Task Based Syllabus


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Task Based Syllabus

  1. 1. Welcome to class PG9 Group 1 : Phan Thi Oanh Nguyen Thi Thu Hang Nguyen Thu Hong Nguyen Hong Le Le Vu Kieu Linh
  2. 2. <ul><li>Different Approaches To Syllabus Design </li></ul>
  3. 3. OUTLINE <ul><li>Definition of syllabus </li></ul><ul><li>Different approaches to syllabus design </li></ul><ul><li>Syllabus design for a reading course </li></ul><ul><li>Syllabus design for a speaking course </li></ul><ul><li>Syllabus design for a writing course </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Definition of a Syllabus </li></ul><ul><li>It involves the selection and grading of content and methodology. </li></ul><ul><li>It states what the successful learners will know by the end of the course. </li></ul><ul><li>A syllabus specifies all the things that are to be taught in the courses. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Different approaches to syllabus design </li></ul>Lexical syllabus Topical syllabus The Proportional syllabus Situational syllabus Learner-led syllabus Functional syllabus Task-Based syllabus Grammatical syllabus Process-oriented Product-oriented
  6. 6. 1. Grammatical (structural) syllabus <ul><li>A list grammatical structures, leading to an understanding of the grammatical system. </li></ul><ul><li>It tends to be the main organizing foundation. </li></ul><ul><li>Some problems: </li></ul>- Ignoring other important aspects of language proficiency. - Some students may not be ready linguistically to understand and use that particular form.
  7. 7. 2. Functional syllabus <ul><li>The chief emphasis is upon the communicative purpose and conceptual meaning of language. </li></ul><ul><li>A function syllabus might look like this: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Requesting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Offering </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inviting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agreeing and disagreeing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The functional/notional syllabus seeks for ‘what is a learner communicates through language’. </li></ul>
  8. 8. 3. Situational syllabus <ul><li>The main principle: teach the language that occurs in the situations. </li></ul><ul><li>Selecting and sequencing different real- life situations rather than different grammatical items, vocabulary topics, or functions. </li></ul><ul><li>It might look something like this: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>At the bank </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>At the supermarket </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>At the travel agency </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>At the restaurant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>etc </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Some problems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Less appropriate for students of general English largely. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Difficult to choose the “key” situations for a general class. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Based on vocabulary and targets a certain number of vocabulary words depending on the level of the student. </li></ul>4. Lexical syllabus <ul><li>Some problems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>there are so many facets to lexis: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the vocabulary related to topics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>issues of word information. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>word- grammar triggers. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>compound lexical items </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>connecting and linking. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>semi- fixed expressions. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>connotation and the use of metaphor. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The relationship between lexis and grammar. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. 5. Topical (Content) syllabus <ul><li>The content of the syllabus is more important than grammar, functions or situations. The content is the core of the syllabus and is often organized thematically or by topics. </li></ul><ul><li>Some problems: </li></ul>- Grammatical forms are not practiced - Difficult to choose the content and make a balance between content and grammar
  11. 11. <ul><li>Process- Oriented Approach </li></ul>
  12. 12. Process-oriented syllabus <ul><li>Process-Oriented Syllabuses emphasize a process rather than a product. </li></ul><ul><li>The focus is on the specification of learning activities that learners will undertake during the course. </li></ul><ul><li>3 main types: </li></ul><ul><li>Task-based syllabus </li></ul><ul><li>Learner-Led syllabus </li></ul><ul><li>Proportional syllabus </li></ul>
  13. 13. Task-based Approach <ul><li>Students do something based on an assigned task. </li></ul><ul><li>We use tasks and activities to encourage learners to use the language communicatively in order to achieve a purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>Tasks should be relevant to the real world language needs of the student. </li></ul><ul><li>Tasks must be meaningful so that they can enhance learning. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Learner-Led Syllabuses <ul><li>It is an approach basing on learners’ personalities and their own experience. </li></ul><ul><li>The emphasis lays with the learner, who is hoped to be involved in the implementation of the syllabus design as far as possible. </li></ul>
  15. 15. The Proportional Approach <ul><li>This approach aims at developing an overall competence, improving the basic skills. </li></ul><ul><li>It consists of a number of elements with theme playing a linking role through the units. </li></ul><ul><li>The syllabus is designed to be dynamic, not static to get the feedback and flexibility. </li></ul>
  16. 16. A Possible Approach to Syllabus Design for a Reading Course TOPICAL or CONTENT-BASED SYLLABUS
  17. 17. What is the Content-Based (C-B) Approach? <ul><li>C-B syllabus is organized around… </li></ul><ul><li>A. themes/topics </li></ul><ul><li>B. situations </li></ul><ul><li>C. tasks </li></ul><ul><li>2. … is the starting point in its design. </li></ul><ul><li>A. grammar </li></ul><ul><li>B. function </li></ul><ul><li>C. content </li></ul>
  18. 18. What is the Content-Based (C-B) Approach? <ul><li>3. In a C-B syllabus, content… </li></ul><ul><li>A. is incidental + the vehicle to practice language structures, functions or skills </li></ul><ul><li>B. is chosen to show how a structure is used + provide a context for practicing it </li></ul><ul><li>C. provides the vehicle for the presentation of language </li></ul>
