Telephone survey based on random sample of 2020 NZ households
General Skills Category made up nearly 60% of all migrants
Based on a sample of 302 Nzers sampled from the electoral rolls Far right represents ratings of “immigrants” (unspecified background) - note Asians seen less favourably than generic “immigrant”
Asian Muslims seen as even less favourable
Telephone interviews with a random sample of 1,000 Nzers (annual survey starting in 2007).
Some Nzers want a one-way relationship with Asia: very happy to benefit economically from the relationship (Asian tourism, exports to Asia, economic growth of Asia and free trade agreement with Asia), but not as positive about the influence of Asia on NZ society and values.
Two random samples of Nzers from electoral roll: 1118 valid responses in first; 750 in second. Which immigrants increase crime rates, take jobs away from people born in New Zealand, are good for New Zealand’s economy? (percentages) Percentage of Asian people in prison is actually 2.5%, which is much lower than the 9% Asian population at large. These findings point to the idea that some New Zealanders are happy to have a one-way relationship with Asia, where they wish NZ to benefit economically, but they would like to keep New Zealand society and values distant from Asian influence.
A telephone survey of a nationally representative sample of 750 New Zealanders 18 years of age and over. Umprompted answers about which groups are most discriminated against.
Some people have reported trying to join clubs and classes to try to meet some NZers, but it never panned out. The experience is often that Kiwis are polite and friendly, but are not easy to make strong personal connections with. Several qualitative reports show that Asian migrants have a strong desire to meet Kiwis, get to know them and understand their way of life, but have difficulty forming close bonds. Kiwis are seen as polite and friendly, but keep distance between them.
LisNZ (Longitudinal Immigration Survey: NZ) Wave 1 conducted by IMSED of the Dept of Labour. All people who had taken up permanent residence between 2004 and 2005 were contacted for an interview. A total of 7,137 participated in face to face interviews about their settlement outcomes in NZ. These experiences are common but infrequent. North Asia = China, Japan, Korea, etc Southeast Asia = Malaysia, Phillipines, Indonesia, etc South = Indian subcontinent
ALL migrants (not just Asian). North Asians were the most likely to report being discriminated against in the street.
In two separate studies on Korean migrants… There were many reports of verbal abuse, including the oft-uttered sentiment of “go back where you came from”. This particular Korean migrant in Christchurch reported that she very often experienced harassment when she went for her daily walk. Korean migrants in Auckland faced intolerance and harassment based on their language abilities and appearance.
A study was conducted with migrants with 48 ethnic and cultural backgrounds in Nelson/Tasman in order to design and instate a system for report racist incidents. A Settling In evaluation report (which is a programme run by MSD all over the country to facilitate the settlement processes for migrant and refugee groups) released in 2005 for the Nelson/Tasman region stated that there was “widespread racism against Asians in the street”. This provided the motivation for the study of migrants’ experiences of racism in Nelson/Tasman. While the survey was conducted with ALL migrants, many quotes Asian-specific quotes were provided in the report. These three express very similar experiences to the Korean and Chinese migrants previously cited.
The Safer Students Campaign was launched in 2008 to also give international students a place to report discrimination. It is done online and anonymously. In its first year, 51 reports of harassment were filed, either self-reported or by a witness, and in 34% of the cases the victim was identified as either Asian or originating in an Asian country.
Arguably more detrimental than harassment which is relatively infrequent. Inequities in access to employment and income levels are large and pervasive.
More anecdotal study vs national sample
243 participants: 158 HR professionals; 85 recruitment consultants 40% had first hand experience of discrimination towards Asians (31% HR & 54% recruitment) Managers and clients of the professionals/consultants were overwhelmingly identified as being the perpetrators of discrimination (88%). Another significant finding was that 25% of respondents reported that recruitment consultants themselves had been found to discriminate against clients.
