Manager- 3D Printing provides functional, technical or process leadership. The organization will depend on this person's management of multiple teams. The Engineering Program Manager- 3D Printing generally is responsible for high complexity and ambiguity. As such, the Engineering Program Manager- 3D Printing provides tactical responsibilities. Engineering Program Manager- 3D Printing Job Responsibilities The Engineering Program Manager- 3D Printing generally has the following responsibilities: •Determines projects resource requirements, schedules and capital expenditures to develop detailed 3D printing projects and program plans •Manages cross-functional engineering teams; coordinates all project activities to drive projects from initial to completion •Develops product requirements, technical specifications and 3D printing and rapid prototyping systems •Performs 3D printing programs and projects risk analysis, identifies risk areas and risk analysis, identifies risk areas and develops alternative mitigation measures. Engineering Program Manager- 3D Printing Competencies The complete Engineering Program Manager- 3D Printing Manager's Guide includes the 30 key competencies expected of Engineering Program Manager- 3D Printing. The report defines each Competency in detail. The report also explains what level of proficiency Engineering Program Manager- 3D Printing should have in that Competency, as well as how important that Competency is to performing the role well. 33 uGovernIT™, Inc. Confidential ©
  34. 34. Concluding Observations…open to debate Applications of the 3D Printing technology that make sense now: •Mass customization of complex metal parts (applications where geometry and material characteristics are demanding) as an example: 3D Printing has a definite role in some manufacturing: • • 34 According to a GE Report, “Next-Gen Jet Engines with 3D Printed Parts,” the new fleet of engines will require more than 85,000 fuel nozzles and prompted research into how the strongest and most cost effective nozzles could be manufactured. Previously, GE’s fuel nozzles contained 20 different parts and required frequent maintenance and replacement. After careful analysis, it was determined that an investment in “additive manufacturing” or 3D printing technology would allow each fuel nozzle to be manufactured as one metal piece through layering of material that is typical of 3D printing. The end product is 3D printed nozzles that are stronger and lighter than those made using the old assembly method. The fuel nozzles are also capable of withstanding extreme temperatures of up to 2,400° inside the jet engine which tended to soften parts made using the old method. •Return to US of some of the Chinese manufacturing where multiple 3D printers can process the required volume •Replacement of low volume - low complexity order on demand parts in both metal and plastic material compositions for both the consumer and business marketplaces •Replacement of parts for maintenance and repair in the appliance and auto parts after markets •Design verification and end product design reviews for obtaining the Voice of the Customer (like prototypes of the plastic vacuum cleaners and other household appliances, apparel accessories and shoes, mobile devices, hand held computer products, communication and networking devices, etc.) •In some cases the production manufacturing of the above items •R&D of bio medical replacement parts and tissues •Transmission of critical parts to hard to get to locations (like the International Space Station or ocean vessels) •Low volume manufacturing for various forms of arts and crafts (3D Printed objects sale and exchange fairs) and Jewelry of a large variety of shapes and materials uGovernIT™, Inc. Confidential ©
  35. 35. 3D Printing Appendix Resources • Overview of 3D Printing Technologies • Core Deposition and Process Technologies • 3D Printing System Block Diagram and Associated Process Description • Overview of Leading Manufactures’ Pricing • 3D Printing Technology Startups • General Electric’s Commitment is an Indicator of Acceptance • The Arrival of Self Replicating Machines • Design for 3D Printing Considerations • 3D Printing Model Development Software • Education and Training for 3D Printing • Open Source Impacts for 3D Printing • 3D Printing Eco System of Professional Practitioners • 3D Printer Images and Outputs 35 uGovernIT™, Inc. Confidential ©
  36. 36. 3D Printing Technologies • • • Stereolithography (SLA) is often considered the pioneer of the Rapid Prototyping industry, with the first commercial system introduced in 1988 by 3D Systems. The system consists of an Ultra-Violet Laser, a vat of photocurable liquid resin, and a controlling system. A platform is lowered into the resin (via an elevator system), such that the surface of the platform is a layer-thickness below the surface of the resin. The laser beam then traces the boundaries and fills in a two-dimensional cross section of the model, solidifying the resin wherever it touches. Once a layer is complete, the platform descends a layer thickness, resin flows over the first layer, and the next layer is built. This process continues until the model is complete. Once the model is complete, the platform rises out of the vat and the excess resin is drained. The model is then removed from the platform, washed of excess resin, and then placed in a UV oven for a final curing. The stereolithography model is then finished by smoothing the "stair-steps." Taken from http://www.quickparts.com/ 36 uGovernIT™, Inc. Confidential ©
