Pathogens in Water
National Water Summit, Tuesday, 2nd October 2007




 Monitoring, Control and
 Technologies Available f...
Filtration of drinking water and use of chlorine
“ - the most significant public health advance of the millennium.quot;
Presentation Structure


• Pathogens
      Introduction to different types and classes
  •
      Some emerging pathogens o...
Viruses


•    Very small : 0.02 – 0.09 um

•    Difficult to detect

     Not routinely monitored
•


•    Pathogens:
   ...
Bacteria

        Easy to carry out routine
•
        tests

        Routinely monitored
•


        Faecal coliform test ...
Protozoa

• Greek for ‘little animal’
• Pathogens include
       Cryptosporidium
   •
       Giardia
   •

• 1976 : First ...
Cryptosporidium Outbreak
Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA

• 1993 : Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA

       400,000 people became ill
 ...
Detecting and Monitoring Protozoa

1.       Complex Analysis Procedure
           Large volume filtered
     •
           ...
Water Treatment Process
Membrane Filtration Systems




•   Physical Separation Process

•   Removes Pathogens from water
Membrane Systems : Classification

Microfiltration   Ultrafiltration :      Nanofiltration      Reverse Osmosis
          ...
Membranes -           Final Water Quality Independent of Influent Quality



                                             ...
Membranes : Specifying a Membrane System
1.       Membrane Flux
           How much water you can treat for a given pressu...
Membranes : Factors Affecting Effectiveness
• Membrane Integrity
       On-line Particulate and Turbidity meters important...
Monitoring the membrane modules:
• Particle counter
• Turbidity control
Ultraviolet Light

•   Inactivates organisms

•   Does not destroy organisms

•   Absorbed by DNA and RNA

•   Inhibits th...
Ultraviolet Light:     Specifying a UV System

Specification :
    1. Independent validation essential

    2. What is the...
Ultraviolet Light:             Factors Affecting Effectiveness

1.       UV Transmissivity (UVT)
           Turbidity
    ...
What UV Dose is required to inactivate
                   Cryptosporidium?
                               UV Dose Rates Re...
Microwave UV, Doonbeg WWTP, Co. Clare


• Uses Microwave Energy to generate UV

• First of its type in Ireland

• Size of ...
UV Installation at Terryland WTP, Galway

• UV Plant installed
  July 2007

• Medium Pressure
  system

• 2,500 m3/hour

•...
Pathogens in Water
National Water Summit, Tuesday, 2nd October 2007




 Monitoring, Control and
 Technologies Available f...
Concluding Remarks


“Working towards a sustainable future for Ireland’s
  water needs”

   – New challenges in drinking w...
Breakdown of Causes of Waterborne Illness*

                                       Viruses
                               ...
Comparison of Treatment Processes

     Process                             Microorganism
                                ...
Membrane Flow : In-side-out & Outside-In




   Inside - Out           Outside - In
Ultraviolet Light : Types of Systems Available




  • Medium Pressure            • Low Pressure

        Electrode lamp  ...
Cryptosporidium Incidents Linked To Water
Supply In Ireland




                  Roscommon
                              ...
Chlorine Dioxide


• More stable than other forms of chlorine


• Disintegrates biofilms in distribution systems


• No pr...
Ozone

•   A strong oxidizing agent

•   Effective against Cryptosporidium
    and Giardia

•   Can be generated on-site

...
UV : Comparison Of Electrode Lamp & Microwave Lamp



                                         Electrode
                 ...
Membrane stages for specific applications:
membrane filters for treatment of backwash water



             Sand          ...
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Technology for treatment of pathogens in water, National Water Summit - Paul O'Callaghan, O2 Environmental

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Innovative technologies to treat water for emerging pathogens. Presentation by Paul O'Callaghan CEO of O2 Environmental at the National Water Summit 2007

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Technology for treatment of pathogens in water, National Water Summit - Paul O'Callaghan, O2 Environmental

