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Perspectives onConsumer Behavior   © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin
Consumer Decision MakingDecision Stage                                     Psychological Process     Problem Recognition  ...
Sources of Problem Recognition                                                                          New Needs         ...
Ads Help Consumers Recognize Problems   *Click outside of the video screen to advance to the next slide                  ©...
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs         Self-actualization needs (self-         Self-actualization needs (self-           deve...
Nurturance, Love and Belonging                                                                  +          © 2003 McGraw-H...
Freudian Psychoanalytic Approach    Strong    Strong                                                              Symbolic...
Probing the Minds of Consumers  Depth   Depth                                                              Association    ...
“MR” Not All Positive or All Negative     Pros                                                                        Cons...
Sexy Ads May Motivate Consumers   *Click outside of the video screen to advance to the next slide                  © 2003 ...
Sexy Ads Get Noticed          © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin                                       ...
Information Search          Personal          Sources            Mark                 et           Sourc                 e...
The Selective Perception Process         Selective Exposure         Selective Exposure         Selective Attention        ...
Combining Color With Black-and-WhiteIs Intended to Gain Attention           © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hil...
Evaluation of Alternatives            All available brandsBrand A   Brand B             Brand C                        Bra...
Two Forms of Evaluative Criteria         Evaluative Criteria         Evaluative Criteria  Objective  Objective            ...
Different Perspectives: Marketer’s View         Tractio                       Too         n okay?                      pri...
Different Perspectives: Consumer’s View                                                                                  W...
Consumer Attitudes Focus on Objects        Individuals        Individuals                                   Products      ...
Ways to Change AttitudesChange Beliefs About An Important AttributeChange Beliefs About An Important Attribute        Chan...
Adding Attributes Changes Attitudes           © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin                       ...
How Consumers Learn  Thinking  Thinking             Conditioning                       Conditioning                       ...
Classical Conditioning ProcessUnconditionedUnconditioned                                                                  ...
Classical Conditioning for Cosmetics           © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin                      ...
Instrumental Conditioning Process                                                                 Positive or negative    ...
Cognitive Learning Process          Goal          Goal       Purposive Behavior       Purposive Behavior                  ...
External Influences on Consumers                         Culture                     Subculture                    Social ...
Subcultural Ads Appeal to SharedBeliefs, Values and Norms           © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin ...
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4. perspectives on consumer behavior

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4. perspectives on consumer behavior

