New Zealand 1800 1900 Race Relations 2011 Classroom Version


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  • This was painted by Goldie and is based on the original ‘Medusa’ painting. It shows Maori barely managing to reach NZ. There impression is that getting here was accidental and undermines their abilities…. Why?
  • The generalised route taken, starting somewhere near Taiwan and through the Asian archipalegoes into Melanesia and finally into Polynesia.
  • New Zealand 1800 1900 Race Relations 2011 Classroom Version

    1. 1. New Zealand Race Relations 1800 - 1900 CLASS VERSION 2010
    2. 2. EXTENSION READING #1 <ul><li>Reading Available in the Library as Articles or as Books on </li></ul><ul><li>one of the Reserves Trolley </li></ul><ul><li>Where to from Here? - Erik Olssen (Historiography) </li></ul><ul><li>New Zealand Before Annexation . - JMR Owen </li></ul><ul><li>Maori and Pakeha - MPK Sorrenson </li></ul><ul><li>The Maori People and the Crown - Claudia Orange </li></ul><ul><li>Humpty Dumpty and the Treaty of Waitangi - Bruce Biggs (Language in the Treaty) </li></ul><ul><li>The Treaty of Waitangi - Claudia Orange (Also see Illustrated Treaty of Waitangi on the Reserves Trolley) </li></ul><ul><li>Three Historical Interpretations of the Treaty of Waitangi - Paul Moon </li></ul><ul><li>1840 Scrap of paper or Sacred Pact? – Chapter 5 “Milestones” Tom Brooking (also see Reserves Trolley) </li></ul><ul><li>The Pakeha Invasion - Judith Bassett </li></ul><ul><li>Wars and Survival – Judith Binney </li></ul><ul><li>Precis of the New Zealand Wars – James Belich </li></ul><ul><li>The Challenge to Mana Maori – Ann Parsonson </li></ul><ul><li>The Native Land Court and the Maori Communities – Judith Binney </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department
    3. 3. The Whence of the Maori <ul><li>Maori are a Polynesian people who have existed in New Zealand since about 750 AD. (Give or take a legend.) </li></ul><ul><li>How did they get here? </li></ul><ul><li>Technically Waka or Vaka in the Pacific were capable of long voyages. </li></ul><ul><li>World Weather was warmer and wind patterns more settled - allowing Voyaging? </li></ul><ul><li>Archaeology pointed towards movement from West to East. (Lapita Pottery) </li></ul><ul><li>Language pointed towards South Asia. (The Austronesian Family). Ethnological changes, Hawaiikii = Savaii </li></ul><ul><li>DNA in Rats and Humans point towards an Asian homeland. </li></ul><ul><li>Oral Tradition throughout the Pacific pointed towards a voyaging history. </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative theories have been debunked. (Thor Heyerdahls “Kon Tiki”). </li></ul>
    4. 5. The Raft of the Medusa Wellington High School History Department
    5. 6. Wellington High School History Department
    6. 7. The Archaic (Proto)Maori <ul><li>Initial the main settlement was in the South Islands open country that had a ready food supply. (Moa) </li></ul><ul><li>There is evidence of some small settlement in the north island. </li></ul><ul><li>A Hunter-Gatherer Culture developed around the large herds of flightless birds and seasonal food gathering…. </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence (Middens etc) indicates small mobile groups of 40-50. (Wairau Bar) </li></ul><ul><li>Around 1400 A.D. the Moa became scarce or extinct threatening the way of life of these people. </li></ul><ul><li>Fortunately about this time the Kumara arrived. </li></ul><ul><li>About this time the world climate changed. (End of the small Ice Age) </li></ul><ul><li>Then weather patterns changed, and Maori became isolated from the rest of Polynesia. </li></ul><ul><li>Over 400 years the voyagers became myth. </li></ul>
    7. 8. Elsdon Best & Percy Smith
    8. 9. Richard Owen and the Moa
    9. 10. A note on the Moriori <ul><li>The Moriori have been the subject of some interesting ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>A common misconception is the Moriori were the original inhabitants of New Zealand and were driven away by invading Maori. </li></ul><ul><li>This is wrong – but why do some people prefer to believe it? </li></ul><ul><li>The Moriori appear to have arrived at the Chathams at about the same time as Maori were settling New Zealand. </li></ul><ul><li>They established a peaceful culture when they realised intertribal warfare was ultimately destructive. </li></ul><ul><li>This culture would be their undoing in 1835 when they were invaded by Maori. (Nagti Mutunga) </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department
    10. 11. The Modern Maori <ul><li>Kumara did not easily grow in the south. </li></ul><ul><li>The Maori moved north and developed an agricultural culture around Kumara. </li></ul><ul><li>Culture became centred around control of land and supported larger populations. (i.e. 3000 on Motutapu Island). </li></ul><ul><li>Tribalism developed centred on Whanau, Hapu and Iwi. </li></ul><ul><li>Tribal links were reinforced through familial links, especially marriage. </li></ul><ul><li>Tikanga around ownership of land developed. </li></ul><ul><li>Power centred on ritual links through birthright as well as achievements or knowledge in different fields. </li></ul><ul><li>Rangatira and Ariki were the most important chiefs. </li></ul><ul><li>Tohunga were guardians of knowledge incl. medicine and lore </li></ul><ul><li>Idea of Tapu was important as a social tool. </li></ul>
    11. 12. Kumara growing areas Wellington High School History Department
    12. 13. Wellington High School History Department <ul><li>How does this table relate to the areas where Kumara could be grown? </li></ul>
    13. 14. Maori Society <ul><li>Maori society was highly stratified. </li></ul><ul><li>At the top were the Ariki or recognsed heads of Hapu and Iwi. </li></ul><ul><li>Such a position was reached through birthright and the accumulation of mana. </li></ul><ul><li>Below were Tohunga, Kaumatua and Warriors. </li></ul><ul><li>In some Iwi/Hapu women could occupy senior positions. </li></ul><ul><li>Some allowed women to speak on the marae and be accepted as a chief. </li></ul><ul><li>Children occupied a special and highly valued place in society. </li></ul><ul><li>At the bottom were mokai or slaves, who were also seen as a source of labour and sometimes food when necessary. </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department
    14. 15. Maori Politics <ul><li>The idea of Mana was central to much of the Maori world view. </li></ul><ul><li>Mana could be earned through warfare in knowledge or through birth. </li></ul><ul><li>Links between Iwi, were based upon marriage and allowed different tribes to join together in response to perceived threats or in order to attack others. </li></ul><ul><li>This allowed large Iwi confederations like the Tai Tokerau (Ngapuhi) or even the Waikato to become powerful and feared by their neighbours. </li></ul><ul><li>Such alliances could be short lived and it was not uncommon for Maori to turn on their former friends. (Ngati Toa) </li></ul><ul><li>Often such attacks were because of slights to an Arikis or their Tribes Mana. </li></ul><ul><li>Insults like this could fester for decades before Utu was satisfied. </li></ul>
    15. 16. Iwi Location Wellington High School History Department
    16. 17. Wellington High School History Department
    17. 18. The Traditional Maori Economy <ul><li>Traditional Maori economy was based on the production and storage of foodstuffs during the summer months with some migration within traditional tribal areas following seasonally available food. (Bush to the Sea) </li></ul><ul><li>Trade was carried out by barter for materials which were not available locally. </li></ul><ul><li>Northern Tribes were the more agriculturally adept based on the Kumara. </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture also gave them a significant numerical advantage. </li></ul><ul><li>Southern tribes depended more on gathering of food, often based on a hunter-gatherer lifestyle. </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department
    18. 19. Wellington High School History Department
    19. 20. Eeling Wellington High School History Department
    20. 21. Maori Trade <ul><li>Trade or exchange of goods between Maori tribes is common. </li></ul><ul><li>Trade is often a way of reinforcing tribal links. </li></ul><ul><li>Trade is based on barter instead of exchange of money. </li></ul><ul><li>Shellfish and fish are an important food in coastal regions. </li></ul><ul><li>Fern root is a staple part of the diet. </li></ul><ul><li>Maori continue to migrate with the seasons to exploit different food sources. </li></ul><ul><li>Food resources are protected by customs like raahui or a ban on use of a resource in a certain area. </li></ul><ul><li>Despite this 35 species of native birds become extinct and others are depleted. </li></ul><ul><li>Forest cover is reduced by 50% over the first 1000 years of Maori settlement. </li></ul>Pounamu Seafood Kumara Basalt
    21. 22. European Exploration Wellington High School History Department
    22. 23. Searching for Terra Incognita <ul><li>1642 Tasman - attacked </li></ul><ul><li>1769 Cook – a 6 month survey </li></ul><ul><li>1769 de Surville – 2 weeks after Cook </li></ul><ul><li>1771 Marion du Fresne – Killed & Eaten </li></ul><ul><li>Early exploration sought to discover new lands suitable for exploitation later this expanded to include increasing scientific knowledge and to secure National security. </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment of native peoples depended on the prevailing point of view in Europe . </li></ul><ul><li>Tasman reacted much as we would expect a 17th Century European to (Murders Bay), while the 18th Century Cook seemed more enlightened and was helped by the presence of his Tahitian interpreter. </li></ul><ul><li>The “Noble Savage” was a prevalent view by the late 1700’s and Tahiti presented every aspect of Arcadia. </li></ul><ul><li>This did not stop Du Fresne’s crew from slaughtering hundreds of Maori in an act of revenge for his death. </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department A view of the Maori from Tasmans perspective.
    23. 26. James Cook <ul><li>Cook was a highly regarded navigator who was sent to Tahiti for the Transit of Venus expedition. </li></ul><ul><li>He also carried sealed orders which he opened afterwards. </li></ul><ul><li>He was to search the South Pacific to verify the existence of Terra Incognita. </li></ul><ul><li>He was helped by the H4 chronometer which allowed him to accurately chart his course. </li></ul><ul><li>He had with him Joseph Banks who was a biologist and collector of native curiosities. </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department
    24. 27. James Cook & Joseph Banks Wellington High School History Department Cook in classic pose while Banks models the Maori cloak and other memorabilia mentioned in “Two Worlds”. Perhaps good taste didn’t allow for the Human Head he purchased in Queen Charlotte Sound.