  37. 37. 3D Printing Technologies •Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) uses a laser to sinter powder based materials together, layerby-layer, to form a solid model. The system consists of a laser, part chamber, and control system. •The part chamber consists of a build platform, powder cartridge, and leveling roller. A thin layer of build material is spread across the platform where the laser traces a twodimensional cross section of the part, sintering the material together. The platform then descends a layer thickness and the leveling roller pushes material from the powder cartridge across the build platform, where the next cross section is sintered to the previous. This continues until the part is completed. •Once the model is complete, it is removed from the part chamber and finished by removing any loose material and smoothing the visible surfaces. (Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) is a variation of this technology •Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) uses dual nozzles to trace each cross section depositing thermoplastic material on the build platform, •When a cross section is complete, the build platform is slightly lowered and the process continues. •Completed parts are removed from the chamber and support material is cleaned off •Over a half dozen thermoplastic materials are available with varying tensile and structural modulus and color are available Taken from http://www.quickparts.com/ 37 uGovernIT™, Inc. Confidential ©
  38. 38. 3D Printing Technologies • • • • • ColorJet Printing (CJP) is an additive manufacturing technology which involves two major components – core and binder. The Core™ material is spread in thin layers over the build platform with a roller. After each layer is spread, color binder is selectively jetted from inkjet print heads over the core layer, which causes the core to solidify. The build platform lowers with every subsequent layer which is spread and printed, resulting in a full-color threedimensional model. Whether printed with color or in standard white, parts can be additionally clear coated to add a hard smooth coating or wax coated to smooth out the surface finish. MultiJet Printing (MJP) is a new Rapid Prototyping process that provides a quick turnaround for smooth, fully cured parts. The process consists only of UV bulbs and photopolymer materials. ProJet MultiJet Printing machines fully cure each layer of super fine UV curable acrylic plastics and support materials. Support material is easily separated from the part by a melting and washing process. No extra finishing treatments are needed. Finished MJP parts can readily absorb paint and can also be machined, drilled, nickel-plated or used for direct casting patterns. Taken from http://www.quickparts.com/ 38 uGovernIT™, Inc. Confidential ©
  39. 39. 3D Printing Technologies • • • • 39 Plastic Jet Printing (PJP) is a solid-based rapid prototyping method that extrudes material, layer-by-layer, to build a model. The system consists of a build platform, extrusion nozzle, and control system. The build material, a production quality thermoplastic, is melted and then extruded through a specially designed head onto a platform to create a twodimensional cross section of the model. The cross section quickly solidifies, and the platform descends where the next layer is extruded upon the previous layer. This continues until the model is complete, where it is then removed from the build chamber and cleaned for shipping. Electron Beam Melting (EBM) is an Additive Manufacturing method for 3D Printing of parts in real titanium alloys. The material is super-strong and the parts can be used for high-demanding applications like race cars, space ships, aircrafts or human implants. The EBM process takes place in vacuum and NASA even look at it as a candidate for manufacturing in space! With EBM, material in wire form is fed into a molten pool created by an electron beam; the deposition mechanism creating the melt pool and feeding the wire is then guided by a computer to move about on an also nonstationary build platform. The deposition mechanism deposits the material just where it is needed to form a layer of the object. Repeating this process builds up the object one layer at a time. Finally, after the object is built, post processing usually requires machining to remove excess material. The process currently has one of the largest build capacities of any 3D printing process. Taken from http://www.quickparts.com/ and https://thre3d.com/how-it-works/directed-energy-deposition/electron-beam-direct-manufacturing-ebdm uGovernIT™, Inc. Confidential ©
