Sport and Politics 2013


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The causes and consequences of the 1981 Springbok tour

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Sport and Politics 2013

  1. 1. Level 2 History
  2. 2. Contents • • • • • • • • • • Sport & Politics SA and Apartheid The Place of Rugby in NZ Rugby Rivalry Runs Deep 1921 : 1949 Humiliation 1956 Revenge The Greatest Rivalry – 2 1960: No Maori, No Tour 1965 Repeat 1970 Honorary Whites • 1981 2
  3. 3. Sport Vs. Politics • • • • • • Politics and Sport is a controversial issue. Many people feel that the two should never mix. Somehow sports is considered ‘pure’ in its pursuit of personal excellence. Politics is somehow ‘grubby’ often attracting baser instincts of greed and manipulation. Many people and organisations would argue that they should never combine. In New Zealand, Rugby is where the two have regularly collided. 3
  4. 4. South Africa 1900 2000
  5. 5. South Africa and Apartheid • • • • • • • By the 1940’s South Africa was a country where the majority were Black (Zulu, Xhosa etc) or Coloured (Mixed Race) with a significant White minority. Most Whites were Afrikaans (Dutch) with some English. The Boers War 1899-1902 meant that many Dutch Afrikaaners hated the “English” Many Afrikaans were extremely Nationalist and had objected to supporting GB in both World Wars. After WWII they began to support the National Party which wanted to further separate the Races, physically and economically. This became a policy of “Grand” Apartheid which would place Blacks and White into totally separate areas. However they later allowed for “Petty” Apartheid, with some mixing for work. (Rubbish Cleaning Cooks 5
  6. 6. Apartheid • • • • • • • • • Apartheid was a policy of separating the Black and White populations of South Africa. Begun in 1948 it forced Blacks to live in Homelands. Apartheid stopped different races from marrying. It dictated where they could live. It restricted Black ability to vote. It restricted Black access to transportation and education. Any Resistance was met with violence. Nelson Mandela was imprisoned. Steve Biko was murdered. Apartheid Laws 6
  7. 7. BBC Apartheid Video Original Video Location 7
  8. 8. 8
  9. 9. The Place of Rugby in New Zealand • First played in Nelson in 1870 • Quickly spread through towns and rural areas. • Rugby Clubs became social centres in many small towns and urban areas. • It provided a strong sense of identity for schools, club, provincial and national identities. • The All Blacks became important to many peoples idea of national success. Rod Derret: Rugby, Racing and Beer Howard Morrison: My Old Mans an All Black 9
  10. 10. • By 1900 Rugby was beginning to dominate almost every other topic, including the Boer War and Chinese Immigration. 10
  11. 11. 1905 : The ALL BLACKS 11
  12. 12. Nice Game... Using Rugby • 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Read the article by David Kirk. What is NZ well known for? What makes us unique? How and why might Clinton ‘bond’ with NZ? How does Sandra Coney view rugby? Why is rugby bad for other sports? What burden do rugby players carry? How does the 1 legged stool fit our self esteem? What does he think we should do? • Read the article about the Exhibition. 9. Describe how Murray Ball viewed rugby and the All Blacks? Use examples. 10.How have Cartoonists viewed rugby? 11.How have they depicted the All Blacks? 12.What themes did the exhibition divided into? 13.How did South Africa change the focus of rugby cartoons? 12
  13. 13. Rugby Rivalry runs deep. • • • • • • • • In South Africa the game of the White minority was Rugby. Blacks preferred football. Their greatest foe were the All Blacks. For many years both sides were acclaimed World Champions. Series have been filled with controversy, penalties or tries awarded or not, thuggery and referees who made questionable decisions. In 1949 New Zealand lost 4-nil in South Africa. For many New Zealanders defeating the Springboks at home & in Africa became an obsession. The 1956 series became war. Kevin Skinner, Peter Jones and Don Clarke became household names as we strove for revenge. Defeat was unacceptable. 13
  14. 14. Springbok V All Blacks • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 1919 NZ defeat SA 1921 SA draw series 1-1 in NZ 1928 NZ draw series 2-2 in SA 1937 SA win series 2-1 in NZ 1949 NZ lose series 4-0 in SA 1956 SA lose series 3-1 in NZ 1960 NZ lose series 3-1 in SA 1965 SA lose series 3-1 in NZ 1967 Tour cancelled by Union 1970 NZ lose series 3-1 in SA 1973 Tour cancelled by NZ Govt. 1976 NZ lose series 3-1 in SA 1981 SA lose series 2-1 in NZ 1983 Tour cancelled by NZ High Court 14
