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Stevan Harnad: Open Access - Open Data: similarities and differences

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Open Access (OA) means free online access to the 2.5 million articles published every year in the world's 25,000 peer-reviewed scholarly and scientific research journals. OA can be provided in two ways: To provide "Green OA," authors self-archive the final refereed drafts of their articles in their institutional OA repositories immediately upon acceptance for publication (by conventional, non-OA journals). To provide "Gold OA," authors publish their articles in OA journals that make all their articles free online immediately upon publication. (Sometimes a fee is charged to the author's institution for Gold OA.) Because of the benefits of OA (in terms of maximized visibility, accessibility, uptake, usage and impact) to research, researchers, their institutions and the taxpayers that fund them, institutions and funders worldwide are increasingly mandating (i.e. requiring) Green OA self-archiving. Gold OA publishing cannot be mandated by authors' institutions and funders, but universal Green OA self-archiving mandates may eventually lead to a global transition to Gold OA publishing; it depends on whether and how long subscriptions remain sustainable as the means of covering the costs of print and online publication; if subscriptions become unsustainable, authors' institutions will pay journal publishers for peer review out of a portion of their annual windfall subscription cancellation savings. Data-archiving cannot be mandated, because researchers must be allowed the exclusive right to mine their data they have collected if they wish; but as Green OA self-archiving grows, data-archiving too will grow, because of their natural complementarity and the power of global collaboration to accelerate and enhance research progress.

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Stevan Harnad: Open Access - Open Data: similarities and differences

  1. 1. Open Access / Open Data: Similarities and Differences <ul><li>Stevan Harnad </li></ul><ul><li>Expert Conference on </li></ul><ul><li>Open Access and Open Data </li></ul><ul><li>German National Library of Medicine,Cologne </li></ul><ul><li>December 13-14 2010 </li></ul>
  2. 2. Open Access is: <ul><li>Free, </li></ul><ul><li>Immediate </li></ul><ul><li>Permanent </li></ul><ul><li>Full-Text </li></ul><ul><li>On-Line </li></ul><ul><li>Access </li></ul>
  3. 3. Open Access to What? <ul><li>~2.5 million articles yearly </li></ul><ul><li>~25,000 peer-reviewed journals </li></ul>1. Books 2. Textbooks 3. Magazine articles 4. Newspaper articles 5. Music 6. Video 7. Software 8. “Knowledge” 9. Data 10. Unrefereed Preprints
  4. 4. Refereed “Post-Print” Accepted, Certified, Published by Journal Impact cycle begins: Research is done Researchers write pre-refereeing “ Pre-Print” Submitted to Journal Pre-Print reviewed by Peer Experts – “Peer-Review” Pre-Print revised by article’s Authors Researchers can access the Post-Print if their university has a subscription to the Journal 12-18 Months New impact cycles: New research builds on existing research
  5. 5. New impact cycles: New research builds on existing research Researchers can access the Post-Print if their university has a subscription to the Journal Refereed “Post-Print” Accepted, Certified, Published by Journal Impact cycle begins: Research is done Researchers write pre-refereeing “ Pre-Print” Submitted to Journal Pre-Print reviewed by Peer Experts – “Peer-Review” Pre-Print revised by article’s Authors 12-18 Months More impact cycles:
  6. 6. Impact Range = 36%-200% (Data: Stevan Harnad and co-workers) Text 4 Νοεμβρίου 2010
  7. 7. There are plenty of repositories
  8. 8. IUEM 20/10/2010
  9. 9. But almost all of them are almost-empty of OA’s target content (20%) Björk et al 2010
  10. 10. Author Surveys (Alma Swan)
  11. 11. Percentage OA with and without and OA Mandate Gargouri et al 2010
  12. 12. OA Mandate Growth 2002-2010
  13. 13. Impact Range = 36%-200% (Data: Stevan Harnad and co-workers) Text 4 Νοεμβρίου 2010
  14. 14. Open Access to What? <ul><li>~2.5 million articles yearly </li></ul><ul><li>~25,000 peer-reviewed journals </li></ul>1. Books 2. Textbooks 3. Magazine articles 4. Newspaper articles 5. Music 6. Video 7. Software 8. “Knowledge” 9. Data 10. Unrefereed Preprints
  15. 15. Science and Scholarship ≠ Data-Gathering
  16. 16. Exclusive First-Exploitation Rights
  17. 17. Sample of candidate OA-era metrics: <ul><li>Citations (C) </li></ul><ul><li>CiteRank (like Google) </li></ul><ul><li>Co-citations </li></ul><ul><li>Downloads (D) </li></ul><ul><li>C/D Correlations </li></ul><ul><li>Hub/Authority index </li></ul><ul><li>Chronometrics: </li></ul><ul><li>Latency/Longevity </li></ul><ul><li>Endogamy/Exogamy </li></ul><ul><li>Book citation index </li></ul><ul><li>Links </li></ul><ul><li>Tags </li></ul><ul><li>Commentaries </li></ul><ul><li>Journal Impact Factor </li></ul><ul><li>Data-download metrics </li></ul><ul><li>Data-citation metrics </li></ul><ul><li>h-index (and variants) </li></ul><ul><li>Co-authorships </li></ul><ul><li>Publication counts </li></ul><ul><li>Number of publishing years </li></ul><ul><li>Semiometrics (latent semantic indexing, text overlap, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Research funding </li></ul><ul><li>Students </li></ul><ul><li>Prizes </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Brody et al (2007) Incentivizing the Open Access Research Web: Publication-, Data-Archiving and Scientometrics. CTWatch Quarterly 3(3). http://eprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk/14418/ </li></ul>Open Access: How? By mandating Green OA Self-Archiving OA Metrics motivate OA Mandates And OA Mandates maximize OA Metrics
  19. 19. <ul><li>Author’s URLs (UQAM & Southampton): </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.crsc.uqam.ca/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://users.ecs.soton.ac.uk/harnad / </li></ul><ul><li>BIBLIOGRAPHY ON OA IMACT ADVANTAGE: </li></ul><ul><li>http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html </li></ul><ul><li>BOAI Self-Archiving FAQ: http://www.eprints.org/self-faq/ </li></ul><ul><li>CITEBASE (scientometric engine): http://citebase.eprints.org/ </li></ul><ul><li>EPRINTS: http://www.eprints.org/ </li></ul><ul><li>OA ARCHIVANGELISM: http://openaccess.eprints.org/ </li></ul><ul><li>ROAR (Registry of OA Repositories): http://roar.eprints.org/ </li></ul><ul><li>ROARMAP (Registry of OA Repository Mandates): </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.eprints.org/openaccess/policysignup/ </li></ul><ul><li>ROMEO/EPRINTS ( Directory of Journal Policies on author OA Self-Archiving): http://romeo.eprints.org/ </li></ul>4 Νοεμβρίου 2010

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