  40. 40. The Core Deposition and Process Technology Has Expanded 40 From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia uGovernIT™, Inc. Confidential ©
  41. 41. 3D Printing System Layout Courtesy of Texas Instruments 41 uGovernIT™, Inc. Confidential ©
  42. 42. Block Diagram Process Overview • DLP 3-D Printer solutions process successive layers of material to produce a 3-D physical objects. The object is specified by a 3D Computer Aided Design (CAD) model. 3D printer software transforms the virtual 3D model into a series of layers suitable for printing the object. • It is often used to quickly create detailed prototypes. With this technology, printing parts of a material can be done in a single process flow. 3D printers are becoming more affordable for medium and small scale businesses in which rapid prototyping is brought all the way into the office, no longer requiring manufacturing floor space. • Two common methods for 3D printing are digital exposure and laser sintering. The high level principles for incorporating DLP technology into a 3D printing solution can be applied to both methods, but digital exposure is represented in the system block diagram. • For the digital exposure technique, the 3D object is constructed by laying down successive thin horizontal crosssections or layers of an ultraviolet (UV) curable liquid photopolymer resin. For each layer, the UV light image from the DLP® Digital Micromirror Device (DMD) creates a pattern which hardens the polymer resin where it is exposed to the light. • The cross-section pattern is produced by the individual mirrors that correspond to each pixel on the current layer. This pattern projects through an imaging lens onto the surface of the UV curable liquid photopolymer resin, curing or hardening it where the pixels are on. As depicted in the diagram, one resin is the build material and the second is material to support overhanging features and thin vertical walls during construction. The support material is later removed by heat or dissolved with a solvent or water. • These layers fuse automatically and the process repeats one layer at a time until the model is built. Cure rates are possible under 0.2 seconds per layer. Layer thickness typically ranges from 1um to 250um based upon the resin and wavelength of the UV light used. More detailed images require more discrete cross-sections to assume the continuous smooth surface effect of the resulting object. • The diagram shows a DLP chipset, which includes the DMD, and a DMD Controller chip, plus a DMD Analog Control chip (depending on the specific DLP chipset). DLP chipsets are available with different DMD sizes, pixel pitches, resolutions, and other specifications. DLP also offers devices targeted for use with UV light. The best choice for a DLP chipset may depend on the desired object feature size, patterning speed and necessary wavelengths to cure the resin. • The CAD model is produced by software running on a PC. The system control and signal processing is accomplished by the Embedded Processor (Such as TI OMAP®). Power is provided by TI Power devices. The details of the optical layout and components are not shown in the diagram. The diagram is intended to convey as simply as possible the overall functionality of a DLP-based 3D Printer application. An actual product will require additional optical components and optical design in order to achieve full functionality. Courtesy of Texas Instruments 42 uGovernIT™, Inc. Confidential ©
  43. 43. Overview of leading Industrial Manufacturers Pricing uGovernIT™, Inc. Confidential ©
  44. 44. 3D Printing Technology Start Ups 1) MakerBot Arguably the trendiest name in 3D printing, Brooklyn-based MakerBot is a leading producers of desktop 3D printers. Anyone from engineers to hobbyists can purchase a MakerBot printer and get to work manufacturing their own creations. In fact, many of the other startups on this list put MakerBots to work in unique ways. Founded in 2009, MakerBot is also a valuable resource for the 3D printing community. The company's Thingiverse site is home to hundreds of free project downloads, providing an open-source platform for sharing ideas and designs. 2) Pirate 3D Another startup making waves in the 3D printing world is Pirate 3D, a Palo Alto-based company with dreams of bringing 3D printers into every ones’ home office. The company's Buccaneer desktop 3D printer, which has raised nearly $1 million on Kickstarter, can print wirelessly from Android and iOS devices and is allegedly very user-friendly. The Buccaneer is also very wallet-friendly, with an anticipated sale price of about $350. That's a sixth of the price of MakerBot's most recent desktop model, the Replicator 2. 3) AIO Robotics, Inc. A high-tech startup that targets the 3D printer market with innovative All-In-One 3D copy machines with an easy to use interface. By automating the process of 3D scanning and 3D printing, their machines will enable everyone to access 3D printing. A single press of a button allows users to scan, print, copy, and fax 3D objects. Their functionality combines 4 main functions: •3D Scanning: A scanner digitally acquires the shape of an object •3D Printing: Additive layering using Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) •3D Copying: A process that combines 3D scanning and 3D printing to replicate an object •3D Faxing: The capability to transmit a scanned 3D object to another compatible 3D printer by Elizabeth Palermo, Business News Daily Contributor | June 18, 2013 44 uGovernIT™, Inc. Confidential ©