CVs were given to HR Management students. Simulated study. Asian applicants with ethnic sounding names (as opposed to anglicised Asian names) were rated even worse. Other research has shown that employers prefer applicants to have NZ qualifications (Butcher, Spoonley & Trlin, 2006; Henderson, 2003), but the results of this study show that this explains only part of the picture. No Chinese migrants were shortlisted, whereas some local Chinese applicants were, partially supporting the hypothesis that Asian migrants are at a disadvantage due to their foreign and unknown qualifications. However, the result that local Chinese were shortlisted less often than UK/Canadian qualifications suggests that it is more than just their qualifications that are putting Asians at a disadvantage in seeking employment. The results clearly showed NZ European to again be favoured over Asian applicants. The NZ European applicants received requests for future contact with consultants more often (28%) than did the Chinese applicants (9%). Similarly, 27% of the Chinese applicants were told that there were no current opportunities compared with 3% of European applicants being told this. These findings together illustrate that Asians in New Zealand face inequities in their access to employment compared to NZ Europeans. Asian migrants with foreign qualifications and ethnic-sounding names have a much lower chance of gaining suitable employment than NZ Europeans and other migrant groups. However, this research also indicates that Asian people who are born and raised in New Zealand, with New Zealand education and employment experience, face inequality compared to white-skinned, English speaking migrants with foreign qualifications.
752 of the 1253 race-related complaints directed towards it were for comments by MP Hone Harawira, and were typically filed by male NZ Europeans. The group that complained the most about racial discrimination were NZ Europeans, the ethnic group that experiences discrimination the least in NZ society. Even excluding complaints following the Harawira incident, 25% of complaints were by NZ Europeans, 13% by Māori, 7% by Indians, and 10% by other Asians. This does not fit well with a portrait of whingeing ethnic minorities in Aotearoa/New Zealand, but rather ethnic minorities coping with a dominant and vocal majority.
For many Asians, migration to New Zealand is a one-way street. The experience of discrimination, while common, is not frequent enough to spoil other aspects of the lifestyle they have chosen.
… even though they were aware that their Chinese language skills were often insufficient.
Skilled migrants are increasingly sought in New Zealand to fill gaps and shortages that exist in the labour force, so ensuring that…
Confident, equal and proud? The barriers Asians face to equality in New Zealand
Confident, equal and proud? Adrienne N. Girling, James H. Liu & Colleen Ward Centre for Applied Cross-Cultural Research Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand The barriers Asians face to equality in New Zealand
Overview <ul><li>Introduction: New Zealanders’ Attitudes toward Immigration and Cultural Diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Asians in New Zealand </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes Toward Asians and Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Asians’ Experiences of Discrimination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Harassment in Public </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unequal Access to Employment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Coping with Discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of Social Inclusion and Cohesion </li></ul><ul><li>Where Do We Go From Here? </li></ul>
National Survey on Attitudes toward Immigrants, Immigration and Multiculturalism Source: Ward & Masgoret (2008)
Multi-cultural Ideology and Attitudes toward Immigrants (% of agreement) <ul><li>It is important to accept a wide variety </li></ul><ul><li>of cultures in New Zealand 80% </li></ul><ul><li>Immigrants have many qualities I admire 82% </li></ul><ul><li>Immigrants have made an important 81% </li></ul><ul><li>contribution to New Zealand </li></ul>
How should immigrants adapt? (% of agreement) Immigrants should give up their original culture for the sake of adopting 21% New Zealand culture Immigrants should maintain their original culture as long as they do not mix it 28% with NZ culture Immigrants should maintain their original culture while also adopting NZ culture 82%
Threat and Competition (% of agreement) Immigrants take jobs away from New Zealanders 25% Allowing immigrant cultures to thrive means that NZ culture is weakened 24%
It is a good thing for any society to be made up of people from different races, religions and cultures