    25. 28. Cooks Report <ul><li>Cook spent six months charting New Zealand. </li></ul><ul><li>He assiduously noted the flora and fauna (as did Banks) of the country. </li></ul><ul><li>He was especially interested in the large areas of flax and timber that covered most of the coastline. </li></ul><ul><li>He also noted the culture and customs of the Maori whom he regarded highly. </li></ul><ul><li>In the late 18 th Century military power was measured in the strength of the Navy. </li></ul><ul><li>A Navy needed supplies of wood for both hulls and masts. </li></ul><ul><li>The ships needed a constant & supply of flax for both rope and sails. </li></ul><ul><li>NZ could provide both in case of war with France. </li></ul>
    26. 29. Cook Video
    27. 31. The Death of Marion du Fresne NB. THE REFERENCE TO ‘THE DEATH OF MARION’ THAT YATE WILL USE IN 1831
    28. 32. The Settlement at Sydney Cove 1788 <ul><li>Britain had used its colonies as a place to send its unwanted convicts. </li></ul><ul><li>Since losing the War with the US Britain had accumulated many unwanted convicts. </li></ul><ul><li>Jamaica was no longer viable as Black slaves were cheaper. (& lasted longer!) </li></ul><ul><li>Other Choices (Mosquito Coast) were too dangerous. </li></ul><ul><li>The Thames Prison Hulks were a health hazard and unsightly. </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic Value of Australia gave GB a presence in the South Pacific. </li></ul><ul><li>Botany Bay to Sydney Cove </li></ul><ul><li>Demand for Trade with Maori. (Starvation) </li></ul><ul><li>Sealers and Whaling Gangs from 1792. </li></ul><ul><li>Timber trade from early 1790’s. </li></ul><ul><li>Sydney businessmen saw potential in NZ. </li></ul><ul><li>A number of these freedmen become Pakeha-Maori and acted as intermediaries. </li></ul>A ship arrives in Botany Bay
    29. 33. Pacific Domination Wellington High School History Department
    30. 34. HISTORIOGRAPHY <ul><li>Historiography is the comparison of TWO or more points of view expressed by Historians over an event, issue or a person. </li></ul><ul><li>Differences in opinion can often be related to the available evidence which made a point of view valid at that time, but which subsequently may be undermined or viewed differently by new evidence. i.e. The Maori(?) Wars. </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes a point of view will relate to the values which existed at the time, i.e. the role of women. </li></ul><ul><li>Often a Historian will express a particular point of view based on their religious, political or economic beliefs, adding bias to their decisions. </li></ul><ul><li>i.e. Marxism. </li></ul><ul><li>When studying an event or issue you should read widely enough to be able to identify the Historiography that may be attached to it. You many also be asked to judge which of the views has the most validity. </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department
    31. 35. Early Contact 1800 -1840 <ul><li>Sealers 1792 </li></ul><ul><li>Ocean Whalers 1806 </li></ul><ul><li>Bay Whalers 1820’s </li></ul><ul><li>Intermediaries 1799 </li></ul><ul><li>Missionaries 1814 </li></ul><ul><li>Government Officials 1833 </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department
    32. 36. Sealing 1792-1812 <ul><li>Southern Fur Seals soon provided a good source of income for Australian merchants. </li></ul><ul><li>Seal Skins were a valuable commodity valued in both London and in China. </li></ul><ul><li>Sydney traders had a ready supply of freed convicts willing to work for them. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1792 the first Sealing gang were left at Dusky Sound. </li></ul><ul><li>Conditions were atrocious and dangerous. </li></ul><ul><li>More gangs followed and although sealers feared Maori – some were eaten, others found trade possible. </li></ul>
    33. 37. Sealing: Dangerous Work <ul><li>A number of Sealers were killed by Maori. </li></ul><ul><li>This appears to have been a tit-for-tat attacks by a ships captain called Kelly after he cheated Maori in trading. </li></ul><ul><li>Iwi cheated by Kelly simply took utu against him and other Europeans. </li></ul><ul><li>Sealers also faced Captains who forgot them or Traders who went bust and forgot them. </li></ul><ul><li>Crews were sometimes abandoned – one was found 4 years after being dropped off. Their captain had found something more lucrative! </li></ul>
    34. 38. Sealing: A Hard Life on the Beach <ul><li>They rarely had enough food or any shelter apart from coastal caves or canvas. </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Brady sued his employer for £ 90 in 1814 after being left for 13 months with only 6 weeks rations. He was awarded £25. </li></ul><ul><li>David Loweriston survived on one biscuit a day, rotting seal meat and various roots and ferns. In 11 months his crew had procured 17,000 seal skins but only ½ were useable by the time they were rescued. </li></ul><ul><li>James Caddell was captured by Maori in 1810 ager 16, he married and became tattooed and acted as an intermediary with later sealing crews. He traveled to Sydney at least once but disappeared sometime after 1826.. </li></ul>
    35. 39. Wellington High School History Department Dusky Cove Sealing 1792-1812 Some trading for Muskets here gave Ngai Tahu the ability to fight back against Ngati Toa in the 1830’s. Seals were uneconomic by 1812 although it had a brief revival in the 1820’s . A few Sealers settled in the south, traded with Maori, and purchased land..
    36. 40. Ocean Whaling <ul><li>Whaling is an industry based around the hunting and killing of Whales. </li></ul><ul><li>Whales were killed at sea and butchered next to the ship. </li></ul><ul><li>Whale blubber was boiled (rendered) down into oil and used in Industry or to light street lamps. </li></ul><ul><li>The Bone was used to make corsets or riding whips. </li></ul><ul><li>Initially Whaling was carried out from ships which were mobile factories. </li></ul><ul><li>By the 1790’s whales were running out in the Atlantic ocean. </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department
    37. 41. Whaling 1800-1840 Wellington High School History Department
    38. 42. Whaling Grounds Wellington High School History Department
    39. 43. Whaling Ships <ul><li>Whaling ships came from Britain, France and the USA. (Nantucket) </li></ul><ul><li>They were between 100-500 tonnes in size. </li></ul><ul><li>The ships were often at sea for 2-3 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Crews were between 20 and 50 in size. </li></ul><ul><li>They were often supplemented by new members from the islands and many Maori joined the crews ( Queequeg from Moby Dick?) </li></ul><ul><li>Passing through the whaling fields they would send Whaling boats to harpoon the whales (Nantucket Sleigh ride) </li></ul><ul><li>When the Whale was dead it was towed back to the ship to be cut up (flensed) </li></ul><ul><li>Sperm whales contained ‘Spermaceti’ oil in their head (buckets) </li></ul><ul><li>The Sperm Whales (Catchalot) were the most highly prized of catches. </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department
    40. 44. The Essex Wellington High School History Department
    41. 45. The Essex Wellington High School History Department
    42. 47. Wellington High School History Department
    43. 48. Wellington High School History Department
    44. 49. Wellington High School History Department
    45. 50. Moby Dick Wellington High School History Department
    46. 51. Wellington High School History Department
    47. 52. A whale is cut up next to the Ship Wellington High School History Department
    48. 53. Wellington High School History Department
    49. 54. Peeled like an Orange…. Wellington High School History Department
    50. 55. The Division of a Whale Wellington High School History Department
    51. 56. Ocean Whaling and New Zealand <ul><li>From 1799 American ships began to arrive in the Pacific. </li></ul><ul><li>Being away from home meant they needed somewhere to rest, recuperate and find fresh food and water. </li></ul><ul><li>Sydney was closed to them. </li></ul><ul><li>International tensions still lingered over the War of Independence. </li></ul><ul><li>The British demanded taxes and high prices for provisions. </li></ul><ul><li>Officials in Sydney were also notoriously corrupt. </li></ul><ul><li>New Zealand offered an alternative. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1806 they were using a small village in the Bay of Islands called Kororareka. </li></ul>Kororareka Ambergris
    52. 57. Kororareka: Hellhole of the Pacific <ul><li>Kororareka was in an area dominated by the Nga Puhi . </li></ul><ul><li>They soon recognized the importance of this trade opportunity. </li></ul><ul><li>They began to supply food, water and timber in exchange for the trade goods the Whalers carried. </li></ul><ul><li>They expanded from pork and basics to include pumpkin onions and corn. </li></ul><ul><li>They did not view prostitution in the same way and exchanged their women for trade especially the growing trade in muskets. </li></ul><ul><li>By the 1830’s hundreds of ships were calling into the bay each year. </li></ul><ul><li>Nga Puhi became wealthy in goods and especially mana. </li></ul>
    53. 58. Europe & the Hokianga <ul><li>Sydney needed good quality timber. Merchants recognised the potential in Kauri spars. </li></ul><ul><li>Many ships that carried convicts to Sydney also needed a cargo for the voyage back to Britain. </li></ul><ul><li>The Hokianga offered high quality timber and a safe harbour. </li></ul><ul><li>Ngapuhi in the area began a trade in supplying timber and flax to them. </li></ul><ul><li>While not as lucrative as Kororareka this still gave Hokianga hapu access to traders and guns. </li></ul><ul><li>This allowed them to be powerful allies to their eastern relations. </li></ul>
    54. 59. Violence at Whangaroa 1809 <ul><li>Belich has made the point that there were thousands of interactions with Maori and only a few became violent. </li></ul><ul><li>Whangaroa Harbour is a little north of the Bay of Islands. </li></ul><ul><li>The 1809 Boyd Incident caused a short downturn in Whaling activities as Europeans avoided the area for a few years. </li></ul><ul><li>The lack of European understanding of Maori and view that they were all the same is reflected in the confusion and subsequent deaths of both European and Maori. </li></ul><ul><li>Maori unwillingness to lose their trade and European needs meant that by 1812 the Whalers had returned. </li></ul>
    55. 60. The Boyd Diorama
    56. 61. The Boyd Incident 1809 Wellington High School History Department
    57. 62. 1830’s Shore Based Whaling <ul><li>Shore based Whaling stations began to emerge because they were cheap to run. </li></ul><ul><li>The stations were cheaper to run than ships or their crews. </li></ul><ul><li>The season lasted from May to September. </li></ul><ul><li>Stations proliferated along the eastern seaboard from Cape Runaway to Stewart Island. </li></ul><ul><li>Ships called at the end of the season to collect whalebone and oil. </li></ul><ul><li>They employed local Maori who were happy to have a chance to trade. </li></ul><ul><li>This meant European ideas and goods were more widely available. </li></ul><ul><li>In many areas Pakeha took Maori wives (Dicky Barrett) and became intermediaries </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department The Right Whale was most commonly caught by Shore Whalers.