  45. 45. 3D Printing Technology Start Ups 4) Eyes on the Future There are several startups — some still looking for funding — that aim to bring fashion into the twenty-first century using 3D printing. These companies focus on mass manufacturing highly customizable products, like eyeglasses and iPhone cases, with 3D printing technology. Make Eyewear is experimenting with 3D printed glasses. The company's frames are printed with a lightweight, flexible nylon that can be fitted with prescription or tinted lenses. And Protos, another 3D eyewear startup, is currently developing a way to offer customers a simple way to design their own 3D-printable frames. 5) Spuni No one has ever been accused of being born with a 3D-printed spoon in their mouth — until now. Spuni, the ergonomically designed baby spoon, was created by two MIT grads fed up with the mess that accompanies feeding a baby from a regular baby spoon. In order to make their Spuni dreams come true, the product's creators used 3D printing to design and perfect a prototype that they could test on hungry babies. Clearly the prototype worked well, because Spuni has since raised over $35,000 with its Indiegogo campaign and its first products are being shipped to customers this month. 6) Tecnologia Humana 3D, and Fasotec But parents don't have to wait until baby starts eating solid food to take advantage of 3D printing technology. Tecnologia Humana 3D, a Brazilian company specializing in customizable 3D-printed orthotics, offers expecting mothers and fathers a three dimensional look at their beloved fetus in utero. That's right — a 3D-printed ultrasound. The Japanese company Fasotec offers a similar product for expecting parents at a pregnancy clinic in Tokyo. For just over $1,000, customers can take home a 3D printed, key-chain sized fetus of their very own. by Elizabeth Palermo, Business News Daily Contributor | June 18, 2013 45 uGovernIT™, Inc. Confidential ©
  46. 46. 3D Printing Technology Start Ups 7) Organovo Based in San Diego, Organovo is a biotech startup focused on the development of 3D printed biological materials, particularly human tissues. Since the company's founding in 2007, it has pioneered research in 3D bioprinting, creating synthetic tissues that function just like real human tissues. Materials printed at Organovo help researchers study diseases and allow them to test the effects of drugs on human tissue without putting anyone at risk. The company is also working on printing materials — like liver tissue — that can be used for medical implants or replacements. 8) The Dreambox If you need something 3D-printed in a hurry, head to Dreambox. Developed by undergrads at the University of California Berkeley, Dreambox is a 3D printing vending machine that can create whatever object you tell it to in minutes. The Dreambox is currently housed only on the UC Berkeley campus, but its developers have already received funding for their startup and are on their way toward making mobile 3D printing a reality for all. 9) Thinker Thing Imagine if you could create an object just by thinking about it. Chilean-based startup Thinker Thing wants you to be able to do just that. This innovative company aims to connect the latest neuro technological equipment- like brain-computer interfaces- with 3D printing technology. In other words, they're creating software that makes it possible for someone wearing an electroencephalography (EEG) headset to picture an object in his or her mind and have that object printed in 3D. 46 by Elizabeth Palermo, Business News Daily Contributor | June 18, 2013 uGovernIT™, Inc. Confidential ©