  15. 15. A 1921 Report for a SA paper • “Bad enough having play team officially designated New Zealand natives, but spectacle thousands Europeans frantically cheering on band of coloured men to defeat members of own race was too much for Springboks, who frankly disgusted.” 15
  16. 16. 1949 Touring Team • • Based around the successful 1946 ‘Kiwis’ army team which had defeated the best of Europe this team was expected to do well against the Boks. Losing the series 4 nil was viewed as a catastrophe. 16
  17. 17. 1949 17
  18. 18. 1956 • “...we’ll have some of the Springboks here tomorrow to help out” • Even as early as 1956, security was becoming an issue. • The Greatest Rivalry 19
  19. 19. 1956 Universities Win 20
  20. 20. Taranaki celebrated a 3-3 draw with the tourists. Waikato and Canterbury had already defeated them. Defeating the Springboks was a huge honour for any provincial team. 21
  21. 21. 1956 • Several Provinces found the Boks could not cope with the “Up’n’Under” or ‘bomb’ which they used to terrorise the tourists. • Inflicting as much injury on the tourists was considered a part of the campaign to ‘soften’ them up for the Test matches. 22
  22. 22. 1956 – Maori Lose • Maori affairs minister Ernest Corbett told the 1956 Maori All Blacks they must not beat the Springboks. • Maori All Black fullback Muru Walters, now an Anglican bishop in Otaki, said Mr Corbett visited the team in their Eden Park dressingroom and told them if they won the All Blacks would never be invited back to South Africa. 23
  23. 23. Greatest Rugby Rivalry pt. 2 24
  24. 24. 1956 Series Won • It was with a real sense of relief that the Nation celebrated the defeat of the Springboks as revenge for 1949. • For the moment we could call ourselves World Champions. 25
  25. 25. 1960: No Maoris, No Tour • • In 1928,1949 the 1960 Maori players were excluded from these touring SA, which finally raised protest in 1960. New Zealanders began to realize the implications of this over-riding desire to play South Africa at any cost: – It discriminated against Maori – It meant we sent a weaker team. • International pressure began to build in the 1970’s and several Springbok tours to Australia and the UK were blighted by protests, violence and cancellation. What was the issue being protested about? 28
  26. 26. 1960: NZRFU attitude 29
  27. 27. 1960: The Sydney Herald 30
  28. 28. NZ lost the 1960 Series 31
  29. 29. 1960 • As often happens with an All Black loss, children began to drift to other sports. The Ballad of Peter Snell 32
  30. 30. Protest Movements in the 1960’s and 1970’s • • • • • • • • In the 1960s a new generation emerged that were less conservative than their parents. They were prepared to argue, complain and protest on issues they saw as being important. Increasingly they took their protests to the streets. Some of the inspiration came from overseas. Black Civil Rights brought Racism to the fore. The Vietnam War led to suspicion of the Government. Maori Land Issues raised awareness of inequality. Contraception Law reform highlighted women’s health. Petitions, Street Marches and campaigning created a strong core leadership for the antiapartheid movement. 33
  31. 31. 1965 • In 1964 South Africa was banned from competing at the Olympics until it chose its teams on merit. • Despite this am invitation • The 1965 Springbok team was unlucky to meet one of the strongest All Black teams, just starting a 4 year run of success. 34
  32. 32. 1965 • • Despite being outplayed by several provinces the 1965 Springbok team was still able to approach the final test with the chance of drawing the series. A draw meant they lost the series. 35
  33. 33. 1967 Tour Cancelled. • After the protests in 1960 the NZRFU finally refused to bow to the SARFU’s request not to include Maori in the touring teams. • When this could not be resolved the tour was cancelled. • The 1967 AB team was one of the strongest and included a number of Maori players. This should be acknowledged as a victory for the 1960 campaign. • Anti-apartheid now moved to a new level as it focussed not on the Maori issue to refusing to play against a racist regime. 36