Asians in New Zealand <ul><li>Fastest growing population (9% of total pop) </li></ul><ul><li>Recent increases in migration from Asia due to changes in policy in 1987 & 1991 </li></ul><ul><li>In 2001/2002, Asians made up nearly half of migrants who entered under the General Skills Category </li></ul><ul><li>Asians experience more discrimination than any other group </li></ul>
Ethnic Enclaves <ul><li>A commonly held belief about migrants is that “they stick to themselves” and do little to try to fit in (Gendall et al, 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Many migrants report that they would like to become friends with NZers and have tried to no avail (Chang et al, 2006) </li></ul>
More contact = More warmth <ul><li>About three out of four people who have a lot of contact with Asian people (77%) feel warmly towards people originating in Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Whereas only one in two people (49%) who have hardly any contact with people from Asia feel warmly towards them </li></ul>
Asians’ Experiences of Discrimination Source: Asia:NZ Foundation, 2009
Migrants’ experiences of discrimination by region of origin Source: Department of Labour, 2009 Percent
Harassment in Public <ul><li>Many anecdotal accounts, the majority of which were experiences perpetrated by young and less educated NZers </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal harassment tends to take the form of racist epithets uttered by passers-by </li></ul><ul><li>Physical harassment includes having eggs or stones thrown at them on street corners or drinks spilled on them at bars </li></ul>
<ul><li>“ They used their middle finger and used the f-word and … like Asian bitch, like that, those kind of things. Always are horrid, whenever I walk.” </li></ul><ul><li> Korean migrant in Christchurch </li></ul><ul><li>“ One day I went shopping. Two young guys said nasty words to me in the shop I felt very uncomfortable.” </li></ul><ul><li> Chinese migrant in Auckland </li></ul>Source: Chang et al., 2009 & Meares et al., 2010b
<ul><li>“ I have witnessed an incident where youths in a car have thrown food and shouted insults at [Asian] friends standing on the footpath.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Someone said “Asian” and made a motion as if to slit throat.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Last year at fish and chip shop someone hit son, and said ‘get out’. Son say ‘why hit?’ He say ‘you look like [Asian]’.” </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Asian migrants in Nelson/Tasman </li></ul></ul></ul>Source: Kohner, 2009
International Students in Christchurch Source: Safer Students Campaign, 2009
Unequal Access to Employment <ul><li>Arguably more detrimental than harassment </li></ul><ul><li>Asian people in the General Skills Category have higher levels of unemployment and lower levels of employment than other migrants </li></ul><ul><li>In 1996, Asians were earning nearly 60% less than comparable NZers </li></ul>
Personal Experiences of Employment Inequity <ul><li>In a sample of Sri Lankan migrants, </li></ul><ul><li>approximately half reported experiencing discrimination when searching for a job </li></ul><ul><li>One third were not employed, although Sri Lankans had the highest level of tertiary education in the country </li></ul><ul><li>Vast majority (92%) identified as either fluent in English, very fluent or spoke English as a first language </li></ul>Source: Basnayake, 1999
Experiences of Recruitment Professionals <ul><li>Almost all respondents (95%) felt that people face unfair barriers to employment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>70% for non-NZ accent; 57% for different culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50% Asian; 37% Pacific; 32% Māori </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managers and clients were identified as discriminating the most (88%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Although 25% said that recruitment consultants themselves had discriminated against clients </li></ul></ul>Source: Burns, 2000
“ I would say that 75 percent of clients we deal with discriminate when they describe what they want in an employee. Because the client pays us to find that employee, we in turn have to discriminate every day. It is morally and ethically against our views but the bottom line is the company ’ s needs. ” Recruitment Consultant Source: Burns, 2000
Wearing Your Ethnicity on Your Sleeve <ul><li>Researchers fabricated over-qualified CVs for “applicants” of Asian and European descent </li></ul><ul><li>Pākehā were rated as much more suitable than Indian, who were rated higher than Chinese </li></ul><ul><li>Shockingly, UK/Canadian migrants were shortlisted more often than NZ-raised Chinese (Wilson et al, 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Another similar study found that Chinese migrants were much less likely to be requested for future contact and more likely to be told there were no opportunities (Ward & Masgoret, 2007) </li></ul>