    58. 63. Southern Right Whale Wellington High School History Department
    59. 64. Thoms Whaling Station, Paremata Wellington High School History Department
    60. 65. Jillet’s Whaling Station Wellington High School History Department
    61. 66. The Whaling Station at Kapiti (Jilletts) Wellington High School History Department
    62. 67. Wellington High School History Department Dusky Cove Kororareka Sealers and Whalers Shore Whaling Stations
    63. 68. The Effect on Maori <ul><li>The effect on Maori economy was huge and has not always been recognised. </li></ul><ul><li>Sealing had a limited effect because of the small numbers involved and the relative remoteness of their activities. </li></ul><ul><li>They did open up the Maori in these areas, to the possibility that trade with Europe could be beneficial. </li></ul><ul><li>Whaling had a much greater effect. With so many ships calling into Kororareka and other ports. With so much cash and goods changing hands the Nga Puhi in particular became rich and powerful. </li></ul><ul><li>Trade encouraged the Maori to diversify. They recognised the needs and wants of the Whaling crews and catered to them. </li></ul><ul><li>They changed their agriculture and found the new foods to their own taste. They accepted new tools and clothing. </li></ul><ul><li>Increasingly by the 1840’s they were becoming comfortable with a cash economy. </li></ul><ul><li>Shore Whalers expanded the areas of influence or interaction. </li></ul>
    64. 69. Assessing the Impact of Sealers and Whalers <ul><li>How did Sealers and Whalers impact on Maori? </li></ul><ul><li>Which areas of New Zealand were most affected by Sealers? </li></ul><ul><li>Why was their interaction with Maori limited? </li></ul><ul><li>Which areas were initially affected by (Ocean) Whalers? </li></ul><ul><li>Why was their interaction with Maori more marked than Sealers? </li></ul><ul><li>Which Iwi was best placed to benefit from this interaction? </li></ul><ul><li>Give one example of misunderstanding between Maori and European that resulted in bloodshed. </li></ul><ul><li>Which areas benefited from the Shore Based Whalers? </li></ul><ul><li>How did the Maori world view change over time with their contact with Whalers? </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department
    65. 70. Pakeha-Maori: the Intermediaries <ul><li>One group who have largely been ignored are a group called Pakeha-Maori. </li></ul><ul><li>These were Pakeha who actively joined Maori. </li></ul><ul><li>The first are reported in 1799. </li></ul><ul><li>Almost all offered something to the Iwi/Hapu they affiliated with. </li></ul><ul><li>This was often in the way of translators for trade. </li></ul><ul><li>They were often assimilated into the culture learning the language and customs, marrying, being tattooed, fighting and taking part in cannibal feasts. </li></ul><ul><li>Some became Slaves, Warriors, Tohunga and even Chiefs. </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department
    66. 71. Pakeha – Maori as Intermediary <ul><li>They were for a short time very important in Maori-Pakeha relations as they were able to assist later arrivals to as intermediaries between them and the Maori. </li></ul><ul><li>They have been underrated because they left little written record and were considered rude and uncouth, and often criminal by Missionary’s. </li></ul><ul><li>Many were in fact former (or even current) convicts from Australia or had jumped ship. </li></ul><ul><li>Most diliked Britain and the Missionaries. </li></ul><ul><li>Missionary reports are often biased against the Intermediaries influence on Maori. </li></ul><ul><li>Although they were mainly British their number included a number of African (Americans?) and Bengalis (Indians). </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department
    67. 72. Pakeha Maori <ul><li>Most of those below fell into more than one grouping: </li></ul><ul><li>Mokai Pakeha : Slaves or Curiosities (1800-14) Thomas Taylor & Ngati Paoa </li></ul><ul><li>Convict Pakeha : (1814-) Dicky Barrett, Jacky Guard </li></ul><ul><li>Taurekareka Pakeha : Assimilated as low born/Men without Mana (1816-) </li></ul><ul><li>Pakeha Toa : Warrior Pakeha (1801-) George Bruce Nga Puhi 1806 </li></ul><ul><li>Tohunga Pakeha : Jacky Marmon 1820; Kimble Bent 1881(!) </li></ul><ul><li>Renegades : A general description for those who fled European Culture. </li></ul><ul><li>Trader Pakeha Maori: (1830) Charles Marshall & Barrett 1832, Phillip Tapsell </li></ul><ul><li>Rangatira Pakeha : (5) James Caddell, John Rutherford, Barnet Burns. </li></ul><ul><li>Wahine`Pakeha Maori : (1800-40) Catherine Hagerty, Charlotte Badger. </li></ul><ul><li>Whaler Pakeha Maori (1827- ) Joseph Price, Marmon, Barrett, Jillett. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Pakeha Maori” Trevor Bentley Penguin 1999 </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department Frederick Maning
    68. 74. The Missionaries Wellington High School History Department
    69. 75. The CMS in Sydney <ul><li>The Church Missionary Service was the evangelising arm of the Anglican Church. </li></ul><ul><li>It sought to convert Heathen Natives to their Christianity. </li></ul><ul><li>In Sydney, Samuel Marsden led the CMS. </li></ul><ul><li>He struggled to make any headway with local Aboriginals. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1806 he met Ruatara a Nga Puhi chief . </li></ul><ul><li>Ruatara spent some time at his farm in Paramatta learning agricultural skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Meeting him and Te Pahi convinced Marsden that Maori were suitable for conversion. </li></ul><ul><li>Marsden began to petition(ask) for permission to start a Mission station in New Zealand. </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department
    70. 76. 100 Top History Makers: Marsden
    71. 77. Missionaries: Civilise & Convert <ul><li>Initially this permission was refused because of the Boyd Affair. </li></ul><ul><li>Bu Marsden persisted. </li></ul><ul><li>Ruatara even returned to find out how to grow Wheat. </li></ul><ul><li>Missionary work was often based on the Humanitarian ideals of protecting natives from the worst effects of European society. </li></ul><ul><li>They believed they had a special mission to convert the Heathen and saw this as an opportunity to fulfil this ‘good work’. </li></ul><ul><li>Civilising would lead to Conversion. </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching Maori all that was good about civilisation would lead them to its religion. </li></ul><ul><li>They discouraged many practices including, polygamy and trading in guns. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department
    72. 78. The First Mission Station: Rangihoua <ul><li>In 1814 he was finally allowed to send a group to New Zealand. </li></ul><ul><li>He chose Kendall Hall & King to go to Rangihoua in the Bay of Islands. </li></ul><ul><li>This was in an area controlled by Ruatara. </li></ul><ul><li>It was on the northern edge of the Bay well away from the settlement of Kororareka. </li></ul><ul><li>It proved unsuitable and other sites were later established at Kerikeri and Paihia. </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department
    73. 79. 1814 - Marsden's Arrival “ As he stepped ashore, a weird scene was enacted. On the hill opposite the landing place a band of naked warriors, armed with clubs and spears, occupied a commanding position. After a pause a native advanced flourishing a red mat and crying, &quot;Haromai!&quot; (&quot;Come hither!&quot;) The warriors then advanced. Some of them wore necklaces made of the teeth of their slaughtered foes, while others were adorned with strings of money they had plundered from foreigners they had murdered on that very beach. Seizing their spears they brandished them, screaming and yelling with savage fury. Every face was fiercely distorted and every limb employed in the wildest gesticulation. This was their war-dance. But their chiefs declared that it meant a welcome to one they considered a friend and a wonder-worker. This latter impression arose in part from the fact that they had never seen a horse; accordingly, when Marsden brought a horse from the ship, mounted and rode it, the people's amazement knew no bounds.” Marsden arrives in the Bay of Islands
    74. 80. Wellington High School History Department Rangihoua Mission
    75. 81. Missionary Reality <ul><li>Ruatara died in 1815 and Hongi Hika replaced him as protector. </li></ul><ul><li>Hika initially viewed the Missionaries more pragmatically. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They provided a good supply of tools and trade goods and education. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They showed the Whalers and Traders that they were a safe place to visit – increasing trade opportunities. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hika generally supported the Missionaries until his visit to England in 1820. </li></ul><ul><li>Missionaries for their part relied on the Maori for protection and food as well as help in learning the language. </li></ul><ul><li>They were often at the mercy of wandering Maori toa. </li></ul><ul><li>Other important Missionary groups included the Wesleyans (1830’s)and the Catholics (1838) </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department
    76. 82. Waikato, Hongi and Kendall Wellington High School History Department Kendall helped Marsden set up the Mission Station in the Bay of Islands . He was responsible for the first school which opened in 1816 and for the earliest attempts at turning the Maori language into a written language. In 1820 he travelled to England with the Chiefs Waikato and Hongi. He later left the mission after allegations of Adultery with a former student. On his return to New Zealand Hongi would lead the Nga Puhi in a war of conquest on the tribes south of the Bay of Islands, sparking the Musket Wars.