  19. 19. Reasons for choosing the Approach <ul><li>Addressing students’ needs </li></ul><ul><li>Motivating learners </li></ul>
  20. 20. Reasons for choosing the Approach <ul><li>Allowing for the use of authentic materials </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitating comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Making linguistic form more meaningful </li></ul>
  21. 21. Reasons for choosing the Approach <ul><li>Serving as the best basis for teaching the skill areas </li></ul><ul><li>Allowing for integration of the four skills </li></ul>
  22. 22. Limitations of the Approach <ul><li>Unpracticed Grammatical forms + Practical situations </li></ul><ul><li>Unresolved questions of appropriateness: </li></ul><ul><li>(i) how to choose the content </li></ul><ul><li>(ii) how to achieve the balance between content and grammar </li></ul>
  23. 23. Situational syllabus for Speaking course
  24. 24. <ul><li>What is situational syllabus? </li></ul><ul><li>Three types of situational syllabus. </li></ul><ul><li>Five elements in a situational syllabus. </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons for choosing situational syllabus for speaking course. </li></ul><ul><li>Limits of situational syllabus . </li></ul>
  25. 25. 1.What is situational syllabus ? <ul><li>- To teach the language that occurs in the situations. </li></ul><ul><li>- The content are real or imaginary situations. </li></ul><ul><li>- The language involves functions, combined into a plausible part of available discourse. </li></ul><ul><li>- Learners will apply these situations. </li></ul>
  26. 26. 2. Three types of situational syllabus. <ul><li>1. Concrete : Situations are acted out to specific setting using specific patterns . </li></ul><ul><li>2 . Mythical :Situations depend on fictional chararters in a fictional place. </li></ul><ul><li>3 . Limbo :Specific setting of the situation is of little or no important . </li></ul>
  27. 27. 3. Five elements in a situational syllabus. <ul><li>The physical context. </li></ul><ul><li>The channel of communication. </li></ul><ul><li>The language activity. </li></ul><ul><li>The number and the character of participants. </li></ul><ul><li>The relationship between the participants and the type of activity . </li></ul>
  28. 28. 4. Reasons for choosing situational syllabus for speaking course . <ul><li>Explicit attention is paid to the influence of social factors on language choice. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s quite easy to identify situations in which speaking skill is used. </li></ul><ul><li>It may motivate learners,meet their most pressing everyday communication needs . </li></ul>
  29. 29. An example of situational syllabus for a speaking course for housemaid <ul><li>At the airport </li></ul><ul><li>In a taxi </li></ul><ul><li>At the working centre </li></ul><ul><li>At the host’s house </li></ul><ul><li>At supermarket </li></ul>
  30. 30. V Limits of situational syllabus . <ul><li>Language in the classroom and language as spoken in the real world will somtimes have little in common. </li></ul><ul><li>- Limited for students whose needs aren’t encompassed by the situations in the syllabus. </li></ul><ul><li>- For short-term special-purpose . </li></ul>
  31. 31. Task-based syllabus for Writing Course
  32. 32. <ul><li>1. What is T-B syllabus? </li></ul><ul><li>Different types of tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Example of T-B syllabus for writing course </li></ul><ul><li>4. Reasons for choosing T-B syllabus for writing course </li></ul><ul><li>5. Limits of T-B syllabus </li></ul>
  33. 33. 1. What is task-based syllabus <ul><li>The content is a series of complex............. </li></ul><ul><li>Students use different language forms, </li></ul><ul><li>functions and skills in completing.............. </li></ul>tasks tasks
  34. 34. 2. Different types of tasks <ul><li>Brainstorm all questions that you can use to ask about direction. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask your partner about the way to Hang Bong street. </li></ul>
  35. 35. 2. Different types of tasks <ul><li>Pedagogical tasks: </li></ul><ul><li>are designed to trigger language learning processes and strategies. </li></ul><ul><li>Real-world tasks: </li></ul><ul><li>are designed to practice useful activities in the real world. </li></ul>
  36. 36. 2. Different types of tasks <ul><li>Write a letter to apply for the following post. </li></ul><ul><li>Put the following sentences in the correct order. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Example of T-B syllabus for a writing course <ul><li>Write notes and memos </li></ul><ul><li>Write reports </li></ul><ul><li>Write agendas </li></ul><ul><li>Write letters to companies </li></ul><ul><li>Write replied letters </li></ul>
  38. 38. Write letters to companies <ul><li>Brainstorm types of letters. </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze situations to choose correct types of letters. </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstorm and order ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Match the headings with correct parts of the letters. </li></ul><ul><li>Order words to complete useful expressions. </li></ul>
  39. 39. 3. Reasons for choosing T-B syllabus for writing course <ul><li>It is suitable for learners of all ages and backgrounds. </li></ul><ul><li>Learners are striving to express what they want to write. </li></ul><ul><li>Learners are exposed to a whole range of lexical phrases, collocations and language forms. </li></ul>
  40. 40. 3. Reasons for choosing task-based syllabus for writing course <ul><li>Tasks encourage students to plan the language before writing. </li></ul><ul><li>It provides cooperative support. </li></ul>
  41. 41. 4. Limits of task-based syllabus <ul><li>Definitions of tasks are so broad. </li></ul><ul><li>Procedures for the design of tasks remain unclear. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a risk for learners to achieve fluency at the expense of accuracy. </li></ul>
  42. 42. 5. Limits of task-based syllabus <ul><li>Some weak learners let others supply the more challenging language they need. </li></ul><ul><li>It requires a high level of creativity on the part of the teacher. </li></ul>
  43. 43. SOLUTION
  44. 44. Mixed or integrated syllabus <ul><li>Mix two or more types of syllabuses together. </li></ul><ul><li>Syllabus design is less rigid, more flexible, and responsive to various student needs. </li></ul>
  45. 46. <ul><li>Do you find our </li></ul><ul><li>presentation useful? </li></ul><ul><li>WE HOPE THAT YOU DO! </li></ul>
  46. 48. <ul><li>Thank you for your attention ! </li></ul>