Skills<br /> Skills in the Social Studies Curriculum <br />Active Democratic Citizenship<br />Managing Information and Ide...
Instructional Strategy for Skill-based  Outcomes<br />Definitions, Theories and Principles<br />Instructional Strategies f...
 Definitions, Theories and Principles<br />Learning outcomesare“ends-centric”<br /> focusing on what is to be learned (i.e...
What is a skill?<br />
 Definitions<br />Skill is “the capacity to perform a given type of task or activity with a given degree of effectiveness,...
Romiszowski’sSkill Categories<br />Intellectual or cognitive<br />Motor, sensory or psychomotor<br />Personal or reactive<...
The Reproductive-Productive Skill Continuum<br />Productive skills – “activities…planning of a procedure…to the specific s...
What is Skill?<br />What is Knowledge?<br />
Characteristics of Skill and Knowledge<br />Skill and knowledge are different qualities.<br />Knowledge – “information of ...
Integration of Knowledge and Skill<br />Competence or competency<br />Cluster of skills, abilities, habits, character trai...
Knowledge Folds into Skill<br /><ul><li>A low-level task (e.g. preparing a spreadsheet report) involves skill that utilize...
As the task moves from low- to high-level (e.g. developing a diagnosis on House) additional knowledge is required to suppl...
Skill and knowledge should be viewed as interdependent (not independent) qualities.</li></li></ul><li><---The Reproductive...
 The Skills Cycle<br />A Four-Stage Performance Cycle (Romiszowski, 1981; Reigeluth & Carr-Chellman, 2009, p.207)<br />
The Extended <br />Skill Cycle<br />(Romiszowski, 2009; <br />Reigeluth & <br />Carr-Chellman, 2009, <br />p.220)<br />
 Instructional Strategies<br />
Example <br />of<br />Complex<br />Mental<br />Model<br />
Tim Gallwey<br />What is The Inner Game?<br />“There is always an inner game being played in your mind no matter what oute...
Inner Game<br />      Awareness<br />(Critical Variables)<br />Awareness is (often) curative. Ah ha!<br />Non Judgmental<b...
Inner Game<br />Choice- Desired Future Outcome<br />
Inner Game<br />T Trust<br />ACT<br />
It don’t mean a thing if it ain’t got that zing<br />Motivation Theories<br />Purpose, Autonomy,<br />Mastery<br />ARCS<br />
STOP (Reflection-in-Action)<br />Step Back<br />Think<br />Organize yourself<br />Proceed                       Rest<br />...
Middle
End (of day/class)</li></li></ul><li>Paradoxes<br />To develop skill and confidence in the learner- try not to solve the p...
Try to put yourself in your students’ shoes<br />Transposing (Empathy)<br />“<br />What the student hears is (usually) mor...
Relationship to Social Studies<br /><ul><li>Incorporate performances of understanding (authentic products)
 Work on routines and the automaticity of reproductive skills in service of productive skills;
Talk assessment with students (jointly develop criteria)
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Fostering Skills Outcomes

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This presentation is to marry Romiszoski's work with Tim Gallwey.

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  • The word act may refer to physical, mental, personal or interpersonal activity
  • Fostering Skills Outcomes