    77. 83. Trials and Tribulations… <ul><li>The Missionaries faced several problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Marsden had gained some wealth in Sydney as a landowner, while the Missionaries in Rangihoua remained relatively poor. His vision often did not work in reality creating tensions. </li></ul><ul><li>When Maori discovered that Missionaries themselves had little to trade they lost respect for them, this was compounded by their unwillingness to trade muskets. </li></ul><ul><li>Some Missionaries felt Hongi Hika impeded their ability to convert. (in most cases it required a Rangatira of Hika’s status to convert before others would follow). </li></ul><ul><li>Missionaries often failed to understand the nuances of Maori culture and language. </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department
    78. 84. Slings and Arrows… <ul><li>Maori were indifferent to the Missionaries once they realised their limitations. </li></ul><ul><li>Reliant upon their Maori sponsors Kendall and his peers struggled to make any impact. </li></ul><ul><li>The three lay preachers were often at odds and rarely co-operated. </li></ul><ul><li>Carpentry and Ropemaking were of limited use while Hika saw little use for literacy. </li></ul><ul><li>Missions were often at the mercy of any passing Maori, who treated them with disdain. </li></ul><ul><li>Kendalls fall from grace tended to reinforce their weaknesses in Maori eyes. </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department
    79. 85. Henry & William Williams <ul><li>Henry Williams was a former naval officer and brought more mana to the Mission when he arrived in 1823. </li></ul><ul><li>He was able to act as a peacemaker on several occasions In the same year Henry supervised the building of trading vessel ‘the Herald’, this allowed them to visit and trade with other Iwi. </li></ul><ul><li>William Williams arrived in 1826 and worked hard to learn the language. He educated Maori in both Maori and English. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1834 William Colenso, a printer arrived the following year the New Testament was published in Maori. </li></ul><ul><li>It was almost 15 years before a baptism was performed. </li></ul><ul><li>As conversions amongst the Nga Puhi increased many of their slaves were released. </li></ul><ul><li>Hika had seen the schoolhouses as more suited to slaves than warriors, so many were both literate and Christian when they returned home. </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department
    80. 86. <ul><li>CMS </li></ul><ul><li>Wesleyan </li></ul><ul><li>Catholic </li></ul>Rival Missions Wellington High School History Department
    81. 87. Wellington High School History Department
    82. 88. Wellington High School History Department
    83. 89. Maori Responses to Christianity <ul><li>The Nga Puhi became dominant through the presence of the Missionaries. </li></ul><ul><li>Military conquest which resulted from Hongi Hika’s campaigns made them rich and powerful. </li></ul><ul><li>Missionaries meant Trade which meant Muskets. </li></ul><ul><li>Other Tribes began to seek out the Missionaries as they recognised the benefits that such a presence would give them. </li></ul><ul><li>Conversions which had been VERY slow, but from the late 1820’s suddenly began to quicken. </li></ul><ul><li>What do the Historians say about this phenomena ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Read p12 of C of C for the Historiography. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>War Weariness? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disease? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synthesis? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How does this explain the Ngati Porou Conversions in the 1830’s? </li></ul>
    84. 90. Conversion and its effects on Maori Society <ul><li>Cannibalism ceased. </li></ul><ul><li>Slavery was discouraged and ended by the mid 1830’s </li></ul><ul><li>Tattooing began to disappear. </li></ul><ul><li>Body Painting diminished. </li></ul><ul><li>Clothing was more widely worn. </li></ul><ul><li>Observance of Sunday as a day of worship became important </li></ul><ul><li>Monogamy became the norm. </li></ul><ul><li>Some synthesis of traditional Maori beliefs and Christianity emerged. </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department HISTORIOGRAPHY Page 12 C of C
    85. 91. The Musket Wars 1806 - 1845
    86. 92. Traditional Warfare: Land & Women <ul><li>Traditional Maori warfare was based on short expeditions against neighbouring tribes. </li></ul><ul><li>Politics meant that neighbours could be enemies and allies at different times. </li></ul><ul><li>Expeditions had to be short because only small amounts of food (Kumara or Fern root) could be spared by the Iwi. </li></ul><ul><li>This limited the time and distance that could be covered. </li></ul><ul><li>War was waged for control of land or for women… </li></ul><ul><li>It was also fought for food , mana or Utu. </li></ul><ul><li>The arrival of Potatoes and Muskets changed everything. </li></ul>
    87. 93. Pre-Colonial Pa
    88. 95. Ballara: Business as usual <ul><li>Warfare amongst the Maori was a normal state of affairs. </li></ul><ul><li>Most warfare was based on the settling of scores, or the acquisition of scarce resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Toa were part-timers. </li></ul><ul><li>Most ‘Taua’ were sent out in the months when the gardens could be left unattended. </li></ul><ul><li>They could only be absent for weeks at a time – most warfare was with neighbours. </li></ul><ul><li>Utu might be left to fester for years or decades until a suitable opportunity arose. </li></ul><ul><li>Angela Ballara believes the Musket wars were a simple extension of Maori warfare. </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department
    89. 96. Utu: The Venus 1806 <ul><li>In 1806 the ‘Venus’ was stolen from Sydney and its crew fled to Kororareka. </li></ul><ul><li>They kidnapped several Maori women and sailed south. </li></ul><ul><li>The women were sold to the Whanau-a-Apanui & Nagti Maru who killed and ate them. </li></ul><ul><li>News of this was deliberately sent to Ngapuhi. </li></ul><ul><li>Distance made them feel safe. </li></ul><ul><li>The women were related to Hongi Hika Pomare and Te Morenga, Ngapuhi chiefs </li></ul><ul><li>It was taken as a great insult. </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department
    90. 97. 100 Top History Makers: Hongi
    91. 98. The Wrath of Hika: Moremorenui <ul><li>In 1808 a young Hongi Hika took part in a Taua that intended attacking their neighbours the Ngati Whatua. </li></ul><ul><li>They had 6 muskets with them. </li></ul><ul><li>On beach near Dargaville the taua was ambushed and 2 of Hikas brothers were killed. </li></ul><ul><li>The Muskets proved to ineffectual. </li></ul><ul><li>His sister sacrificed herself to save him. </li></ul><ul><li>The Ngati Whatua toa who killed her ,then disembowelled her and held up her uterus for him to see…. </li></ul><ul><li>Hika never forgave nor forgot this incident. </li></ul><ul><li>He would have his utu. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1815 he took control of the Missionaries and the musket trade </li></ul>
    92. 99. Belich and the 3 Stages <ul><li>Belich believes Iwi like Ngapuhi went through three stages in the acquisition of muskets. </li></ul><ul><li>Owning some muskets giving them a small advantage over other tribes. </li></ul><ul><li>Owning many guns giving them a huge advantage over their enemies. </li></ul><ul><li>When their enemies also owned enough weapons to make attack and victory less certain – ie Equilibrium. </li></ul><ul><li>These tribes then went on to attack their musket-less neighbours. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1818 Hika had reached Level 1 but could not predict victory over the Ngati Whatua. </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department
    93. 100. The Amiowhenua Taua <ul><li>In 1818 Hika and Te Morenga led two large taua south to attack the tribes responsible for their relatives deaths. </li></ul><ul><li>They had several dozen muskets. </li></ul><ul><li>The taua were away for 18 months and circled the North Island. </li></ul><ul><li>Whanau a Apanui & Ngati Muru were special targets. </li></ul><ul><li>Hika claimed to have destroyed 500 Kainga and Pa. </li></ul><ul><li>He returned with 500 heads and 2000 slaves. </li></ul><ul><li>Ngati Whatua took part in this campaign. </li></ul><ul><li>Hika was biding his time and did not yet have a clear advantage over them. </li></ul><ul><li>Ngati Toa including Te Rauparaha also travelled with them. He noted the potential of the Cook Strait region. </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department
    94. 101. The Return of Hongi
    95. 102. Ngapuhi Taua including Amiowhenua Wellington High School History Department
    96. 103. Merry Olde England <ul><li>In 1820 Hika travelled to London with Kendall. </li></ul><ul><li>He wanted to acquire muskets form the Tower of London which contained a ‘thousand thousand muskets’ </li></ul><ul><li>He was disappointed but sold the gifts he received and used the money to buy at least 400 weapons. </li></ul><ul><li>Hika had reached Level 2. </li></ul><ul><li>He had the weapons and the advantage he needed to attack the Ngati Whatua. </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department
    97. 104. Wellington High School History Department
    98. 105. Sending a Message: 1822 <ul><li>Hika embarked upon a secnd expedition. </li></ul><ul><li>Hika used his new arsenal to attack the Ngati Whatua . </li></ul><ul><li>They were routed and almost destroyed. </li></ul><ul><li>The remnants were driven into exile with the Waikato. </li></ul><ul><li>He then went on to attack other tribes. </li></ul><ul><li>An attack on the Arawa was almost thwarted by their withdrawal to Mokoia Island . </li></ul><ul><li>Hika portaged his waka across land to lake Rotorua & attacked the ‘safe’ refuge. </li></ul><ul><li>3000 Arawa were killed in a day. </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department
    99. 106. Mokoia Island Wellington High School History Department
    100. 107. Reaching Level 3: The 1820’s <ul><li>By the mid 1820’s Ngapuhi were encountering problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Many of their enemies now had muskets and victory was no longer assured. </li></ul><ul><li>The Waikato tribes especially blocked their path. </li></ul><ul><li>Ngapuhi were now caught up with infighting amongst themselves (the Girls War) </li></ul><ul><li>In 1828 Hika was injured in a fight with another Ngapuhi Hapu. </li></ul><ul><li>He died from his wound in 1829. </li></ul><ul><li>The Musket wars he started raged on. </li></ul><ul><li>Other tribes like the Ngati Toa now moved through Stages 1, 2 and 3 </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department
    101. 108. Waikato and Ngati Whatua Taua Wellington High School History Department
    102. 109. Ngati Toa <ul><li>The Waikato reacted to attacks by arming themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>Unable to attack Ngapuhi they chose to settle old scores. </li></ul><ul><li>They attacked Ngati Toa to whom they owed utu. </li></ul><ul><li>Te Rauparaha knew he could not compete and took his tribe southward to Kapiti island. </li></ul><ul><li>This Heke (journey) took them through hostile territory. </li></ul><ul><li>The few muskets they owned gave them the advantage they needed. </li></ul><ul><li>Along the way they picked up Te Atiawa and Ngati Mutunga who were also being threatened by Waikato </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department
    103. 110. 100 Top History Makers: Te Rauparaha
    104. 111. Te Rauparaha & Ngati Toa <ul><li>The Ngati Toa were forced to flee from Kawhia by their Waikato kin. </li></ul><ul><li>Te Rauparaha led them south armed with some muskets. </li></ul><ul><li>They attacked many Iwi as they passed by. </li></ul><ul><li>Ngati Toa eventually settled on Kapiti Island. </li></ul><ul><li>He was able to monopolise the Whalers in the area he acquired muskets. </li></ul><ul><li>With the aid of Te Atiawa and Ngati Mutunga he controlled most of the Horowhenua, Manawatu and Wairarapa. </li></ul><ul><li>In the 1820’s he also raided across the strait into the top of the South Island. </li></ul><ul><li>Ngaitahu could offer some resistance. </li></ul><ul><li>At Kaiapoi he suffered a defeat and lost a close friend. </li></ul>
    105. 112. The Ngai Tahu <ul><li>Ngai Tahu occupied all of the South Island. </li></ul><ul><li>Sealers and Whalers in the far south had traded muskets giving them an advantage over their northern rivals. </li></ul><ul><li>Inter Hapu fighting in the early 1830’s weakened the tribe north of Banks peninsula. </li></ul><ul><li>Ngati Toa taua who ventured too far south encountered heavily armed Ngai Tahu and were defeated. </li></ul><ul><li>Ngai Tahu continued to control the valuable Pounamu trade. </li></ul><ul><li>Te Rauparaha wanted revenge on them and sought assistance. </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department
    106. 113. The Elizabeth Affair: 1830 <ul><li>Captain Stewart of the Elizabeth agreed to transport 150 Ngati Toa to Kaiapo i and Kaikoura in exchange for a cargo of flax. </li></ul><ul><li>At Kaiapoi the local chief was lured aboard with his family and captured. </li></ul><ul><li>The Ngati Toa then attacked the unprepared Pa and killed most of the inhabitants. </li></ul><ul><li>They returned with some prisoners and food. </li></ul><ul><li>They tried again at Kaikoura but were only partially successful. </li></ul><ul><li>The chief and his wife strangled their daughter. </li></ul><ul><li>The Chief was tortured and killed on Kapiti once Stewart had his cargo. </li></ul><ul><li>Ngai Tahu complained to the Governor </li></ul><ul><li>Stewart was arrested in Sydney then released when no charges could be laid. </li></ul><ul><li>This caused outrage amongst Missionaries and other ‘respectable’ Europeans especially Humanitarians. </li></ul><ul><li>Calls were made for a stronger British presence in New Zealand </li></ul>
    107. 114. The Harriet Affair: 1834 <ul><li>When the Harriet was wrecked in 1834, three of the passengers – Betty Guard and her two children – were taken hostage by some Ngāti Ruanui. </li></ul><ul><li>The chief Oaiti rescued them and they lived contentedly with the Taranaki tribe for a time. </li></ul><ul><li>Her Husband Jacky went to Sydney seeking the ransom. </li></ul><ul><li>Europeans, however, assumed that Betty and her children were prisoners, and the British ship Alligator was sent to rescue them. </li></ul><ul><li>In the process its crew burned the Taranaki pā of Te Namu, and the Ngāti Ruanui pā of Ōrangituapeka and Waimate. </li></ul><ul><li>They were the wrong Pa from the wrong tribe. </li></ul><ul><li>This caused outrage amongst many Europeans when news reached Sydney. </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department