  47. 47. GEs Commitment is a Signal for the Industrial Marketplace • • • • • GE’s been utilizing 3D printing for quite awhile now, including the use of their proprietary laser cladding technology, which can print directly onto objects, mainly for repairs. While additive manufacturing at GE is mostly practiced for research, they plan to use the technology increasingly as a method of production. The aerospace division is the furthest towards reaching this goal with the LEAP jet engine, as covered by 3DPI, that “will have a total of 16 3D printed fuel nozzles in it and be used on the Airbus A320 NEO, 737 Max and COMAC C919”. Singh wishes to see the following advancements in GE’s AM Lab: “closed loop control, published databases of materials and material characteristics, systems to inspect parts, significant improvements to post processing, an expansion and improvement to the design tools used for 3D printing and cobalt chrome, iconel and other materials optimized for aerospace applications.” If you read this article, you’ll understand that the lack of closed loop control causes quality management of printed parts to take up to 30% of the manufacturing time. It’s actually a big issue in 3D printing as a whole because, without closed loop control, 3D printers can’t self-correct and it’s difficult to achieve reliability and reproducibility. If an item gets messed up during a print, it just comes out messed up and you have to print it again. The future of GE may include 3D printing ceramics, piezoelectrics, piezoceramics, resistors, inductors, and capacitors. If you’re like me and didn’t know what piezoelectricity was, here’s the definition from Wikipedia: “piezoelectricity is the electric charge that accumulates in certain solid materials (notably crystals, certain ceramics, and biological matter such as bone, DNA and various proteins) in response to applied mechanical stress.” The most common example is the piezoelectric crystal found in lighters. It’s what allows for that little spark of electricity that ignites the flame when you press down the button onto that long grill lighter you use for starting your BBQ. The benefits Singh sees with 3D printing at GE is that it streamlines the entire production process and allows for complex shapes that can’t be manufactured by traditional means, saying that his designers “‘are spoiled...with [being able to make] hundreds of designs’ and that they ‘change designs weekly.’” From interview with the manager of the GE Additive Manufacturing Lab at GE Global Research, Prabhjot Singh. 47 uGovernIT™, Inc. Confidential ©
  48. 48. 3D Printing Could Facilitate the First of Self Replicating Machines • A self-replicating machine would need to have the capacity to gather energy and raw materials, process the raw materials into finished components, and then assemble them into a copy of itself. Further, for a complete self-replication, it must, from scratch, produce its smallest parts, such as bearings, connectors and delicate and intricate electronic components. It is unlikely that this would all be contained within a single structure, but would rather be a group of cooperating machines or an automated factory that is capable of manufacturing all of the machines that comprise it. • The factory could produce mining robots to collect raw materials, construction robots to assemble new machines, and repair robots to maintain itself against wear and tear, all without human intervention or direction. The advantage of such a system lies in its ability to expand its own capacity rapidly and without additional human effort. In essence, the initial investment required to construct the first self-replicating device would have an infinitely large payoff with no additional labor cost. • Such a machine violates no physical laws, and the basic technologies necessary for some of the more detailed proposals and designs already exist. • In 2005, Adrian Bowyer of the University of Bath started the RepRap Project to develop a rapid prototyping machine which would be able to manufacture some or most of its own components, making such machines cheap enough for people to buy and use in their homes. The project is releasing its designs and control programs under the GNU GPL. The RepRap approach uses fused deposition modeling to manufacture plastic components, possibly incorporating conductive pathways for circuitry. Other components, such as steel rods, nuts and bolts, motors and separate electronic components, would be supplied externally. In 2006 the project produced a basic functional prototype and in May 2008 the machine succeeded in producing all of the plastic parts required to make a 'child' machine. • Some researchers have proposed a microfactory of specialized machines that support recursion—nearly all of the parts of all of the machines in the factory can be manufactured by the factory. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 48 uGovernIT™, Inc. Confidential ©
  49. 49. A 3D Printer that Can Print a Copy of Itself 49 uGovernIT™, Inc. Confidential ©
