Antenna Details for iPhone 5 and iPhone 4G

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Antenna performance in mobile phone is much more important than antenna design due to the very small size of antenna RF in a compact mobile phone device. Through near 20 years' research and development in RF, transceiver and antenna technology, Prof. Willie W. Lu carefully analyzed and evaluated each patent which Apple filed with USPTO on the antenna technology for iPhone and iPad, and pointed out that the major problem of iPhone antenna is the lack of optimal antenna optimization and calibration technology which result in the poor performance of its radio transmission between the iPhone and the basestation. Prof. Lu has writen a 500-pages report to address this technical issue based on the iPhone antenna patents Apple filed with USPTO. For more, please contact Prof. Lu at wwlu@ieee.org or visit http://4Gsummit.com to join our technical discussions.

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Antenna Details for iPhone 5 and iPhone 4G

  1. 1. 7th National Radio Administration Experts Council Meeting Beijing, July 15th Antenna Technology for Mobile Phone Device Case Study: iPhone/iPad Prof. Willie W. Lu
  2. 2. Challenges in Mobile Phone Antenna • Tradeoff between size and performance • Handheld Interference Analytical Modeling • Human Body Radio Absorbing Modeling • Inter-band frequency I t f I t b df Interference Modeling M d li • Intra-band channel Interference Modeling • Multi-band Antenna Optimization Technique • Multi-band Antenna Calibration Technique • Radio Transmission Optimization and Link Budget p g • Multi-dimensional Handovers Calibration (V+H) Antenna Performance is Much More Important than Antenna Design Prof. Willie W. Lu,wireless innovation™ leading Cupertino, CA Page 2 © Willie W. LU, All Rights Reserved. COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
  3. 3. Key Antenna Patents of iPhone/iPad – New Design Principal Inventor: Dr. Robert W. Schlub, Sr. Director of Antenna Group, Apple Computer Inc. 1. 20100123632 MULTIBAND HANDHELD ELECTRONIC DEVICE SLOT ANTENNA 05-20-2010 2. 20100060529 ANTENNAS WITH TUNING STRUCTURE FOR HANDHELD DEVICES 03-11-2010 3. 20100007564 ANTENNAS FOR HANDHELD ELECTRONIC DEVICES WITH CONDUCTIVE BEZELS 01-14-2010 4. 20090305742 ELECTRONIC DEVICE WITH PROXIMITY-BASED RADIO POWER CONTROL 12-10-2009 5. 20090303139 HANDHELD ELECTRONIC DEVICES WITH ISOLATED ANTENNAS 12-10-2009 6. 20090278753 HANDHELD ELECTRONIC DEVICES WITH ISOLATED ANTENNAS 11-12-2009 7. 7 20090275370 HANDHELD ELECTRONIC DEVICES WITH ISOLATED ANTENNAS 11 05 2009 11-05-2009 8. 20090273526 HANDHELD ELECTRONIC DEVICES WITH ISOLATED ANTENNAS 11-05-2009 9. 20090256759 HYBRID ANTENNAS FOR ELECTRONIC DEVICES - PORTABLE ELECTRONIC DEVICE IS PROVIDED THAT HAS A HYBRID ANTENNA 10-15-2009 10. 20090256758 HYBRID ANTENNAS FOR ELECTRONIC DEVICES - PORTABLE ELECTRONIC DEVICE IS PROVIDED THAT HAS A HYBRID ANTENNA 10-15-2009 11. 20090153407 HYBRID ANTENNAS WITH DIRECTLY FED ANTENNA SLOTS FOR HANDHELD ELECTRONIC DEVICES 06-18-2009 12. 20090051604 MULTIBAND ANTENNA FOR HANDHELD ELECTRONIC DEVICES 02-26-2009 13. 20090040115 ANTENNAS FOR HANDHELD ELECTRONIC DEVICES 02 12 2009 02-12-2009 14. 20080316121 WIRELESS HANDHELD ELECTRONIC DEVICE - HANDHELD ELECTRONIC DEVICE MAY BE PROVIDED THAT CONTAINS A CONDUCTIVE HOUSING AND OTHER CONDUCTIVE ELEMENTS 12-25-2008 15. 20080316117 HANDHELD ELECTRONIC DEVICE ANTENNAS - HANDHELD ELECTRONIC DEVICE MAY BE PROVIDED THAT CONTAINS A CONDUCTIVE HOUSING AND OTHER CONDUCTIVE ELEMENTS 12-25-2008 16. 16 20080316116 HANDHELD ELECTRONIC DEVICE WITH CABLE GROUNDING 12 25 2008 12-25-2008 17. 20080316115 ANTENNAS FOR HANDHELD ELECTRONIC DEVICES WITH CONDUCTIVE BEZELS 12-25-2008 Prof. Willie W. Lu,wireless innovation™ leading Cupertino, CA Page 3 © Willie W. LU, All Rights Reserved. COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
  4. 4. Challenge to traditional Antenna Testing Embedded Antenna Testing Much Difficult than Traditional Testing Based on Testing with Anritsu, CETECOM, Comarco , LitePoint , RTX Telecom, etc. Prof. Willie W. Lu,wireless innovation™ leading Cupertino, CA Page 4 © Willie W. LU, All Rights Reserved. COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
  5. 5. How to combat Interference in mobile phone Receiver Diversity To combat distortion To combat Loss in SNR Transmitter FREQ-SELECTIVE DIVERSITY TYPES Power Control DISTORTION •Time (e.g Interleaving) •Adaptive Equalization •Frequency (e.g, BW Expansion, Antenna (e.g decision Feedback, Viterbi Spread Spectrum FH or DH with Calibration Equalizer) Rate Receiver) Transmission •Spread Spectrum –DS or FH Spread DS •Spatial (e g Spaced Receive Spatial (e.g Optimization •Orthogonal FDM (OFDM) Antennas) •Polarization Radio Repeater •Pilot Signal Installation FAST-FADING DISTORTION FLAT-FADING AND SLOW- •Robust Modulation FADING •Some Type of Diversity to get •Signal Redundancy to increase Additional Uncorrelated Signaling Rate Estimates of Signal •Coding & Interleaving •Error-Correction Coding Prof. Willie W. Lu,wireless innovation™ leading Cupertino, CA Page 5 © Willie W. LU, All Rights Reserved. COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