    108. 115. Ngati Mutunga & Moriori 1835 <ul><li>In 1835 Ngati Mutunga and Ngati Tama migrated off shore. </li></ul><ul><li>In a move similar to Te Rauparaha they chartered a ship The Lord Rodney to take them to the Chatham Islands. </li></ul><ul><li>Not expecting to return they gave away their lands in Wellington. </li></ul><ul><li>They built a Pa expecting an attack </li></ul><ul><li>The local 2500 Moriori chose not to fight against the invaders. </li></ul><ul><li>Their culture was non-violent. </li></ul><ul><li>Ngati Mutunga then cannibalised some and enslaved the rest. </li></ul><ul><li>Disease and a ban on marriage wore them down. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1900 there were almost no full blooded Moriori left. </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department
    109. 116. European Concerns <ul><li>While New Zealand was beyond their Empire Britain was only peripherally concerned at the wars which raged across the land. </li></ul><ul><li>Missionaries as the ‘eyes and ears’ on the ground reported back on the proceedings. </li></ul><ul><li>The CMS had important connections in the Colonial Office. (Stephen etc) </li></ul><ul><li>They were especially scathing of the whalers and traders who supplied the weapons. </li></ul><ul><li>The Harriet affair, the Elizabeth Incident and Ngati Mutunga’s invasion alarmed them because of the negative influence Europeans were having. </li></ul><ul><li>Captain Stewarts escape outraged many and led directly to the appointment of James Busby as Resident . </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department
    110. 117. Results of the Musket Wars <ul><li>Campaigns through Auckland, the Waikato and Bay of Plenty drove many tribes out of their traditional areas and into exile with extended family. Some regions were depopulated or emptied, confusing issues of ownership. </li></ul><ul><li>The Nga Puhi returned to Northland with significant booty and numerous slaves. (Many of whom would become missionaries) </li></ul><ul><li>The development of a new type of Pa (The Modern Pa) </li></ul><ul><li>The Wars increased demand for Missionaries and Traders. </li></ul><ul><li>Tribes changed their way of life and culture in the rush to supply traders with the flax, pigs, potatoes or timber required to acquire guns. This was often at the cost of their health. </li></ul><ul><li>The wars petered out in the early 1830’s as more and more tribes obtained guns and were able to defend themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>REFER : To The Making of a Colony pages 6 -7 On a Map of NZ indicate the Tribes that were the winners and losers from the Wars. </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department
    111. 118. The Treaty Addendum
    112. 119. Reasons not to have a new Colony <ul><li>Britain had lost the War of Independence in 1776. It had been a hard and expensive fight. Even now it looked upon new colonial ventures with suspicion. </li></ul><ul><li>Subsequent wars in North America, Africa and Asia had tended to emphasise that this ideas. A colony needed to be extremely rich In order to justify the expense of maintaining any military presence or administration. </li></ul><ul><li>Colonies were expensive and difficult to run. Especially where natives and colonists might come into conflict, requiring a military presence. </li></ul><ul><li>The Convict Settlements in Sydney, Hobart and Norfolk island were seen as a justifiable and necessary requirement to solve their own social ills. </li></ul><ul><li>They already had a base in the South Pacific (Sydney) and did not see an urgent need to expand beyond New South Wales. </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department Battle of New Orleans 1812
    113. 120. Jurisdiction and Responsibility <ul><li>A major problem for Britain lay in the fact that New Zealand lay beyond its control. </li></ul><ul><li>Britain could not control other Western nationalities either., principally French or American traders and whalers. </li></ul><ul><li>Outrages against Maori alarmed the growing Humanitarian movement. </li></ul><ul><li>Several attempts were made to extend British authority to New Zealand. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1814 Kendall was appointed as magistrate. </li></ul><ul><li>In1823 jurisdiction of British courts included its citizens in New Zealand. </li></ul><ul><li>Missionaries continued to agitate for an increased British presence and complained of growing French and American interest in the islands. </li></ul><ul><li>Events in the 1830’s would see both the Humanitarian and Imperial fears become more real. </li></ul>
    114. 121. Dragging Britain into New Zealand. <ul><li>Belich has said that events in the 1830’s ‘dragged Britain into New Zealand. </li></ul><ul><li>How accurate is this view? </li></ul><ul><li>Britain had a perfectly adequate colony in Australia. </li></ul><ul><li>New South Wales had plenty of available land for settlement. </li></ul><ul><li>It had little problem with the Aborigines. </li></ul><ul><li>There was little need for a large military presence. </li></ul><ul><li>What exactly did New Zealand Offer? </li></ul><ul><li>Why would the Colonial Office suddenly feel that Britain should take a greater interest in the country? </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department
    115. 122. The Missionary Influence <ul><li>By the1830’s Marsden from his vantage point in Sydney began to argue for increased British presence in New Zealand. </li></ul><ul><li>Other Missionaries (Kendall, Yate & Williams) also sent communications to the CMS about the undue influence of Europeans on Maori culture and society. </li></ul><ul><li>They emphasised the unruly bevaviour in and around Kororareka, as well as incidents like the Harriet, Elizabeth and the invasion of the Chathams. </li></ul><ul><li>Their worries were well known within the Colonial Office. </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department
    116. 123. The Petition to King William: 1831 <ul><li>In 1831 the French (War) Ship ‘La Favourite’ arrived in Kororareka. </li></ul><ul><li>Its mission was to survey French traders and potential trade sources in the Pacific. </li></ul><ul><li>It spent some time surveying part of the coastline. </li></ul><ul><li>Local Missionaries panicked. </li></ul><ul><li>One in particular William Yate gathered 13 chiefs and had them sign a letter (often called the Petition) to King William. </li></ul><ul><li>It called for the extension of the Kings protection to New Zealand. </li></ul><ul><li>Although presented as representing all of NZ the colonial offices reply was to turn down the opportunity. </li></ul><ul><li>It was important because in replying the Office had acknowledged some form of (MAORI) representative government in New Zealand </li></ul>
    117. 124. Pressure in NSW <ul><li>The reports of European behaviour in Kororareka raised concerns in NSW. </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas McDonnell a trader in the Hokianga also made a case for an increased British presence by the appointment of a Magistrate or Consul. </li></ul><ul><li>Newspapers began to agitate for New Zealand’s included in the ‘Australian Empire’, a representative of some sort was seen as necessary as trade with NSW continued to increase. </li></ul><ul><li>Although concerned, Governor Darling did nothing before being replaced. </li></ul><ul><li>His replacement, Bourke was greeted with a mountain of correspondence of (mainly) Missionary concerns about New Zealand. </li></ul><ul><li>There was also continued worries about French intentions in the region. </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department
    118. 125. 1833 Britain concedes <ul><li>Under pressure the Colonial Secretary Goderich reluctantly authorised the appointment of a resident to New Zealand. </li></ul><ul><li>A Resident was the lowest and cheapest form of representation possible. </li></ul><ul><li>The Residents main job was to protect British interests, foster commercial opportunity and help to reduce barriers to trade. </li></ul><ul><li>He was supposed to be the moral centre of British Law, although he had no means of enforcing his or Britain’s will. </li></ul><ul><li>The Resident was NOT supposed to become involved in Native affairs. </li></ul><ul><li>He had no powers to create legislation, raise taxes or an army or to enforce British Law. </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department
    119. 126. A Resident: James Busby <ul><li>Busby appears to have had a fairly interesting personality. No-one liked him. </li></ul><ul><li>He seems to have been an pompous, ambitious sycophant. </li></ul><ul><li>He bombarded Bourke and the Colonial office with requests for office. </li></ul><ul><li>Bourke seems to have chosen Busby in order to rid himself an annoyance. </li></ul><ul><li>He was named as &quot;Official British Resident&quot; in May 1833. </li></ul><ul><li>In part, James Busby's orders were to organise the Maori chiefs into a united body, capable of controlling the growing instability of the situation in New Zealand concerning unregulated land sales and settlements. </li></ul><ul><li>Bourke resented Busby so much he refused to supply either the housing or the soldiers that Busby expected. </li></ul><ul><li>Busby arrived aboard the Imogene 16 th May 1833. </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department
    120. 127. A new Flag: 1834 <ul><li>Ever since the first contacts Europeans and later Maori had constructed ships. </li></ul><ul><li>The traders and Maori realised that more profit could be made if the middleman could be avoided, and so ships were built to supply the Sydney market. </li></ul><ul><li>Unfortunately such ships were unregistered and could be subject to confiscation. </li></ul><ul><li>As vessels without a home port the Navy was also under no obligation to protect them from attack by Pirates (or French or American ships) </li></ul><ul><li>Busby could not help himself and became involved in New Zealand’s affairs. </li></ul><ul><li>Busby assembled 35 local chiefs and had them choose a flag (from three designs.) </li></ul><ul><li>The Flag was recognised in London and gazetted by the Admiralty. </li></ul><ul><li>Once again the Colonial Office had recognised a form of representative Government in New Zealand </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department
    121. 128. 1835: The Declaration <ul><li>In 1835 the Colonial Office also appointed Thomas McDonnell as a Resident. </li></ul><ul><li>Meanwhile the power seems to have gone to Busby’s head and he contemplated creating a ‘confederation’ of chiefs to represent the Islands. </li></ul><ul><li>While Bourke was considering withdrawing him because of his failings. </li></ul><ul><li>In October Busby received a letter from Baron de Theirry indicating his intention to settle as ‘King’ on the land he had purchased from Hongi in 1821. </li></ul><ul><li>Panicking Busby drew up the declaration and had it signed within 36 hours. </li></ul><ul><li>It declared New Zealand a sovereign state under Maori rule. </li></ul><ul><li>The Colonial office were unhappy at Busby exceeding himself once again. </li></ul><ul><li>But again they recognised the document… </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department
    122. 129. Growing Concerns. <ul><li>From 1835 Busby and the Missionaries continued to bombard the Coloial Office with their concerns about New Zealand. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1837 Busby sent a report to the Secretary of State for Colonies, informing the British authorities of the greatly increasing land purchases not only by settlers from New South Wales, but also from French and American citizens. </li></ul><ul><li>Because of drought Australian squatters were also beginning to arrive in the south searching for new land to farm. </li></ul><ul><li>Many of their deals were of questionable validity. </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department Flag of the Independent Tribes Historiography Page 25 C of C and Page 10 WON
    123. 130. The 1835 Declaration Wellington High School History Department
    124. 131. The Colonial Office <ul><li>In 1836 Sir James Stephen became Secretary of the Colonial Office. </li></ul><ul><li>This would make him the most powerful person in the Empire for the next 25 years. </li></ul><ul><li>He had a strong involvement in the CMS and was a committed evangelical Christian. </li></ul><ul><li>Initially they grappled with problems in India and ignored New Zealand to which Britain had no obligations . </li></ul><ul><li>This was possible while NZ was thinly populated with a few traders and missionaries. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1837 a new incarnation of the NZ Association emerged. It threatened Britains ability to remain disengaged. </li></ul><ul><li>EG Wakefield wrote on the subject of Migration and was an acknowledged expert on the topic. </li></ul><ul><li>His proposed scheme promised to bring thousands of migrants to New Zealand. </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department
    125. 132. <ul><li>The 1837 House of Commons Committee of Aborigines in British Settlements acknowledged that further British settlement was likely, and recommended that extension of British sovereignty was necessary only to enable British law to be applied to British settlers, who at the time '...were amenable to no laws or tribunals of their own.. </li></ul><ul><li>Sir James Stephen , whose influence in Colonial Office policy was arguably singularly more pervasive than that of any other person during the late 1830s, also favoured the establishment of a ruling body to in New Zealand which would govern '...the Anglo Saxon Race...' in order to prevent conflict between Europeans and Maori. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1839 , Stephen emphasised an important point in the establishment of New Zealand as a colony was'...the introduction among the colonists of the principle of self Government.' </li></ul><ul><li>Later in1839, Stephen wrote about the establishment of some suitable British authority in New Zealand: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ ...circumstances have transpired which have further tended to force upon Her Majesty's Government the adoption of measures for providing for the government of the Queen's subjects resident in or resorting to New Zealand [author's italics].” </li></ul></ul>Wellington High School History Department British Intervention 1837.