  50. 50. Design for 3D Printing Things to keep in mind when designing for 3D printing: When you're designing a 3D model for print or video there's little need to pay any attention to reality. Most scenes and objects will only contain the meshes that are visible, objects don't need to really connect, etc. You can completely ignore the physical world. As some engineers have already discovered, once you start working with 3D printers this is very different! This mini-tutorial will cover a few common pitfalls that one engineer encountered over a few weeks. 1. Objects must be closed 3D printing companies like to call this being 'watertight'. It can sometimes be a pain to identify where this problem occurs in your model. If you can't find it try AccuTrans - it will highlight the problem area for you. 2. Objects must be manifold The full definition of manifold is quite mathematic. For our purposes, a mesh will become non-manifold if it has edges that are shared between more than two faces. 3. Observe the maximum size and wall-thickness The maximum size of your object and the minimum wall-thickness depend on the production method that you are planning to use. 4. Correct normals All surfaces of your model should have their normals pointing in the correct direction. When your model contains inverted normals our printers cannot determine the inside or outside of your mesh or model. General Guidelines from Shapeways-Designing Mechanical Parts for 3D http://www.shapeways.com/tutorials/designing_mechanical_parts_for_3d_printing 3D Printing - Understanding Support Structures http://www.pddnet.com/blogs/2012/07/3d-printing-understanding-support-material 50 uGovernIT™, Inc. Confidential ©
  51. 51. 3D Printing Model Development Software A sampling of popular 3D printing software: •Magic: Popular with beginners and personal use practitioners •ReplicatorG: This Open Source software offers experimental file import capability for OBJ and Collada, two other widely used formats, although the files are then converted to STL, •MakerWare: supports OBJ as well as STL. You can also download 3D swiss army knife tools like MeshLab and the free netfabb Studio Basic, which can open dozens of different file formats and export them as binary or ASCII STL files, opening up even more models to ReplicatorG. •Autodesk® 123D® products are useful tools for making things—for quickly giving shape to your idea, exploring it, and most importantly, making it. The Autodesk 123D family is free* products that connect simple 3D modeling tools together with content, community, and fabrication services, so anyone can create, explore, and make their project. The 123D Design is used to create a digital model on the iPad, on the web, or on a desktop, and then directly 3D print or fabricate it. •MeshLab - Open source software for processing and editing of unstructured 3D triangular meshes. It also has an extremely fast slide function. •Google SketchUp plugin - A plugin script to import and export STL files for Google SketchUp. Supports both binary and ASCII import and export. •SLT-viewer - Display and manipulate the contents of stereolithography or STL file. •Most major CAD design vendors have an STL file creation capability 51 uGovernIT™, Inc. Confidential ©
  52. 52. Education and Training for 3D Printing Foundations of 3D Printing, and Introduction to 3D Modeling By Aaron Trocola·Owner/Industrial Designer at 40WestID •Learn the core skill for creation in the 21st century with one of the most experienced designer/modelers in the business. I will get you up and running with basic skills and provide expert consultation on what tools and techniques to focus on for your area of interest, whether in jewelry, sculpture, scale models, or product design. •One remote sign-up is supported via Skype, and it will be noted on the page if that slot is occupied. Class size is limited to ensure personal attention. •With curriculum that has been evolving over two years, this is the most mature 3D printing class available, taught by an instructor with 15 years of design and manufacturing experience. •This is an extended version that is essentially two classes: Foundations of 3D Printing, and Introduction to 3D Modeling. The goal is to give a complete primer on printing processes and software, then show how you can apply that knowledge to create your own designs and manufacture them at home or at a service bureau like Shapeways. •I have classified the curriculum as "beginner", but by the end you will have been exposed to a more complete knowledge base than most people acquire in several years of experience. •Each class also includes up-to-date discussion of the most recent changes in the business and technology of 3D printing. A question-and-answer session follows the class for any student with additional inquiries. 52 uGovernIT™, Inc. Confidential ©
  53. 53. Education and Training for 3D Printing Learn 3D Printing Technology at a College Near You Richard Nass, Brand Director 7/15/2013 If you were looking for confirmation that 3D printing -- sometimes used synonymously with rapid prototyping -- is here to stay, here's further evidence: NYU now offers a course on the topic that results in students receiving a certificate. According to the university's course description: •Rapid Prototyping is a certificate geared to familiarize students with digital tools and techniques relevant to the task of visualizing and prototyping 3D designs. Focusing on products and sculpture as the primary area of application, students will be taken through a series of hands-on class exercises supported with specialized video tutorials in order to become comfortable with the process of realizing their designs digitally. •Upon completion of the course, students will know how to take a concept and execute it into a successful 3D model using tools like Maxon's Cinema 4D, Autodesk's Mudbox, and Pixelogic's ZBrush software. At the end of the class, students will create professional 3D product visualizations and physical prototype models of their designs created with a 3D printer. Some further investigation shows NYU as a pioneer in this field. A quick search showed that a few other reputable colleges offer similar courses. Clearly, 3D printing, and the expertise that's required to make it successful, are making inroads into the design engineering community. 53 uGovernIT™, Inc. Confidential ©