  1. 1. Pathogens in Water National Water Summit, Tuesday, 2nd October 2007 Monitoring, Control and Technologies Available for Treatment Prepared by; Paul O’Callaghan M.Sc. Dr. Hans Gethke
  2. 2. Filtration of drinking water and use of chlorine “ - the most significant public health advance of the millennium.quot;
  3. 3. Presentation Structure • Pathogens Introduction to different types and classes • Some emerging pathogens of concern • Challenges in detection and monitoring • • Disinfection Technologies Membrane Filtration • Ozone & Chlorination • Ultraviolet Light •
  4. 4. Viruses • Very small : 0.02 – 0.09 um • Difficult to detect Not routinely monitored • • Pathogens: Polio • Hep A • Norwalk • Adenovirus • Faecal coliforms are good indicators • Chlorine is an effective disinfectant •
  5. 5. Bacteria Easy to carry out routine • tests Routinely monitored • Faecal coliform test a good • indicator of bacterial contamination Detected in 91% of cases – where bacteria are cause of illness
  6. 6. Protozoa • Greek for ‘little animal’ • Pathogens include Cryptosporidium • Giardia • • 1976 : First discovered that Cryptosporidium parvum caused illness in humans Oocyst – Resistant to Chlorine – Can survive for months in cold damp environment – 4-6μm in diameter
  7. 7. Cryptosporidium Outbreak Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA • 1993 : Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA 400,000 people became ill • 4,300 were hospitalised • 50 people died • Single largest outbreak of illness since record keeping began. •
  8. 8. Detecting and Monitoring Protozoa 1. Complex Analysis Procedure Large volume filtered • Utilizes Immunofluoresence & Molecular Biology Tools • Genotyping required to determine sub-species • 2. Not routinely monitored Very little historical data • Test results may follow an outbreak • 3. Traditional indicators not adequate In 51% cases of Protozoan illness in US, water tested negative • for Faecal coliforms
  9. 9. Water Treatment Process
  10. 10. Membrane Filtration Systems • Physical Separation Process • Removes Pathogens from water
  11. 11. Membrane Systems : Classification Microfiltration Ultrafiltration : Nanofiltration Reverse Osmosis 0.001 – 0.01um 0.01um – 0.1 um < 0.001um 0.1 – 10um Salts Bacteria Dissolved Organics Virus Crypt.
  12. 12. Membranes - Final Water Quality Independent of Influent Quality Results from Ultrafiltration Plant 300 0.25 250 0.2 Treated NTU 200 Raw NTU 0.15 150 0.1 100 0.05 50 0 0 De v Fe n n Ju e A uly J ac Se g M ril A par No t Ot Mb Ju y p c Ja n a Raw Water (NTU) Treated (NTU) Hollow Fibre Module
  13. 13. Membranes : Specifying a Membrane System 1. Membrane Flux How much water you can treat for a given pressure • 2. Membrane Material Organic Polymer : e.g. PVDF, Polysulfone • Ceramic Materials : e.g. Titanium Dioxide • Varying resistance to pH, Fouling • Oxidising chemicals and Temperature. 3. Pore Size 4. Membrane Type Inside-out/ Outside-in • Spiral wound, Tubular, Hollow Fibre, Plate • Cross-flow / Dead-end flow •
  14. 14. Membranes : Factors Affecting Effectiveness • Membrane Integrity On-line Particulate and Turbidity meters important • Air pressure testing • Sonic leak detection • • Fouling – Gradual decrease in flux / increase in pressure – Result of Particulates, Organic Fouling and Biofouling – Controlled by back-washing & chemical cleaning • Resistance of membranes to pH • Oxidising Agents • Temperature •
  15. 15. Monitoring the membrane modules: • Particle counter • Turbidity control
  16. 16. Ultraviolet Light • Inactivates organisms • Does not destroy organisms • Absorbed by DNA and RNA • Inhibits the ability of micro- organisms to replicate • Most effective wavelength is at 265nm