    126. 133. Normanby's Instructions <ul><li>In May 1839, Lord Normanby (Colonial Secretary) and Stephens boss, wrote to the British Attorney General, recommending that jurisdiction of British government in New Zealand would be limited to the rule over British settlers. </li></ul><ul><li>Normanby wrote of the need to establish </li></ul><ul><ul><li>'...some system for governing the numerous body of British subjects [author's italics] who have taken up their abode in the New Zealand Islands...'. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The British annexation and acquisition of sovereignty over New Zealand therefore has to be considered in the context of Britain’s desire to extend rule only over the settler population, whilst retaining a nominal claim to governing the entire country. </li></ul><ul><li>Normanby decided to post Hobson to the position of Consul in New Zealand. </li></ul><ul><li>Hobson had already visited NZ in 1838. </li></ul><ul><li>The powers and rights of a Consul were more specific than those of a Resident, and used to meet a particular level of need. </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department
    127. 134. Annexation <ul><li>Wakefields scheme coincided with the 1837 House of Commons Select Committee on Aborigines in British Settlement. </li></ul><ul><li>The Committee recommended the protection of natives was the Governments responsibility in areas where British Settlements existed. </li></ul><ul><li>It also suggested that sales by Natives would be void unless confirmed by the Government. </li></ul><ul><li>A final recommendation was to deny access to land to Land Trading Companies (i.e. The NZ Association / Company) </li></ul><ul><li>Increasingly Stephen and Wakefield were in opposition. </li></ul><ul><li>The 1838 House of Lords Select Committee on New Zealand heard evidence of the best way of dealing with the situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Missionaries felt that Maori would not give up their independence, while representatives of the Association felt (hoped) otherwise. </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually the Committee recommended that the country be annexed but that the natives be protected . </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department
    128. 136. 100 Top History Makers: Hobson
    129. 137. Hobson’s Factories & the French <ul><li>Busby continued on as Resident despite the limitations of his personality and the support he received from Sydney. </li></ul><ul><li>He was criticised for doing too little and for doing too much.. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1837 de Thierry arrived, he was more of a failure than Busby but this sparked a mild panic in London. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1838 the Catholics also arrived creating unease amongst the CMS and WMS missions. </li></ul><ul><li>Increasingly the Missionaries began to agitate for an increased British presence in New Zealand. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1838 Hobson arrived to survey the land, he suggested a system of ‘factories’ similar to India. </li></ul><ul><li>A consul was expected to protect and watch over the interests of his nation's subjects living under the jurisdiction of a sovereign government: the resident was expected to exercise a benign influence on British subjects, and thus ameliorate the effects on Maori of contact. </li></ul><ul><li>The appointment of a Consu l by the British Government is one of the most important indications of the intent of the British to curtail the extent of British rule in New Zealand. </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department
    130. 138. Hobson and the Treaty <ul><li>The responsibility for securing British sovereignty through the treaty-making fell on William Hobson, a naval captain who was appointed Lieutenant Governor. </li></ul><ul><li>Initially he carried instructions form the Colonial Office. </li></ul><ul><li>These were to be turned into a formal treaty and translated. </li></ul><ul><li>Hobson relied on the advice and support of a number of missionaries working in New Zealand, principally Henry Williams.  </li></ul><ul><li>In drafting the English text Hobson was assisted by his secretary, James Freeman, and by James Busby, the British Resident, who had arrived to in 1833 and had been located at Waitangi since then. </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department William Hobson
    131. 139. Why have a Treaty? What was its (their) Intent? <ul><li>WHY? </li></ul><ul><li>Maori wanted to … </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforce their Authority </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforce their Economic Advantage </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure smooth Race Relations </li></ul><ul><li>Europeans wanted </li></ul><ul><li>Settlers desired access to land </li></ul><ul><li>Missionaries had Humanitarian concerns. </li></ul><ul><li>Traders unhappy at interference/tax </li></ul><ul><li>Crown concerns over future conflict </li></ul><ul><li>INTENT? </li></ul><ul><li>Maori expected </li></ul><ul><li>… to retain control over their lands and to retain their mana. </li></ul><ul><li>The Crown expected </li></ul><ul><li>… to take full control over all of the country including its resources. </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department
    132. 140. February 5 - 6 1840 <ul><li>Busby and local missionaries supported Hobson with the meeting at Waitangi, which commenced on 5 February. </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion was mixed. Some supported the treaty others (including traders) opposed it. </li></ul><ul><li>Talk was adjourned for the day and recommenced the next morning. </li></ul><ul><li>By this time food was running short and some chiefs were preparing to leave. </li></ul><ul><li>Hobson reconvened the meeting and called for signatures. </li></ul><ul><li>Over a six-month period in 1840 additional signatures of chiefs in various places around New Zealand were obtained. </li></ul><ul><li>In addition to Hobson, negotiators included some of his officials, CMS and WMS missionaries, military men, and a trader. </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department
    133. 141. What was wanted – In a Nutshell <ul><li>The Treaty of Waitangi was an agreement made in 1840 between the British Crown and over five hundred Maori chiefs of New Zealand. </li></ul><ul><li>The wording of the treaty in English indicated that the chiefs were ceding to Britain the sovereignty of New Zealand and were giving the Crown an exclusive right of pre-emption of such lands as the Maori wished to sell. </li></ul><ul><li>In return, the Maori were guaranteed full rights of ownership of their lands, forests, fisheries and other prized possessions. </li></ul><ul><li>In addition, the treaty promised them the rights and privileges of British subjects, together with assurances of Crown protection. </li></ul><ul><li>The Maori version says the chiefs gave away Kawanatanga (Governorship) </li></ul><ul><li>The second article gave them Rangatiratanga (Chieftainship) over their lands </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department
    134. 142. The Language Problem <ul><li>Most chiefs signed a treaty written in Maori, hastily translated from English text by Henry Williams and his son Edward. </li></ul><ul><li>Only 35 signed the English version. </li></ul><ul><li>Subsequently it was taken for meetings elsewhere in the north and at Auckland, and was then copied several times for additional signing meetings round the country. </li></ul><ul><li>The treaty in Maori was deemed to convey the meaning of the English version. </li></ul><ul><li>Williams said he had done his best to translate the English text but for some words he had no exact Maori equivalent. </li></ul><ul><li>Oral explanations might have clarified the intent and likely outcomes of the treaty, but it appears they did not do so. </li></ul><ul><li>Maori understanding, therefore, was at odds with that of those negotiating the treaty. </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department Henry Williams 1865 Historiography Page 27 and 31 C of C
    135. 143. Kawanatanga means… Wellington High School History Department Tamati Waka Nene William Williams was a better speaker of te Reo but was away on business. Henry Williams had trouble with some terms. One word Williams appears to have created was Kawanatanga. This term is used in the Maori draft in the first Article. Kawanatanga meaning Governorship was used in the Maori version but the Chiefs would have had little understanding of its meaning. It meant control NOT ownership. Thus they had little idea of what they were being asked to give up. Look up the words Sovereign and Governor in the dictionary – what do they mean? How do they differ?
    136. 144. Rangatiratanga means… Wellington High School History Department In the second article the Crown promises the Chiefs full chieftainship (Rangatiratanga) over their villages and lands. There is no exact Maori translation of the word Sovereignty. The most appropriate term would have been ‘Mana’ but the chiefs would never have agreed to give this up. Pre-emption - The Crown will also be able to buy land which is offered to them for sale, at an agreed price. Whether Maori could later offer the land to other buyers was unclear. For an interesting view on the language in the Treaty read the article by Bruce Biggs “Humpty Dumpty and the Treaty” in the Reading Extension.