  54. 54. Education and Training Materials for 3D Printing Design and Modeling for 3D Printing Paperback– May 25, 2014 by Matthew Griffin(Author) •If you've got—or are thinking of getting—access to an inexpensive 3D printer such as the ones from MakerBot and PrintrBot, there will come a time (soon!) when you'll graduate from printing other peoples' designs. There's no doubt that you can have plenty of fun downloading and printing designs from Thingiverse, but sooner or later, the urge to design will take over. Whether you use a web-based modeler optimized for 3D printing (such as TinkerCAD) or a professional CAD tool, designing for 3D printing demands expertise in everything from structural engineering to material science. You need know the limits of your medium, whether you're using a $25,000 Z Corp printer, a $2,000 MakerBot, or a $500 PrintrBot •Popular Education and Training Materials: 54 uGovernIT™, Inc. Confidential ©
  55. 55. Open Source Impacts for 3D Printing Education • • • • 55 Colleges and universities are finding more and more uses for 3-D-printing technology, which has grown in sophistication and fallen in price in recent years. Some proponents argue that nearly every discipline could benefit from the ability to easily create objects from customized designs. "We want this for humanities, for social sciences, for bio people, for law school, so what's interesting about 3-D printing is that it touches on all these areas," says Hod Lipson, a professor of mechanical engineering and of computing and information science at Cornell University, who is creating a 3-D-printing course for nonengineers. Given those possibilities, it's every mechanical-engineering student's dream to work with a 3-D printer, says Mr. Ganter, of Washington. But while most major mechanicalengineering departments now have the machines, only recently have they moved beyond those confines. A key factor is the open-source 3-D printers, which have made the technology affordable. Open-source enthusiasts design small 3-D printers, usually from expired patents, and post instructions online so others can follow their lead. That makes it possible for do-it-yourselfers to buy the parts and build their own printers for a price hovering in the hundreds of dollars, rather than the thousands that off-theshelf 3-D printers cost. In a campus setting, the cheaper printers provide the opportunity for more students to make their own designs, creating what Mr. Ganter calls "a paradigm shift in education." By Angela Chen, The Chronicle of Higher Education January 28, 2014 uGovernIT™, Inc. Confidential ©
  56. 56. 3D Printing Ecosystem of Professionals is Emerging From Google Search 56 uGovernIT™, Inc. Confidential ©
  57. 57. 3D Printing Outputs and Images of 3D Printing Machines Outputs: •An amazing number of physical things can be constructed. A list of 20 can be seen at the following link: http://www.hongkiat.com/blog/3d-printings/ Printing Machines and Outputs: •A large variety of 3 D Printing machines can be seen at the following link: https://www.google.com/search? q=images+for+3d+Printers&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=JAzfUqaCEYzloATsyIKADQ&ved=0CCcQsAQ&biw=12 26&bih=841 •See a list of desk top 3D printers at: http://www.3dprinter.net/directory/personal-3d-printers •See a list of commercial 3D printers at: http://www.3dprinter.net/directory/commercial-3d-printers Primary Videos in this presentation: •Lockheed Martin 3 min https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6Hkk3XYiU_s •Opportunity Ad 5 min http://3dprinterprofits.com/ • GE 4 min http://3dprintingindustry.com/2013/12/21/avio-aero-ges-vision-industrial-additive-manufacturing/ •PBS Video 7 min http://video.pbs.org/video/2339671486/ •Contour Crafting 12 min http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JdbJP8Gxqog&feature=player_embedded •RedEye/Stratasys 2.5 min http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3-4DL2njmVE Research Resources: •Google Searches •Discussion with Jens Windau Founder and CEO - AIO Robotics •Meeting with Sy Hussaini President - Source Graphics •Discussion with Ken Burns from - Growit •Discussions with 11 different 3D printing companies at the 2/11-2/13 Pacific Design and Manufacturing Conference 57 uGovernIT™, Inc. Confidential ©

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