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Esol methods 2

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ESOL PowerPoint, Santos Guitierrez, Foundations of ESOL Methods, Pacific University, Summer 2015

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Esol methods 2

  1. 1. 10/14/15 E. Catherine Kim ESOL460/560 Pacific U. Teaching by Principles  These principles form the building blocks for your own theoretical rationale (i.e., The basis of your teaching approaches)  Your choices for teaching approaches, methods, or strategies should be grounded in established principles of language learning and teaching.
  2. 2. 10/14/15 E. Catherine Kim ESOL460/560 Pacific U. Principle 1: Automaticity  Gaining control of language forms and efficient and rapid movement away from a focus on the forms language to a focus on the language use  Childlike, subconscious processing of language forms  Resistance to the temptation to analyze language forms.  Teachers can try not to overwhelm their students with grammar and analysis of every language form excessively.  Automaticity is gained through practice focusing on fluency.
  3. 3. 10/14/15 E. Catherine Kim ESOL460/560 Pacific U. Principle 2: Meaningful Learning  Making meaningful associations between the existing knowledge/experience and new materials  Avoid rote learning of materials in isolated pieces.  Always try to connect students’ existing and background knowledge with the new features introduced to them.
  4. 4. 10/14/15 E. Catherine Kim ESOL460/560 Pacific U. Principle 3: The Anticipation of Reward  Optimal degree of positive feedback (“Very good!” “Nice job!” “Excellent!”)  Establishing rapport with your students  Encourage your students to reward each other.  Providing constructive feedback, not negative reproach  Issuing certain “privileges” for good work  Try to show your students the “long-term” rewards of learning English and becoming fluent in the language.
  5. 5. 10/14/15 E. Catherine Kim ESOL460/560 Pacific U. Principle 4: Intrinsic Motivation  The learning effectiveness is maximized when the learners are self motivated.  Try to make your learning activities so that learners can find themselves enjoy doing the activities and get interested in what they are doing.
  6. 6. 10/14/15 E. Catherine Kim ESOL460/560 Pacific U. Principle 5: Strategic Investment  Successful mastery of the second language is gained through a learner’s own personal “investment” of time, effort, and attention to the second language  Help your learners to develop and use strategies for learning and communication.  Help your students to take responsibility in their own learning.  Help your learners to try a number of strategies to learn and to become fluent in the second language.
  7. 7. 10/14/15 E. Catherine Kim ESOL460/560 Pacific U. Principle 6: Autonomy  Successful mastery of a second language depends largely on learners’ autonomous ability both to take initiative in the classroom and to continue to succeed beyond the classroom and the teacher.  Help your learners to “do” the language on their own through group and pair work.  Do not try to “stifle” learners’ creativity by becoming a dominant figure in the classroom. Remember that the teacher is a “facilitator and coach.”  Encourage your learners to use the second language in a meaningful way outside the classroom so that they can extend their learning beyond the classroom situation.
  8. 8. 10/14/15 E. Catherine Kim ESOL460/560 Pacific U. Principle 7: Language Ego  Your teaching techniques and strategies need to be cognitively challenging but should not be overwhelming at an affective level.  Be considerate of learners’ language ego and affective factors in planning the following: - who to call on first (make sure you rotate the order of calling on or asking for volunteers) - when and how to correct students’ errors - who to place and in which small groups or pairs - how “tough” you can be. - Help your students build a positive “second self,” and let them know that developing a second self is a normal and natural process.
  9. 9. 10/14/15 E. Catherine Kim ESOL460/560 Pacific U. Principle 8: Willingness to Communicate  Help your learners to be willing to communicate.  The learners’ willingness to communicate results in the generation of both output and input.  Provide ample verbal and nonverbal assurances to students, affirming your belief in the student’s ability.  Sequence learning tasks from easier to more difficult.  Create a positive classroom atmosphere.  Provide reasonable challenges in your techniques.
  10. 10. 10/14/15 E. Catherine Kim ESOL460/560 Pacific U. Principle 9: The Language-Culture Connection  Language and culture are closely intertwined and they cannot be separated from each other.  Discuss cross-cultural differences with your students and make sure that your students understand no culture is “better” than another.  Cross-cultural understanding is a very important facet of learning a language.  In your learning activities, make sure that you include the activities in which they illustrate the connection between language and culture.  Try not to include materials that may be culturally offensive.
  11. 11. 10/14/15 E. Catherine Kim ESOL460/560 Pacific U. Principle 10: The Native Language Effect  The native language has a strong influence on the acquisition of the target language system.  Regard your learners’ errors as important windows to their underlying linguistic system and provide appropriate feedback on them.  Help your students to understand that there are also a lot of “positive” influence from their native language and not everything about their native language system will cause error.
  12. 12. 10/14/15 E. Catherine Kim ESOL460/560 Pacific U. Principle 11: Interlanguage  Interlanguage refers to learners’ developing second language system.  Teachers need to exercise some tolerance for certain interlanguage forms that may arise out of a student’s logical developmental process.  Don’t make your students feel stupid because of the interlanguage errors that have a logical source.  Encourage your students to self-correct their errors.  Provide a lot of affective feedback and encourage them to speak!
  13. 13. 10/14/15 E. Catherine Kim ESOL460/560 Pacific U. Principle 12: Communicative Competence  Learners as active participants  Communication seen as a series of process of negotiation of meaning.  Listening and reading are no longer “passive” or “receptive” language skills.  What does “communicative competence” consist of? -> Grammatical competence (sentential level accuracy: usage) -> Discourse competence (interconnected sentences: coherence and cohesion) -> Sociocultural comptence (understanding social contexts) -> Strategic competence (Coping strategies in unfamiliar contexts)
  14. 14. 10/14/15 E. Catherine Kim ESOL460/560 Pacific U. Communicative Approach  Language as a system for communication  The goal of language teaching is learner ability to communicate.  The content of a course includes semantic notions and social functions.  Group and pair work emphasized (primarily for practice of communication).  Role play or dramatization in various social contexts.  Authentic materials are often used.  Skills are integrated from the beginning stage.  Teacher as a facilitator of communication.  The teacher should be able to use the target language fluently and appropriately.
  15. 15. 10/14/15 E. Catherine Kim ESOL460/560 Pacific U. Task-based Approach  Using the target language to learn, process, or accomplish a task.  Language instruction does not begin with “functions” or any other “language items.”  Teaching through communication rather than for it.  Providing learners with a natural context for language use.  Abundant interaction between student-teacher and student-student, for negotiation of meaning (sort of like problem solving).  Error correction is minimal, and given only when it is critical to a task accomplishment.  Teacher as a counselor or facilitator.  Presented language items may be beyond learners’ present ability. Authentic materials are used.  Real-world tasks can be practiced by a sequence of pedagogic tasks.
  16. 16. 10/14/15 E. Catherine Kim ESOL460/560 Pacific U. Content-based Approach  Use a second/foreign language to learn about the content (geography, science, social studies, literature, etc.)  Integrating language learning with content learning (often academic subject matter).  Academic subjects provide natural content for language instruction (‘language across curriculum’)  There must be clear language objectives as well as content learning objectives.  Language items arise from communicative needs, not predetermined syllabi.

ESOL PowerPoint, Santos Guitierrez, Foundations of ESOL Methods, Pacific University, Summer 2015

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