    137. 146. Spreading the Treaty Gospel <ul><li>Following a day of heated debate at the house of James Busby, the British Resident, the Treaty of Waitangi was signed at Waitangi in the Bay of Islands on 6 February 1840 by Captain William Hobson, several English residents and approximately forty-five Maori chiefs. </li></ul><ul><li>The influential chief Tamati Waka Nene turned the debate in favour of the Treaty. </li></ul><ul><li>The first Maori to sign was Hone Heke ; three other chiefs placed their signature above his later that day. </li></ul><ul><li>The document signed at Waitangi was then taken to various other Northland locations to obtain additional Maori signatures. </li></ul><ul><li>To extend Crown authority over parts of the North Island that had not yet been covered, and the South Island, a further seven copies of the Waitangi document were sent around the country for signing. </li></ul><ul><li>The Church Missionary Society press at Paihia, near Waitangi, printed copies of the Treaty and one of these also was used to obtain further signatures </li></ul>
    138. 147. Treaty: False Expectations <ul><li>The Maori believed the Treaty would now control the Settlers, that Land deals would be settled and that settler behaviour would be controlled in the areas where they had settled. </li></ul><ul><li>They believed that their mana and status was protected and that their traditional way of life would continue where they lived . </li></ul><ul><li>They appear to have had little appreciation of the numbers of Settlers who were about to arrive, demanding land. </li></ul><ul><li>The Settlers for their part believed that the Treaty now made all Maori subject to British law and that this would free up land for settlement. </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department Port Nicholson from Kaiwharwhara
    139. 148. Conflict in the 1840’s <ul><li>The Wairau Incident </li></ul><ul><li>The Northern Wars </li></ul><ul><li>The Hutt Valley War </li></ul><ul><li>The Wanganui War </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department
    140. 149. Fitzroy and the 1843 Wairau Incident Wellington High School History Department When pressure from the ever increasing number of Settlers proved too much, the settlers at Nelson took charge. Claiming the nearby fertile Wairau valley they began to survey it. Te Rauparaha travelled south to support his kin who objected. Ngati Toa burnt the huts and uprooted their surveying stakes. A warrant was issued for Te Rauparaha’s arrest and a ship was dispatched with a ‘posse’ to arrest Te Rauparaha. In the fight which followed 22 Europeans died. 17 were executed in utu. Fitroy’s response, outraged Europeans – he laid the blame for the deaths (they called it a massacre) at their door and he refused to punish the Maori for protecting their own property.
    141. 150. Belich: The Wairau
    142. 151. Hone and War in the North: 1845 <ul><li>In Wellington, Nelson and Taranaki there had been conflict over disputed New Zealand Company land purchases. </li></ul><ul><li>In the far north Hone Heke and Kawiti, rose in revolt against British authority. </li></ul><ul><li>Heke feared that the Europeans would take all their land. </li></ul><ul><li>He also felt aggrieved over the loss of mana and trade caused by the movement of the Capital to Auckland. </li></ul><ul><li>He cutting down the British flag on four occasions; on the last, both sides sacked Kororareka (Russell). </li></ul><ul><li>The army mobilised. </li></ul><ul><li>Fortunately for the British many of Nga Puhi (Hokianga) sided with the government. </li></ul><ul><li>Even so, the British had suffered a disastrous defeat at Ohaeawai and Ruapekapeka. </li></ul><ul><li>The only defeat Heke suffered was at the hands oh is kin. </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department Hone Heke and Kawiti
    143. 152. 100 Top History Makers: Heke
    144. 153. Intimidation & Frustration <ul><li>Almost all of the battles fought in this war, were done so at the initiative of the Maori. </li></ul><ul><li>They built Pa in sites that were difficult to attack and were easily abandoned. </li></ul><ul><li>They defended nothing of value. </li></ul><ul><li>The British tended to confuse their occupation of these empty sites as proof of their victories. </li></ul><ul><li>They also managed to completely disregard the complexities of their construction… trenches and bunkers virtually immune to musket and cannon fire. </li></ul><ul><li>These Pa were the work of Kawiti who fought the majority of the war while Heke recovered from wounds received fighting against Hokianga Maori. </li></ul>
    145. 154. Traditional Pa Wellington High School History Department
    146. 155. Modern Pa Technology Wellington High School History Department
    147. 156. The Gunfighter Pa Wellington High School History Department
    148. 157. Wellington High School History Department Oheawai and Ruapekapeka
    149. 158. Ruapekapeka
    150. 159. Kawiti’s Ohaewai Pa Wellington High School History Department
    151. 160. Attack at Okaihau Wellington High School History Department
    152. 161. A new broom: Sir George Grey <ul><li>In 1840 he wrote a report for Lord John Russell, the new secretary of state for the colonies, showing how the amalgamation of two races could be speedily effected. </li></ul><ul><li>Aborigines were to be converted, brought under British law, and employed by white settlers, while the children were to be educated in boarding schools. </li></ul><ul><li>Compulsory assimilation so impressed the secretary that he sent the report to the governors of the Australian and New Zealand colonies. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1845 Grey was appointed governor of New Zealand. Arriving 1846. </li></ul><ul><li>The government was so short of funds that the first governor, William Hobson, had drawn unauthorised bills on the British Treasury. </li></ul><ul><li>His successor, Robert Fitzroy, had, contrary to instructions, issued government debentures, a form of paper money. </li></ul>
    153. 162. 100 Top History Makers: Grey
    154. 163. <ul><li>Grey was given the financial support and the troops that had been denied to Fitzroy, whose efforts Grey disparaged, thus praising his own. </li></ul><ul><li>Thereafter Grey left Heke and Kawiti alone, acquiescing in a partial Maori victory, although he claimed victory. </li></ul><ul><li>Grey reassured the Ngapuhi that no land would be confiscated. </li></ul><ul><li>The fighting was at an end for more than a decade. </li></ul><ul><li>Grey claimed that a main cause for disaffection in the north had been the enormous land purchases made by some of the missionaries, whom he regarded as no better than land-jobbers. </li></ul><ul><li>In the south he seized Te Rauparaha and imprisoned him without trial. </li></ul><ul><li>He then began to force Maori out of Wellington. </li></ul>Taking the fight South Wellington High School History Department Te Rauparaha
    155. 164. Fort Richmond & Hutt Bridge(Tawa)
    156. 165. The Battle of Boulcotts Farm <ul><li>Grey used his military advantage to initially empty the pa in Wellington then began evicting Maori from the Hutt Valley. </li></ul><ul><li>Ngati Mutunga had held the Hutt Valley but left to invade the Chathams. </li></ul><ul><li>Ownership of the area then fudged. </li></ul><ul><li>As Belich notes in his Television Series, the fighting in the Hutt valley was short and vicious. </li></ul><ul><li>In retaliation Rangihaeta crossed from Porirua to attack Settler farms and strongholds. </li></ul><ul><li>Rangiheata led resistance because his mana demanded payment for the land. </li></ul><ul><li>This included the attack on Boulcotts farm. </li></ul><ul><li>Over time The 24 year old ‘Boy’ bugler who courageously blew his trumpet became smaller and younger as his Maori attacker became larger and more aggressive. </li></ul><ul><li>Rangihaeta was forced to retreat. </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department
    157. 166. Belich: The Hutt Valley & Wanganui Wellington High School History Department
    158. 167. Grey, McLean and Land <ul><li>Grey's greatest success as a colonial governor was probably his management of Maori affairs in the years 1845 to 1853. </li></ul><ul><li>He gave every appearance of scrupulously observing the terms of the Treaty of Waitangi, and assured Maori that their rights to their land were fully recognised. </li></ul><ul><li>Under the chief land purchase commissioner, Donald McLean, procedures were evolved for negotiating a sale at a tribal meeting. </li></ul><ul><li>The meeting had to agree to the sale. Often large numbers of Maori signed the purchase agreement. </li></ul><ul><li>The land then became Crown land and was sold to settlers at a profit, which provided significant government revenues </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department Governor George Grey
    159. 168. Planned Settlement <ul><li>The New Zealand Company </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wellington </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nelson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Plymouth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wanganui </li></ul></ul>Wellington High School History Department
    160. 169. Planned Settlement <ul><li>From as early as 1825 speculative companies were started up with the intention of establishing colonies in New Zealand. </li></ul><ul><li>Principal amongst these was the New Zealand Company led by the Wakefields. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1838 pressure was beginning to build as they began to purchase land and hire ships for these settlements. </li></ul><ul><li>The British Government was forced to review its policy towards New Zealand as it could not allow indiscriminate unmanaged settlement. </li></ul><ul><li>It seemed inevitable that the Government would have to become involved in any disputes that might develop between these settlements and the Maori. </li></ul><ul><li>It wanted to manage these situations. </li></ul><ul><li>Humanitarian concerns meant that it could not always be accepted that the Settlers would always be in the right and that Maori interests must be protected. </li></ul>The “Tory” on its way to Wellington in 1838
    161. 170. Wakefields Theory: Sufficient Price <ul><li>Wakefield believed that past colonial ventures had failed because land was to easily available. </li></ul><ul><li>He wanted to restrict this and by placing a “sufficient price” on land force migrants to work before they could acquire the land. </li></ul><ul><li>It is incorrect that Wakefield visualised colonies as close-knit squirearchies where wage-earners were the servitors of individual landowners: he saw wage-earners moving to proprietorship after three or four years, and enjoying, during the interim,. </li></ul><ul><li>Social independence derived from a strong labour market. </li></ul><ul><li>He wanted denser settlement, the only close-knit unit in the colony he explicitly talked about was the family, to which end he recommended that assisted immigrants consist of young married couples. </li></ul><ul><li>Unfair, is the claim that Wakefield failed to stipulate what a 'sufficient price' was: he stated explicitly that it was to depend on local circumstances </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department
    162. 171. The Colour Bar Arrives <ul><li>In the early part of any colonisation, the colonists were male, and common law marriages with Maori women were common. </li></ul><ul><li>As settlements became established and more women arrived this practice was actively discouraged – although it continued in isolated areas. </li></ul><ul><li>This reflected a change in attitudes brought by the Settlers to New Zealand. They did not see the Maori as important and were only an impediment to progress. They had little time for the customs of the natives and expected them to assimilate or to move to the fringes. </li></ul><ul><li>They were less inclined to negotiate with savages and expected the Imperial Government to intervene when that progress was hindered. </li></ul>
    163. 172. The Colour Bar Descends <ul><li>By 1858, the Settlers had gained parity with the Maori, and a 'colour bar' was already in place. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot; cut across religious beliefs and good cut across law, and across ideals and affections&quot;. No longer did settlers take Maori wives, there was a distinct difference between the 'old' and the 'new' settler. (Turnbull p72) </li></ul><ul><li>For many, the Maori were no longer a noble race to be admired but a hindrance to the development of New Zealand as a &quot;British&quot; country. &quot;Empire&quot; &quot;Progress&quot; and the &quot;Law&quot; were important. </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department
