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Romanian History and Culture


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Romanian History and Culture

  1. 1. ROMANIA
  2. 2. Geography
  3. 3. From the mountainous landscapes in the Carpathians, to the shores of the Black Sea, and to the picturesque villages that capture life from another time, Romania has a rich cultural and natural diversity. Tourist Attractions – What You Should See During Your Stay
  4. 4. Bucharest – The Capital <ul>Nicknamed“Little Paris”in the 1900s, Romania's capital showcases Belle Epoque buildings and wide, tree-lined boulevards. </ul>
  5. 5. The Parliament Palace
  6. 6. The Arch of Triumph
  7. 7. Herastrau Park
  8. 8. The Black Sea – The Litoral
  9. 15. Sibiu (Hermannstadt) <ul><li>Sibiu is a medieval town in Transylvania that was designated as the 2007 European Capital of Culture together with Luxembourg.
  10. 16. Founded in the 12 th century, the city has a German character
  11. 17. Both the Brukenthal Museum and the Astra National Museum display some of Romania's greatest art collections.
  12. 18. You may also choose to go hiking or trekking in the Fagaras Mountains. </li></ul>
  13. 23. Language: Romanian <ul><li>The Romanian language is Latin based and is thus similar to French, Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese.
  14. 24. Hungarian and German are also spoken in some towns and villages. The Székely Land, or Secui, located in the center of Romania and comprising two counties, is inhabited by a majority of ethnic Hungarians. This group has been advocating for autonomy in the past years—yet to no avail. </li></ul>
  15. 26. Currency <ul><li>LEU (sing.)/LEI (pl.)
  16. 27. 100 EURO = 420 RON
  17. 28. 1 RON = 10 000 (old) lei – Please be aware that many people still use the value of the old currency (lei). Don't be surprised if you hear about millions since 500 RON now was 5 million lei a few years ago (~120 euro). </li></ul>
  18. 29. Historical Background 2 nd Century A.D.―Transylvania, the core of the Dacian Empire, becomes part of the Roman Empire and the Romanian national culture results from the mixing of Dacian and Roman cultures 1690-1867―Austro-Hungarian Rule of Transylvania and Ottoman suzerainty of Wallachia and Moldova (Romanians as second-class citizens although they represent the majority of the population) 1878―Kingdom of Romania is founded without Transylvania 1867―World War I―a true “magyarization” of ethnic minorities in Transylvania takes place 1920 Treaty of Trianon―Romania gains Transylvania, Banat, Crisana, and Maramures 1940-1947―Hungary obtains Transylvania by Italo-German arbitration in the Treaty of Vienna 1927-World War II―Iron Guard under Corneliu Codreanu (ultra-nationalist) 1940-44―Romania loses Bessarabia to the USSR and the Socialist Republic of Moldova is established 1947-1989―Communism (Ceausescu becomes head of state in 1967) Mid 1970s ―“Romanianization” campaign starts and development of the “national (read: Romanian) way to socialism” is announced Revolution of December 1989 overthrowing communism 2007 Entered the European Union
  19. 30. Dacian Ruins at Sarmisegetuza 18 th Century Village Church in Transylvania
  20. 31. Culture <ul><li>The Romanian culture is very rich in tradition and folklore.
  21. 32. Although the younger generation has stopped adhering to past traditions, such as listening to folkloric music and wearing the national costumes, older generations still enjoy festivals featuring brightly ornamented costumes and traditional dancing. </li></ul>
  22. 39. Wooden Carvings Traditional Handicrafts Woven Wool Carpets Ceramics/Pottery
  23. 41. Etiquette <ul><li>It is usually expected to use a person's title (“Domnul”for Mr. and“Doamna”for Mrs.) and their surname until invited to use their first name.
  24. 42. Romanians are formal and reserved with a need of privacy. Most are reticent to readily trust strangers and may seem shy or quiet. However, they open up as a personal relationship develops.
  25. 43. Initial greetings are formal and reserved, but close friends almost always kiss and hug each other when they meet.
  26. 44. If invited to somebody's home, you may bring a small gift such as flowers (odd number since even is for funerals), chocolates, or liquor.
  27. 45. If invited to dinner or a special event, wear formal clothes.
  28. 46. Refusals are seen as good manners and are often not taken seriously.
  29. 47. Romania is governed by a great deal of bureaucracy. </li></ul>
  30. 48. Economic Development <ul><li>Romania has come a long way economically in the past 10 to 20 years.
  31. 49. Before 1990 the economy of Romania was almost completely under state control and was centrally planned. The nationalization of industry, mining, transportation, banking, and insurance, accompanied the government's policy of agricultural collectivization. In order to repay the national debt, Ceausescu curtailed imports drastically while exporting as much as possible. Rationing of basic foodstuffs, gasoline, electricity, and other consumer products brought the Romanian people one of the lowest standards of living in Europe.
  32. 50. Economic growth picked up in the early 2000s, as the private sector accounted for most of the GDP and as foreign direct investment grew dramatically. Inflation has always been a problem, however.
  33. 51. In 2008 Romania was named the“Tiger”of the East, witnessing the highest increase in GDP among EU members of Central and Eastern Europe.
  34. 52. The country is expected to join the Eurozone no later than 2014. </li></ul>
  35. 61. Giurgiu