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PRESENTATION On Bovine virus diarrhoea - Mucosal disease


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Bovine viral diarrhea-mucosal disease is a contagious viral disease of cattle and other ruminants first seen in 1946 in New York as a gastro-enteritis with severe diarrhea, ulcerations of the muzzle and nasal and oral cavities, fever, reduction in milk secretion, cessation of rumination and abortions

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PRESENTATION On Bovine virus diarrhoea - Mucosal disease

  1. 1. PRESENTATION On Bovine virus Diarrhea-Mucosal disease Dr. Md. Saroat Hossain DVM, MS in Microbiology, Rajshahi University, Bangladesh
  2. 2. Bovine virus diarrhoea - Mucosal disease  Bovine viral diarrhea-mucosal disease is a contagious viral disease of cattle and other ruminants first seen in 1946 in New York as a gastro-enteritis with severe diarrhea, ulcerations of the muzzle and nasal and oral cavities, fever, reduction in milk secretion, cessation of rumination and abortions.
  3. 3.  A similar disease exhibiting the same signs and lesions ( only more sever, resembling Rinderpest) occurred in Iowa in 1953. The disease was named mucosal disease.  It is now recognized that both disease entities were caused by the same virus.
  4. 4. Etiology: BVD virus is closely related to Hog cholera virus and Border disease virus of sheep, all belonging to the genus Pestivirus ( family Flaviviridae) . BVDV is an RNA virus that has the ability to replicate into many different variants. These variants can result in changes in the virus's disease-causing capabilities. The family of BVD viruses has recently been grouped into two different genotype;, known as Type 1 and Type 2 and each of the genotypes has been divided into two biotypes, cytopathic ( CP ) and non cytopathic ( NCP ).
  5. 5.  The distinction between the two biotypes, CP and NCP, is determined solely by how they behave in cell cultures in the laboratory, the CP BVDV will damage cell cultures ( Cytopathic ) and the NCP-BVDV will not ( Non-cylopathic ) and 99% of the field strains of BVDV being non-cytopathic.  The basic difference between the Type I and Type 2 genotype BVD viruses is how severe a disease each causes in cattle. The Type 2 BVDV has been responsible for the more severe outbreaks of the disease within the last few years.
  6. 6. Epidemiology Based on serologic findings, BVD virus is distributed throughout the world and is prevalent in most cattle populations. All ages of cattle arc susceptible but clinical BVD occurs most frequently in cattle 6 months to 2 years of age. Colostral antibody appears to protect most calves for 3 to 6 months after birth. The disease syndromes caused by two different genotypes are basically the same, but the severity of the diseases caused by each is different.
  7. 7.  The NCP-BVDV can infect an animal and remain in the animal as long as the animal lives. It does not stimulate a detectable antibody titer in the animal and can easily be passed to the fetus during pregnancy.  Finally, both NCP-BVD and CP-BVD viruses have the ability to suppress an animal's immune system: the viruses lower the animal's resistance to all diseases.
  8. 8. •Transmission Infected cattle are considered to be the principle reservoir of BVDV. However, other ruminants including deer, antelope and buffalo are also known lo become infected with BVDV. The virus is shed from cattle in the feces and in secretions from the nose and mouth. Fecal contamination of food and water sources is a very important means of transmission. BVD is also readily transmitted by aerosol droplet and direct contact. In animal when the operator does not change the gloves . By people with contaminated footwear &/or clothing & occasionally by fence like contact with neighbor’s cattle
  9. 9.  Infection via oropharyngeal route  Primary replication in the epithelium of oropharaynx  Drainage to the lymphnodes  Viraemia to infection of lymphocytes-leukopenia  Spread to other lymphoid tissue , particularly peyer’s patches , and the epithelium of the alimentary and respiratory tract  Infection of pregnant cows leads to transplacental infection leading to various complications. Pathogenesis: Bovine viral diarrhoea:
  10. 10. Congenital infection with non cpBVDV leading to persistent sub-clinical infection Calves become immunotolerant Superinfection with antigenically similar cpBVDV Genetic recombination Manifestation of disease similar to BVD but with more severity. Mucosal disease:
  11. 11. Clinical findings  Diseases induced by BVDV vary in severity, duration and organ system involved. The clinical signs of BVD - MD can be described in the following forms. 1. Sub-clinical BVD infection:  Approximately 95% of the animals that become infected with the BVDV do not develop signs of disease.  The BVDV has been identified as one of the most significant disease organisms involved with respiratory disease of cattle. The bacteria can then begin to multiply in the lungs and eventually reach a disease threshold, e.g. Shipping fever.