  17. 17. Ultraviolet Light: Specifying a UV System Specification : 1. Independent validation essential 2. What is the UV Transmittance of the water being treated: • 10% decrease in UVT can double size of system! 3. What Log reduction / % Removal are you going for? 4. What organisms are you targeting?
  18. 18. Ultraviolet Light: Factors Affecting Effectiveness 1. UV Transmissivity (UVT) Turbidity • Total Suspended Solids • Iron • Dissolved organic material, ‘exotics’. • 2. Lamp fouling 3. Lamp Failure Starts and stops can void warranty. • 4. Temperature Output is less in cold water •
  19. 19. What UV Dose is required to inactivate Cryptosporidium? UV Dose Rates Required for a 4 log reduction (99.99%) 140 120 Title 22 Standards UV Dose (mJ/cm2) 100 80 German DVWG Standard 60 40 20 0 E. coli 0157 Klebsiella Crypto Giardia Hep A virus Adenovirus terrigena parvum Lamblia oocysts cysts
  20. 20. Microwave UV, Doonbeg WWTP, Co. Clare • Uses Microwave Energy to generate UV • First of its type in Ireland • Size of the plant :1,500p.e.
  21. 21. UV Installation at Terryland WTP, Galway • UV Plant installed July 2007 • Medium Pressure system • 2,500 m3/hour • Design dose = 40 mJ/cm2 @ 85% UVT. • 4.1 NTU Maximum.
  22. 22. Pathogens in Water National Water Summit, Tuesday, 2nd October 2007 Monitoring, Control and Technologies Available for Treatment Prepared by Paul O’Callaghan M.Sc. Dr. Hans Gethke
  23. 23. Concluding Remarks “Working towards a sustainable future for Ireland’s water needs” – New challenges in drinking water treatment require new management techniques – Treatment and disinfection is one part of the multi-barrier approach – New technologies available require understanding of new concepts and terminology – Specification important to get the product that best meets your requirements
  24. 24. Breakdown of Causes of Waterborne Illness* Viruses Norovirus 6% Hep A 2% Others 1% Protozoa Cryptosporidium 12.6% Giardia 21.4% Bacteria E.coli 9.6% Shigella 8.7% Campylobacter 5.7% * U.S. Data 1991-2000 others 6%
  25. 25. Comparison of Treatment Processes Process Microorganism Attached to particles Non-attached suspended from Faecal sources bacteria viruses parasites bacteria viruses parasites Filtration + + + + + + Disinfection Chlorine + + - - - - Chlorine dioxide + + - - - - Ozone + + + - - - UV + + + - - - Thermal (>90 C) + + + + + +
  26. 26. Membrane Flow : In-side-out & Outside-In Inside - Out Outside - In
  27. 27. Ultraviolet Light : Types of Systems Available • Medium Pressure • Low Pressure Electrode lamp Electrode lamp /Microwave lamp • • Higher energy output Lower energy output • • Polychromatic Monochromatic output at 265nm • •
  28. 28. Cryptosporidium Incidents Linked To Water Supply In Ireland Roscommon Mullingar Galway Carlow Ennis Clonmel Portlaw
  29. 29. Chlorine Dioxide • More stable than other forms of chlorine • Disintegrates biofilms in distribution systems • No production of chlorinated by-products • No change of odour and flavour characteristics
  30. 30. Ozone • A strong oxidizing agent • Effective against Cryptosporidium and Giardia • Can be generated on-site • Removes colour, taste and odour • Useful for emerging contamintants Ozone Treatment at Cahirsiveen
  31. 31. UV : Comparison Of Electrode Lamp & Microwave Lamp Electrode Lamp Microwave Lamp
  32. 32. Membrane stages for specific applications: membrane filters for treatment of backwash water Sand Ultra- Filter Filtration Backwash Water Waste Permeat return flow Ultra- filtration total efficiency of the treatment plant: 99 %

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