    1. 1. Skills<br /> Skills in the Social Studies Curriculum <br />Active Democratic Citizenship<br />Managing Information and Ideas<br />Critical and Creative thinking<br />Communication<br />Information Technology<br />Problem Solving<br />Human Relations and Literacy<br />Inquiry and Research<br />Geographical and Historical Thinking <br />Instructional Strategy for Skill-based (Psychomotor) Outcomes<br />
    2. 2. Instructional Strategy for Skill-based Outcomes<br />Definitions, Theories and Principles<br />Instructional Strategies for Developing Skills<br />Considerations for planning your unit<br />References<br />
    3. 3. Definitions, Theories and Principles<br />Learning outcomesare“ends-centric”<br /> focusing on what is to be learned (i.e. the outcome or the end results).<br />Approaches to instruction are “means-centric” – how the learning is done (i.e. the method).<br />
    4. 4. What is a skill?<br />
    5. 5. Definitions<br />Skill is “the capacity to perform a given type of task or activity with a given degree of effectiveness, efficiency, speed…” <br />(Romiszowski, 2009; Reigeluth & Carr-Chellman, 2009, p.63).<br />
    6. 6. Romiszowski’sSkill Categories<br />Intellectual or cognitive<br />Motor, sensory or psychomotor<br />Personal or reactive<br />Interactive or interpersonal<br />Baseball (hockey, figure skating, chess,) was my salvation.<br />Auto-pilot<br />
    7. 7. The Reproductive-Productive Skill Continuum<br />Productive skills – “activities…planning of a procedure…to the specific situation … the application of theory, general principles, and creativity…underlying knowledge is heuristic rather than algorithmic.”<br />Reproductive skills – “activities that are repetitive and largely automatic….application of an appropriate procedure, or algorithm, for the task in hand.”<br />Cognitive processing<br />Developmental<br />(Romiszowski, 2009; Reigeluth & Carr-Chellman, 2009, p.202).<br />
    8. 8. What is Skill?<br />What is Knowledge?<br />
    9. 9. Characteristics of Skill and Knowledge<br />Skill and knowledge are different qualities.<br />Knowledge – “information of which a person…..is aware…….a ‘go-no go’” quantity (either you have it or don’t); the “eureka [moment]…..one-shot manner” of organizing an idea with existing knowledge into new knowledge. <br />Skill – a quality“develops with experience and practice….seldom one-shot….repeated practice…..[for]….higher degrees of competencies.”<br />(Reigeluth & Carr-Chellman, 2009, pp.203-204). <br />
    10. 10. Integration of Knowledge and Skill<br />Competence or competency<br />Cluster of skills, abilities, habits, character traits, <br />and knowledge <br />to perform<br />a specific job well.<br />
    11. 11. Knowledge Folds into Skill<br /><ul><li>A low-level task (e.g. preparing a spreadsheet report) involves skill that utilizes existing knowledge.
    12. 12. As the task moves from low- to high-level (e.g. developing a diagnosis on House) additional knowledge is required to supplement existing skill.
    13. 13. Skill and knowledge should be viewed as interdependent (not independent) qualities.</li></li></ul><li><---The Reproductive-Productive Skill Continuum---><br />
    14. 14. The Skills Cycle<br />A Four-Stage Performance Cycle (Romiszowski, 1981; Reigeluth & Carr-Chellman, 2009, p.207)<br />
    15. 15. The Extended <br />Skill Cycle<br />(Romiszowski, 2009; <br />Reigeluth & <br />Carr-Chellman, 2009, <br />p.220)<br />
    16. 16. Instructional Strategies<br />
    17. 17. Example <br />of<br />Complex<br />Mental<br />Model<br />
    18. 18. Tim Gallwey<br />What is The Inner Game?<br />“There is always an inner game being played in your mind no matter what outer game you are playing. How aware you are of this game can make the difference between success and failure.” -Tim Gallwey<br />
    19. 19. Inner Game<br /> Awareness<br />(Critical Variables)<br />Awareness is (often) curative. Ah ha!<br />Non Judgmental<br />
    20. 20. Inner Game<br />Choice- Desired Future Outcome<br />
    21. 21. Inner Game<br />T Trust<br />ACT<br />
    22. 22. It don’t mean a thing if it ain’t got that zing<br />Motivation Theories<br />Purpose, Autonomy,<br />Mastery<br />ARCS<br />
    23. 23. STOP (Reflection-in-Action)<br />Step Back<br />Think<br />Organize yourself<br />Proceed Rest<br />Time-outs<br /><ul><li>Beginning
    24. 24. Middle
    25. 25. End (of day/class)</li></li></ul><li>Paradoxes<br />To develop skill and confidence in the learner- try not to solve the problems of your students, instead facilitate their problem solving skills<br />Teach less so that more is learned.<br />
    26. 26. Try to put yourself in your students’ shoes<br />Transposing (Empathy)<br />“<br />What the student hears is (usually) more important than what the teacher says and there is usually a big difference between the two.”<br />
    27. 27. Relationship to Social Studies<br /><ul><li>Incorporate performances of understanding (authentic products)
    28. 28. Work on routines and the automaticity of reproductive skills in service of productive skills;
    29. 29. Talk assessment with students (jointly develop criteria)
    30. 30. Portfolios to show skill growth</li></ul> <br /> . <br />
    31. 31. Discussion <br /><ul><li>What are some of the critical variables that span the cognitive, psychomotor, personal and interpersonal domains in the skills threaded into the Social Studies curriculum.</li></ul> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br />
    32. 32. Summary<br /><ul><li>Learning outcomes (ends-centric) versus instructional approaches (means-centric);
    33. 33. Skill classification – cognitive, psychomotor, personal (reactive) & interpersonal (interactive);
    34. 34. Reproductive (algorithm) - productive (heuristic) skill continuum
    35. 35. The Skill Cycle
    36. 36. The Extended Skill Cycle
    37. 37. Tim Gallwey, The Inner Game</li></li></ul><li>6. References<br />
    38. 38. 6. References<br />

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