  12. 12. 2. Peracute BVD disease:  The affected animals will exhibit high fevers ( 107 - 1100 F ), occasional diarrhea, respiratory disease and loss of appetite or anorexia.  Per acute BVD can affect cattle of all ages, and often results in the death of the animals within 48 hours of the onset of disease regardless of the animals age. Fig: Diarrhoea in calves
  13. 13. 3.Acute BVD disease:  It is charecterised by a fever of 104 - 106 0F. a yellow discharge from the nose and eyes, erosion of the muzzle and in the mouth, and diarrhoea that may contain mucus and blood.  Diarrhea is usually present.  Acute BVD infections in the newborn calf may be more prevalent then is currently recommended because the disease is usually masked by secondary infections that cause diarrhoea and/or pneumonia.
  14. 14. 4. Chronic BVD disease:  The clinical signs associated with the chronic disease arc similar but more extensive and severe than the clinical signs associated with the acute BVD disease. The chronically infected animal usually appear unthrifty and starving. Death occurs more frequently in chronic BVD infections than acute BVD infection .
  15. 15. The chronically diseased animal exhibit depression, a lack of appetite; diarrhea, a yellowish discharge from the eyes and nose, crusted muzzle, erosions of the mouth, bald spots due lo loss of hair, and lameness due to Inflammation of the hair line, sensitive laminae, and the tissue between the claws of the feet.
  16. 16. 5. Mucosal BVD disease: The clinical signs of mucosal BVD disease are similar to but even more severe than those associated with the chronic-form of BVD. The erosions extend from the muzzle through the gut, and out the rear. The erosions are found on the mucosal surfaces throughout the gut, hence, the term mucosal disease. The cattle look like 'death warned over'. There is little chance of survival for these animals.
  17. 17. 6. Fetal BVD disease (BVD infection of unborn calf)  The BVDV is capable of passing easily in utero from an infected cow to the fetus, which is particularly vulnerable to the BVDV during the first 6 months of pregnancy.  Death of the fetus is common if the infection occurs during the first 120 days of pregnancy.  Resorption, mummification or abortion of the dead fetus will result.
  18. 18.  Fetuses that survive the early infection will be born without a detectable antibody titer .The early age of fetus ( < 120 days of age ) possess an underdeveloped immune system against the BVDV.  It is also not uncommon for the surviving fetus to be malformed or blind or to have skeletal defects and underdeveloped brain. The virus is passed from generation to generation. Fig: aborted fetus
  19. 19. S/N time Time of infection; Clinical outcome 1. 1st 3month of pregnancy Resorption or abortion, history of repeat breeding with increased interval between estrus. 2. 42-145 day If fetus survives, calf born persistently infected with BVDV. 3. 75-120 day Congenital defects ,Cataracts retinal degeneration optic neuritis , skeletal malformation , growth retardation. 4. Late in pregnancy. Calves born with precolostrum antibodies to BVDV. Table: Time of BVD virus infection in pregnancy and clinical outcome:
  20. 20. Diagnosis: Diagnosis based on 1.History. 2.Clinical sign: diarrhoea, respiratory problem, anorexia etc. Most BVD infection are sub-clinical with no observed symptoms other than an elevated titer. 1) In severe out breaks, the history of the disease together with the clinical and pathological findings are strongly indicative of the views diarrhea mucosal disease complex. 2) Milder out breaks may present difficulties for this reason it may be necessary to be obtain a confirmatory diagnosis. It is possible by isolation and identification of the causative virus and appropriate serological tests.
  21. 21. 3) The causative virus is readily isolated in cell culture inoculated with blood from affected animals. 4) Serological tests- 5) Virus neutralization test 6) Immunofluorescence test 7) Complement fixation test 8) Agar gel diffusion test.
  22. 22. Demonstration of virus is usually of some diagnostic value for bovine virus diarrhea mucosal disease complex Differential diagnosis: Differential diagnosis with mucosal disease can be divided into- 1. Diseases with oral lesions and diarrhea. e.g. Rinderpest, Bovine malignant catarrhal fever. 2. Diseases with oral lesions but without diarrhea.e.g. FMD, vesicular stomatitis, Necrotic stomatitis. Bovine papular stomatitis. 3. Diseases with the diarrhea but without oral lesions. e.g. Salmonellosis. Winter dysentery, para T.B. Intestinal parasitism, Coccidiosis and Poisoning.
  23. 23. Treatment:  There is no effective treatment that can alter the course of BVD infections, but most BVDV infections are subclinical and self-limiting.  If treatment is initiated, antibiotics, B vitamins and fluids may be used in attempts to control secondary infection and provide supportive therapy.  Changes feed rations to enhance the palatability of the feed could tempt the sick animal to eat needed nutrients.  However, symptomatic treatment controlling diarrhea, respiratory signs and secondary bacterial infection may be used.
  24. 24.  Administration of antiserum may be of benefit in outbreaks of acute disease.  Anlidiarrhoeals, antimicrobials such as antibiotics, sulphonamides, expectorant and fluid and electrolyte therapy are used in cases of severe acute disease arc seldom of much benefit.