  1. 1. Perspectives onConsumer Behavior © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin
  2. 2. Consumer Decision MakingDecision Stage Psychological Process Problem Recognition Motivation Information Search Perception Alternative Evaluation Attitude Formation Purchase Decision Integration Postpurchase Evaluation Learning © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin
  3. 3. Sources of Problem Recognition New Needs New Needs Out of Stock Out of Stock Dissatisfaction Dissatisfaction or Wants or WantsRelated ProductRelated Product Market-Induced Market-Induced New New Purchase Purchase Recognition Recognition Products Products © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin
  4. 4. Ads Help Consumers Recognize Problems *Click outside of the video screen to advance to the next slide © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin
  5. 5. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Self-actualization needs (self- Self-actualization needs (self- development, realization) development, realization) Esteem needs (self-esteem, recognition, Esteem needs (self-esteem, recognition, status) status) Social needs (sense of belonging, love) Social needs (sense of belonging, love) Safety needs (security, protection) Safety needs (security, protection) Physiological needs (hunger, thirst) Physiological needs (hunger, thirst) © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin
  6. 6. Nurturance, Love and Belonging + © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin
  7. 7. Freudian Psychoanalytic Approach Strong Strong Symbolic Symbolic Inhibitions Inhibitions Meanings Meanings Subconscious Subconscious Mind Mind Complex and Complex and Surrogate SurrogateUnclear MotivesUnclear Motives Behaviors Behaviors © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin
  8. 8. Probing the Minds of Consumers Depth Depth Association AssociationInterviewsInterviews Tests TestsProjectiveProjective Focus Groups Focus Groups Methods Methods © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin
  9. 9. “MR” Not All Positive or All Negative Pros ConsReveals Hidden Reveals Hidden Qualitative QualitativeFeelings, DrivesFeelings, Drives Results from Very Results from Very and Fears and Fears Small Samples Small Samples Highlights Highlights Varying, Varying, Importance of Motivation Motivation Subjective Subjective Importance ofSymbolic FactorsSymbolic Factors Research Research Interpretations Interpretations Shifts Attention Shifts Attention Difficult or Difficult or from “What” to from “What” to Impossible to Impossible to“How” and “Why”“How” and “Why” Verify or Validate Verify or Validate © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin
  10. 10. Sexy Ads May Motivate Consumers *Click outside of the video screen to advance to the next slide © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin
  11. 11. Sexy Ads Get Noticed © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin +
  12. 12. Information Search Personal Sources Mark et Sourc es Pub Sou lic rce s Per Ex son pe rie al nce © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin
  13. 13. The Selective Perception Process Selective Exposure Selective Exposure Selective Attention Selective Attention Selective Comprehension Selective Comprehension Selective Retention Selective Retention © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin
  14. 14. Combining Color With Black-and-WhiteIs Intended to Gain Attention © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin +
  15. 15. Evaluation of Alternatives All available brandsBrand A Brand B Brand C Brand D Brand EBrand F Brand G Brand H Brand I Brand JBrand K Brand L Brand M Brand N Brand O Evoked Set of Brands Brand B Brand EBrand F Brand I Brand M © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin
  16. 16. Two Forms of Evaluative Criteria Evaluative Criteria Evaluative Criteria Objective Objective Subjective Subjective Price Price Style Style Warranty Warranty Appearance Appearance Service Service Image Image © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin
  17. 17. Different Perspectives: Marketer’s View Tractio Too n okay? pricy?Enoughpower? Product is seen as a bundle of attributes or characteristics. © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin
  18. 18. Different Perspectives: Consumer’s View Will the neighbors How does it cut be impressed with the taller grass? my lawn?How close can I get to the Is it going to be as shrubs? fun to use later this summer? Will it pull that Will I enjoy having little trailer I more time for golf? saw at the store? Product Is Seen As A Set of Outcomes Functional Functional Psychological Psychological © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin
  19. 19. Consumer Attitudes Focus on Objects Individuals Individuals Products ProductsAdsAds Brands Brands Attitudes Attitudes Toward: Toward:MediaMedia Companies Companies Retailers Retailers Organizations Organizations © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin
  20. 20. Ways to Change AttitudesChange Beliefs About An Important AttributeChange Beliefs About An Important Attribute Change Perceptions of the Change Perceptions of the Value of An Attribute Value of An Attribute Add a New Attribute To the Add a New Attribute To the Attitude Formation Mix Attitude Formation Mix Change Perceptions or Beliefs About Change Perceptions or Beliefs About a Competing Brand a Competing Brand © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin
  21. 21. Adding Attributes Changes Attitudes © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin +
  22. 22. How Consumers Learn Thinking Thinking Conditioning Conditioning Modeling Modeling Intellectual Intellectual Based on Based on Based on Based on evaluation evaluation conditioning conditioning emulation emulation comparing comparing through through (copying) of (copying) ofattributes withattributes with association or association or respected respected values values reinforcement reinforcement examples examples © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin
  23. 23. Classical Conditioning ProcessUnconditionedUnconditioned Unconditioned Unconditioned stimulus stimulus response response (waterfall) (waterfall) (freshness, purity) (freshness, purity) Association develops through contiguity and repetition Conditioned Conditioned stimulus Conditioned Conditioned stimulus response (Brita water response (Brita water (freshness, purity)filtration pitcher) (freshness, purity) filtration pitcher) © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin
  24. 24. Classical Conditioning for Cosmetics © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin +
  25. 25. Instrumental Conditioning Process Positive or negative Positive or negative Behavior Behavior consequences occur consequences occur (consumer uses (consumer uses (reward or (reward orproduct or service)product or service) punishment) punishment) Increase or decrease Increase or decrease in probability of in probability of repeat behavior repeat behavior (purchase) (purchase) © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin
  26. 26. Cognitive Learning Process Goal Goal Purposive Behavior Purposive Behavior Insight Insight Goal Achievement Goal Achievement © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin
  27. 27. External Influences on Consumers Culture Subculture Social class Reference groups Situations © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin
  28. 28. Subcultural Ads Appeal to SharedBeliefs, Values and Norms © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin +

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