  34. 34. 1970: Honorary White? • Despite protests, the 1970 tour to the Republic went ahead. • Maori and Pasifika players finally went on tour, but as ‘Honorary Whites”. • Several players were happy to go, despite protests at the insult this title conveyed. • The touring party also included Samoan Bryan Williams a Samoan • Lacking talent in some key positions and a consistent kicker the All Blacks lost the series. 37
  35. 35. 1972 – Politics? 38
  36. 36. 39
  37. 37. 1973: Marshall enjoys Labours problems 40
  38. 38. The Gleneagles Agreement • • • • • • New Zealand was a strong supporter of the British Commonwealth of Nations. Our most popular sports were played against the Commonwealth. Several agreements had been made supporting campaigns against apartheid and racism. It agreed to discourage sporting contact with South Africa, without stipulating what that meant. Some countries were prepared to deny visas, refuse leave for players or to work with organisations to stop further contact. New Zealand signed the agreement. ...the urgent duty of each of their Governments vigorously to combat the evil of apartheid by withholding any form of support for, and by taking every practical step to discourage contact or competition by their nationals with sporting organisations, teams or sportsmen from South Africa ...each Government to determine in accordance with its law the methods by which it might best discharge these commitments. But they recognised that the effective fulfilment of their commitments was essential to the harmonious development of Commonwealth sport. 41
  39. 39. 1976: Rugby Vs Olympics • • • • • • • In 1976 NZ was due to return to the Republic. By now South Africa was subject to a number of sporting bans including since 1964, from the Olympics. New Zealand had signed the Gleneagles Agreement to ‘discourage’ sporting contact with South Africa. The Government decided it could not stop its own citizens from travelling. African nations threatened to boycott the Olympics if New Zealand was allowed to attend. Rugby was no longer an Olympic sport so the IOC had no control over the sport. New Zealand attended, 28 African nations boycotted. 42
  40. 40. 43
  41. 41. 44
  42. 42. Soweto Riots • To reinforce the issues in SA unrest broke out in the ‘Townships’. • An important issue amongst Blacks was education. There was little equality. • The Government had made classes in Afrikaans compulsory. • In 1976 the children of Soweto marched in opposition to this policy. • They were fired upon and rioting broke out. • The riots lasted only briefly, right in the middle of the All Black tour. • Several All Blacks even visited the township during the riots. 45
  43. 43. Hector Petersen Several hundred children were killed by SA police. Estimates range from 200 to 700. Hector was one of the first to be killed 46
  44. 44. All Blacks caught in the unrest. 47
  45. 45. 1981: Individual Rights v Law & Order • • • • • • • • The 1981 tour by the Springboks is considered a watershed in our national & international politics. It changed everything. The previous year it had signed the Gleneagles agreement to ‘discourage’ South African tours. The Govt. claimed it had no right to stop the tour from proceeding. HART and CARE led the protests Initially about apartheid, the Government turned it into a “Law and Order” issue. Games in Gisborne and Hamilton were abandoned. The final game in Auckland turned the suburb of Mt Eden into a battlefield. 48
  46. 46. 1981 –A banacing Act 49
  47. 47. 50
  48. 48. 51
  49. 49. 52
  50. 50. Groups who opposed the tour. • • • • • • • • • In 1981 a wide range of people were drawn to opposing the tour, including: HART CARE Unions Council of Churches Maori Council Womens Groups University Students Political Parties 53
  51. 51. 54
  52. 52. 55
  53. 53. 56
  54. 54. 57
  55. 55. 58
  56. 56. Protest and Violence: Hamilton 59
  57. 57. 60
  58. 58. 1981 Videos 1: Sport 2: Molesworth St 3: New Tactics 4: the Final Test 61
  59. 59. Patu 62
  60. 60. 1981 Aftermath • • • • • • • New Zealand society was shocked at the violence and divisions that occurred during the 1981 tour. Rioting protestors and over vigorous police were both condemned. Friendships, families and entire communities were split over the tour. Some took years to reconcile, some never have. Racism became a topical and hotly debated issue. Rob Muldoon won the 1981 election on the back of support for his “law and order’ campaign. In 1985 a return tour to SA was cancelled after a High Court Challenge by two rugby players. 63
  61. 61. 64
  62. 62. 65
  63. 63. 1985 – Cez Blazey 66