  25. 25. Trade name compositi on Trade dose Pack size company Dirovet 2 gm metronidaz ole 1b/50 kg bwt. Orally Tablet form Techno Renamyci n 50,100mg: oxytetracycl ine 5- 10mg/kg IM, IV 10ml vial Reneta Dimidin 333mg/ml sulphadimi din 15- 30ml/50 kg. IM, SC,IV 30, 100ml Techno Amodis- Vet 2gm metronidaz ole 1b/50kg bwt orally Tablet form Square Suggested drug:
  26. 26. Address:DVM,Rajshahi university Dr. Rehana parvin Client’s report: Name : ‘A’ Address: ‘B’ Patients report: Age:2.5 years Sex: Female Breed:Cross(cattle) weight: 100kg Prescription on bovine virrus diarhea-mucosal disease Rx. 1.Inj. Astringent mixture-6dose. Sig.Adm.1dose bid or orally daily for 3 days. 2. Inj. Anti-Histavet 10ml viaX2 Sig. Inject 5 ml IV daily for 4 days. 3.Bolus. Anorexon-15 Sig: Adm. 3 bolus orally for 5 days. 4. Bolus Dirovet -5 Sig: Adm. 1b orally for 5 day. 5.Dextrose saline -500ml bag X 3 Sig: Inject 500ml IV daily for 3 days. 6. Renamycin 10ml vial X4 Sig:Inject 10ml IV/IM daily for 4 days. Clinical sign: 1.High fever 2.Diarhea contain blood or mucous. 3.Inappetence 4.Weakness 5.Anorexia 6.Nasal discharge 7.Weight loss ADVICE: Vaccinate the animal properly & above drug should be continued. Rehana parvin ; 15.04.14 Signature
  27. 27. Control: Hygienic management: Control is based on sound management practices, elimination of persistently infected cattle, and vaccination. Cattle should be tested for persistent infection and antibody against BVDV before entry into a herd.
  28. 28. A persistently Infected animal will shed BVDV in the herd all of its life. So the persistently infected animals must be identified and culled for slaughter. A closed herd or long term quarantine of newly purchased animals can prevent infections. Bull semen may transmit BVDV and should be tested for virus before use.
  29. 29. Prevention: Top 10 prevent BVD list to in a herd: 1. Maintain a strict level of herd biosecurity 2. Purchase only opens animals that are known to be BVD-negative before purchase. 3. Isolate any new additions or animals re-entering the herd for a maximum of 30 days. 4. Test any new additions for BVD and vaccinate during the isolation period.
  30. 30. 5. Maintain good sanitation and routinely disinfect contaminated areas. Prevent contamination from outside sources by disinfection 6. Prevent contact with neighboring cattle of unknown status. 7. Protect pregnant animals from potential sources of exposure during the first trimester. 8. Prevent mixing of animals groups immediately before breeding and during the first trimester.
  31. 31. 9. Conduct surveillance for BVD by performing necropsy on dead animals and collect blood samples on any calves that arc poor doers and calves that have respiratory disease. 10. Vaccinate the cow herd yearly. Ensure that heifers arc properly vaccinated at 6 months of age ( 2 doses ) and are booster vaccinated before breeding.
  32. 32. Vaccination Vaccination of susceptible cattle has been the principal approach to the prevention and control of BVD. Presently, there are two forms of BVD vaccine:
  33. 33. 1. Replicating BVD vaccine ( Modified live virus vaccine ) Modified live BVD vaccines should not be administered to pregnant cattle during any stage of pregnancy. Usually requires only one injection to stimulate long protection. If the cattle are in the first 120 days of pregnancy, the fetus may become infected with the vaccine virus and be aborted, be born weak, or be born in apparent good health but be persistently infected. Such calves never develop a measurable antibody titer and can be a life time shedder.
  34. 34. If later exposed to a different BVDV, they may develop mucosal BVD disease and die. If cattle are in the last half of pregnancy when vaccinated with a MLV, the fetus may become infected, die and be aborted Most MLV BVD vaccines can be administered to calves nursing pregnant cows The MLV -BVD vaccine virus is non-shedding and should not be transmitted to the pregnant cows. If the animals are not pregnant then MLV-BVD vaccine can be used.
  35. 35. 2. Non-replicating BVD vaccine ( Killed virus vaccines) This type of vaccines is safe to use in all cattle regardless of the pregnancy status. It requires two dosages of killed virus vaccine to initiate a high level of resistance It also requires that the animal receive a minimum of none animal booster to maintain a significant level of resistance.
  36. 36. If dealing with Type 2 BVD, vaccinate-using a killed BVD vaccine containing Type I and type 2 viruses or booster at three months intervals. Breeding stock should be booster vaccinated Immediately before the breeding season to provide maximum protection to the fetus. Remember, do not booster vaccinate pregnant cow with replicating BVD vaccine.
  37. 37. Fig: Calves affected by diarrhea & respiratory disease caused by BVD & mucosal disease
  38. 38. Who helps to complete the assignment