Coping with Discrimination <ul><li>Asians have been shown to minimise their experience of discrimination or put it out of mind </li></ul><ul><li>They are accustomed to using secondary control strategies where they accommodate external pressures rather than engaging in a confrontation (Yamaguchi, 2001) </li></ul><ul><li>In fact in 2009, the majority of race related complaints to HRC were by Pākehā (against MP Hone Harawira’s comments), and very few were made by Asians (HRC, 2009) </li></ul>
Satisfaction With Life European Māori Pacific Asian Very satisfied / satisfied with life overall 87.1 81.5 80.2 84.1
Quality of Life <ul><li>Many Asians choose to move to NZ for their children’s education or for a higher quality of life in a clean and healthy environment </li></ul><ul><li>They report feeling less stressed in NZ and have more time to spend with family </li></ul><ul><li>Asians have comparable high levels of subjective well-being to Pākehā, Māori and Pasifika </li></ul>
When I look back at Hong Kong and compare it with here, I have no regrets … when I go back to Hong Kong, I cannot see the air, the skyline … and the stress … here it is so quiet, you are able to talk … Hong Kong, no way. Always busy, busy, busy! ” Migrant in Auckland Source: Spoonley & Meares, 2009
Identity Strategies for Kiwi Chinese <ul><li>Typical identity strategy used by Kiwi Chinese is to not differentiate strongly from other NZers (assimilative and public integration) </li></ul><ul><li>Attachment to Kiwi Chinese identity was more a matter of intuitive comfort level rather than clearly articulated qualities of difference </li></ul><ul><li>This group saw their dual heritage as both Kiwis and Chinese as an asset, and visualized themselves as being able to bridge communities </li></ul>Source: Liu & Moughan, 2010
Identity Strategies for First Generation Chinese Migrants <ul><li>Accept self as different from mainstream, </li></ul><ul><li>maintaining Chinese core values while </li></ul><ul><li>accommodating values of the mainstream (separatist and private integration) </li></ul><ul><li>Stronger attachment to Chinese than NZ identity, preference for Chinese language </li></ul><ul><li>Dual heritage is seen as primary asset for their children, and they accept a certain degree of social exclusion & racism directed against them as part of the price of NZ society </li></ul>
Chinese Expectations/Social Control <ul><li>台湾会有很大所谓的社会压力…你要认真读书，考上好学校，从好学校毕业之后要认真找工作，找到一个好工作，收入也不错。工作中好好去爬，当你到一个年纪之后，就要准备去结婚，组织家庭。他们预期你在某一个阶段作什么的事。他们预期你在某一个阶段作什么的事。但有时候，可能是我不够坚强，很容易陷入在那个所谓的一个圈圈，一直转一直转，如果你够坚强的话 . </li></ul><ul><li>“ Taiwan has huge societal pressures.. You have to study hard, test into a good university, after graduation you must seriously look for work, after you find work, you must prepare for marriage and family. They expect that you should do particular things at particular stages. But sometimes, perhaps I was not strong enough, and easily fall into what could be called a constricted circle, turning and turning.” </li></ul>
Lack of Self-Direction as Youth in China <ul><li>实际上，我是一个没有什么主见的人 . 我从小就是按我爸爸给我安排的路线走，没什么叛逆的心理，他给我引得路是不对的。 </li></ul><ul><li>“ In fact, I am someone who doesn’t have a strong sense of self direction. From childhood I followed the path my Father set. I had no inner thoughts of betrayal, but the path he set for me was not right.” </li></ul>
Kiwi Freedom <ul><li>A ： 你对孩子有没什么特别的期待或希望？ Do you have any expectations for your children? </li></ul><ul><li>D ： 基本上没有。来了新西兰以后，觉得只要他做的事情不是违背良心的，平安在心里面。他那怕愿意去做一个 farmer . 因为在新西兰没有职业的高低，或这样的歧视。 Basically not. After arriving in NZ, I feel that as long as they’re not doing things against good conscience… They don’t need to worry about being a farmer, because in NZ there aren’t high and low occupations & occupational prejudices. </li></ul>
<ul><li>A ：农民可以是一个百万富翁的。 A farmer can be a millionaire. </li></ul><ul><li>D ：对呀。没有人先敬罗衣后敬人这样子，到什么地方，商店，他有这样的观念。就算他是一个渔民，渔夫，或是怎么样，他喜欢这样生活的状况。 Right. No one is more respectful of the clothes than the person here. Everywhere you go its like that. Even if you’re a fisherman or the like, they like this type of life. </li></ul>
Importance of Social Inclusion and Cohesion <ul><li>Ensuring that migrants feel welcome, supported and satisfied with their lives in NZ will in turn increase self-esteem and good mental health </li></ul><ul><li>Racial discrimination (including unfair treatment in the workplace) is associated with poor or fair health, including lower physical functioning lower mental health, smoking and cardiovascular disease (Harris et al., 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Some migrants choose to permanently leave New Zealand because of difficulties settling in (Shorland, 2006) </li></ul>
Where Do We Go From Here? <ul><li>Commentators </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Policy Recommendations </li></ul>