  6. 6. Human Body Radio Absorbing Modeling • Specific absorption rate distribution of 1 900MHz 1,900MHz cell phone held against tilted head model • Radiation increasing un- linearly when closing to head • Interference increasing un-linearly as well • Radio Transmission performance degrading abruptly Prof. Willie W. Lu,wireless innovation™ leading Cupertino, CA Page 6 © Willie W. LU, All Rights Reserved. COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
  7. 7. Reconfigurable Multiband Antennas • GSM900 (880-960) • DCS1800 (1710-1785) • PCS1900 (1850-1910) • UMT2000 (1725 to 2055 Simulated and measured results of the experimental design: return loss of quad-band antenna ( ─), measured return loss of quad-band antenna (-o—o-), simulated return loss of Bluetooth antenna ( - - -), ), measured return loss of Bluetooth antenna (-+-+-), and measured isolation between quadband and Bluetooth antennas ( -▫-▫-▫-▫-). Prof. Willie W. Lu,wireless innovation™ leading Cupertino, CA Page 7 © Willie W. LU, All Rights Reserved. COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
  8. 8. Wireless Device Antenna Choices Loop PIFA Patch Monopole M l MLA Prof. Willie W. Lu,wireless innovation™ leading Cupertino, CA Page 8 © Willie W. LU, All Rights Reserved. COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
  9. 9. Quad-Band PIFA - Example The Inverted F antenna is a variant of the Monopole antenna • reduce the height • required PCB ground plane length is roughly λ/4 • miter-avoid a right angle microstrip bend, which results in a poor current flow on the stub. • taper -compensate the abrupt step transition between the microstrip line feed and the antenna. (1) Main PCB (printed circuited broad), (2) battery, (3)speaker, (4) patches for quad-band antenna, (5) patch for Bluetooth antenna, (6) ground strip, (7) feed strip (8) strip strip, upper PCB f = c / 4(W + L) *W -width of each patch W *L –length of each patch Prof. Willie W. Lu,wireless innovation™ leading Cupertino, CA Page 9 © Willie W. LU, All Rights Reserved. COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
  10. 10. Switchable Multiband Antennas - volume reuse I. Switched Feed: antenna volume reuse i achieved b switching b is hi d by i hi between different feeding locations of the antenna. II. II Switched ground: antenna volume reuse is achieved by switching or breaking of y g g the antenna’s connection to the ground. Prof. Willie W. Lu,wireless innovation™ leading Cupertino, CA Page 10 © Willie W. LU, All Rights Reserved. COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
  11. 11. Switched Feed Resonant frequencies: Mode 0: ∆L1 and ∆L2 are the extension lengths due to capacitive or inductive loading effect at the corresponding resonant frequencies Mode 1: ∆L1 and ∆L3 are the extension lengths due to capacitive or inductive loading effect at the corresponding resonant frequencies Prof. Willie W. Lu,wireless innovation™ leading Cupertino, CA Page 11 © Willie W. LU, All Rights Reserved. COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
  12. 12. Switched Ground Resonant frequencies: Mode A: ∆L1 and ∆L2 are the extension lengths due to capacitive or inductive loading effect at the corresponding resonant frequencies Mode B: d3 is slot length whereas ∆L1 and ∆L3 are the extension lengths due to capacitive or inductive loading effect at the corresponding resonant frequencies Prof. Willie W. Lu,wireless innovation™ leading Cupertino, CA Page 12 © Willie W. LU, All Rights Reserved. COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
  13. 13. Antenna Diversity Methods – Beyond Mobile Phone To Mitigate These Problems, Diversity Techniques are Being Developed - Spatial Diversity is a widespread technique based on the use of an array of sufficiently spaced antennas at either transmitter or receiver y p - Polarization Diversity takes advantage of existence of statistical independence of different polarization states as a wave is scattered in the environment - Pattern Diversity uses the antenna itself to select angularly diverse f components of the scattered wave to mitigate fading and increase SNR - Temporal Diversity exploits the multidimensionality of the channel to improve SNR - MIMO uses antenna arrays at both transmitter and receiver—multipath propagation can actually be exploited to establish multiple parallel channels Prof. Willie W. Lu,wireless innovation™ leading Cupertino, CA Page 13 © Willie W. LU, All Rights Reserved. COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
  14. 14. Any question ? Prof. Willie W. Lu http://Willie.Lu E-mail: wwlu@ieee.org Prof. Willie W. Lu,wireless innovation™ leading Cupertino, CA Page 14 © Willie W. LU, All Rights Reserved. COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL

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