    164. 173. Te Kingitanga <ul><li>A movement arose in the 1850s to establish a Maori king to protect Maori land from alienation and to make laws to end internal strife. </li></ul><ul><li>Tamihana Te Rauparaha had been to London and observed the position and power of the Queen. </li></ul><ul><li>He also noted the unifying influence of the position. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1852 Matene Te Whiwhi travelled throughout New Zealand seeking a chief of high standing who was willing to be king. </li></ul><ul><li>His groups motto was “Whakakotahitanga,” “Union.” </li></ul><ul><li>They proposed a confederacy of all the tribes, and that one chief should be appointed as King or Governor. </li></ul><ul><li>Iwikau Te Heuheu Tukino III, of Ngati Tuwharetoa, suggested that Te Wherowhero of Tainui should be approached, and his choice was supported by Wiremu (the Kingmaker) Tamihana , of Ngati Haua. </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department
    165. 174. Te Wherowhero (Potatau) <ul><li>Te Wherowhero never regarded the kingship as being in opposition to the sovereignty of Queen Victoria, and wanted to work co-operatively with the government. </li></ul><ul><li>In his speech of acceptance he stressed the spirit of unity symbolised by the kingship, likening his position to the 'eye of the needle through which the white, black and red threads must pass.' He enjoined his people to 'hold fast to love, to the law, and to faith in God.' </li></ul><ul><li>Some of his associates, however, sought to prevent or hinder government activities in areas which supported the King. </li></ul><ul><li>He died in 1860 and was succeeded by his son, Matutaera (Who took the name Tawhiao). </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department Te Wherowhero, Te Waru and Te Pakaru
    166. 175. The Kingite Challenge <ul><li>The King Movement threatened the principal of Empire in several ways. </li></ul><ul><li>The King was a threat to the idea of British Authority being paramount. </li></ul><ul><li>The King would unite the tribes, and their disunity was their greatest weakness. </li></ul><ul><li>This had allowed the Europeans to establish themselves in settlements and to move inland. </li></ul><ul><li>By prohibiting the sale of land the King inhibited the European ability to acquire land they believed belonged to them. </li></ul><ul><li>Settlers felt that the Kingites were bullying other Maori from selling their land. </li></ul><ul><li>This threatened the Governors ability to raise revenue as land was bought cheaply and sold at a good profit to the settlers. </li></ul><ul><li>This was the Governors most important source of revenue, </li></ul>
    167. 176. Belich: Waitara
    168. 177. Sovereignty and Control: What’ in a Name? <ul><li>The various names attached to the conflicts tend to indicate the current thinking about their causes </li></ul><ul><li>The Maori Wars (1800’s) </li></ul><ul><li>The Anglo-Maori Wars (1920’s) </li></ul><ul><li>The New Zealand Wars (1930) - Cowan </li></ul><ul><li>The Land Wars (1940’s) </li></ul><ul><li>The New Zealand Wars (1990’s) - Belich </li></ul><ul><li>The Land Wars (2009) - </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department Survivors of the Wars Recorded in the early 20 th C
    169. 178. The Waitara Dispute 1858 <ul><li>By 1858 the pressure from the ever increasing settler population created a huge demand for land, which the Government under Robert Gore Brown was unable to satisfy. </li></ul><ul><li>There was an increasing demand to deal with Maori resistance to British authority and to acquire the land required to allow expansion and development of the ‘waste’ land that surrounded many of the settlements </li></ul><ul><li>When an offer of land (Teira) was made in the Taranaki, then rejected by other Maori (Kingi), the Governor took it as a chance to challenge the Maori (Kingite) authority. </li></ul><ul><li>Despite some misgivings (from some settlers) the land was surveyed and when challenged the Governor replied with force. </li></ul><ul><li>The New Zealand Wars had begun. </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department Governor Robert Gore Brown Historiography Page 57 C of C
    170. 179. The War in the Taranaki 1860 <ul><li>Maori strategy at this time was important. </li></ul><ul><li>The first factor was the &quot;Modern Pa&quot; that was easily and quickly built, and just as easily abandoned. The Pa's structure made it an effective counter to the British superiority in firepower. </li></ul><ul><li>Kingi was given the time to build a Pa which contained a number of features that Kawiti had developed in the Northern War. </li></ul><ul><li>This L-shaped Pa withstood 200 rounds from 24 pounder howitzers, due its anti-artillery bunkers, chambers covered in timber and earth. </li></ul><ul><li>Colonel Gold , who commanded the Imperial troops did not recognise them for what they were, commenting that the Pa was 'curiously hollowed out'. (Belich p.83). </li></ul><ul><li>Built so that it was difficult to surround, the Pa was simply abandoned on March 17. This was to set the pattern for much of the New Zealand wars for the next few years, </li></ul><ul><li>Maori intimidation and British frustration . </li></ul><ul><li>Yet the Maori did not actively seek a confrontation with the British and simply used the Pa to draw them into situations from which they could be ambushed. </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department
    171. 180. Camp Waitara 1860 Wellington High School History Department
    172. 181. Taranaki War Wellington High School History Department
    173. 182. Stockade Wellington High School History Department
    174. 183. New Plymouth 1860 Wellington High School History Department
    175. 184. “ The Kingite Influence” <ul><li>The second factor lay with the presence of the Kingites. who made it possible for part-time warriors and farmers to fight a war against full-time professional soldiers. </li></ul><ul><li>At any one time there were probably no fewer than 400 Kingite warriors and as many as 800 in January 1861. A few came from Tauranga, Rotorua, and Taupo, but the bulk were from the Tainui tribes of the Waikato. (Belich p.102.) </li></ul><ul><li>This fact infuriated many British observers. It seemed bizarre that the war was almost a seasonal sport, and that the same warriors that were killing Imperial troops in Taranaki one day might be walking the streets of Auckland the next week. </li></ul><ul><li>Aucklanders continued to rely on the produce that was supplied by the Waikato. </li></ul><ul><li>Their trade with the Kingites allowed the continuation of the war effort. It also made it easier to obtain ammunition, despite Government restrictions. </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department Wiremu Kingi
    176. 185. Changing Leaders and tactics <ul><li>After several setbacks and little to show for all his effort Colonel Gold was replaced by General Pratt . </li></ul><ul><li>Settlers alarmed at the lack of success began to worry about attacks on a besieged New Plymouth and even threats to Auckland. </li></ul><ul><li>Many left for the safer South Island or even Australia. </li></ul><ul><li>Pratt tried to use Saps (trenches) to threaten the numerous Pa which surrounded New Plymouth. It was a slow and easily evaded tactic which seemed to emphasise the British impotence in the face of an enemy that refused to fight in a conventional manner. </li></ul><ul><li>The slow rate of advance was frustrating for the frightened settlers who expected the British Empire to be more robust against painted savages. They derided the General and his soldiers for their lack of success. </li></ul><ul><li>After the intervention of Wiremu Tamehana a truce of sorts was established. </li></ul><ul><li>Browne and his successor Grey both realised that the pre-requisite to establishing British sovereignty lay with the destruction of the Kingite power in the Waikato. </li></ul>
    177. 187. New Plymouth Stockade & Pukerangiora Pa Wellington High School History Department
    178. 188. General Cameron <ul><li>Cameron was keen 'to have a brush' with the Maori, but ironically he arrived at the conclusion of the Taranaki war. </li></ul><ul><li>However, Governor Thomas Gore Browne was planning an invasion of Waikato to crush the Maori King movement and, at a meeting of the New Zealand Executive Council, Cameron enthusiastically supported this course. </li></ul><ul><li>'I strongly recommended that they [the Kingites] should be called to account, without loss of time, for their participation in the [Taranaki] rebellion'. </li></ul><ul><li>Then, in mid 1861, Browne was sacked and replaced by Governor George Grey, and, to Cameron's bitter disappointment, the invasion was called off. </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department General Cameron
    179. 189. Grey prepares the ground <ul><li>Grey arrived back less amenable to negotiating with the King. </li></ul><ul><li>He chose to postpone the attack on the Waikato. </li></ul><ul><li>Publicly he preached peace. </li></ul><ul><li>Privately he began to prepare for war. </li></ul><ul><li>Claiming danger to Auckland he requested more troops. </li></ul><ul><li>Imperial regiments arrived from Australia and India. </li></ul><ul><li>Grey recruited troops from Australia on the promise of land. </li></ul><ul><li>He also began to build a military road from Auckland southward. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1863 he had a total force in excess of 18,000 Imperial and Militia. </li></ul><ul><li>Laons in London were secured on the basis of future land confiscations. </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department
    180. 190. The Waikato War 1863 <ul><li>Cameron planned to advance steadily on the Waikato heartland, using his great superiority in numbers and supplies, hoping to force the Maori into a decisive battle which would end the war quickly. </li></ul><ul><li>The Maori, under Rewi Maniapoto and Tawhana Tikaokao, opposed him with a defensive line centred on Meremere. </li></ul><ul><li>They also used the strategy of raids on the British lines of communication. </li></ul><ul><li>The Maori raids prevented Cameron from concentrating enough troops to attack Meremere until 30 October. </li></ul><ul><li>When he finally did attack, the Maori escaped without loss. Cameron was blamed for the wholly unexpected delay of three months before the advance on Meremere, and it is true that the Maori had won the first round. </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department Wiremu Tamehana Tarapipi Te Waharoa
    181. 191. Gunboats vs Ships Cannon at Meremere Wellington High School History Department
    182. 192. Wellington High School History Department
    183. 193. Rangiriri Nov 1963 <ul><li>Nevertheless Cameron moved on up the Waikato River. </li></ul><ul><li>The Maori army had had to disperse for economic reasons. </li></ul><ul><li>Cameron advanced on the next line at Rangiriri. Most of its defenders had already left. </li></ul><ul><li>Cameron attacked the rump of it at Rangiriri on 20 November. </li></ul><ul><li>Eight British assaults were repulsed, only one was partially successful capturing part of the rampart. </li></ul><ul><li>Despite this after 130 casualties Cameron retired for the night. </li></ul><ul><li>Cameron managed to take the pa the next morning, capturing 180 prisoners after misunderstanduing a flag of truce. </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department <ul><li>Back row, from left: Rewi Maniapoto, Tawhana Tikaokao, Taonui Hikaka, Hone Wetere Te Rerenga. Front row, from left: Te Rangituataka, Te Naunau Hikaka. </li></ul>
    184. 194. Waikato War 2 Wellington High School History Department
    185. 195. Wellington High School History Department
    186. 196. Wellington High School History Department
    187. 197. Wellington High School History Department The Earthworks at Rangiriri
    188. 199. Assault at Rangiriri Wellington High School History Department
    189. 200. Soldiers on the Rangiriri Ramparts Wellington High School History Department
    190. 201. Paterangi (von Tempsky) Wellington High School History Department
    191. 202. Paterangi <ul><li>Cameron continued his advance until confronted by the Paterangi line. </li></ul><ul><li>It wasthe most formidable group of pa the Maori had ever built. </li></ul><ul><li>It protected the Kingite’s richest agricultural area and garrisoned by their strongest army. </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department
    192. 203. Rangiaowhia <ul><li>On 20--21 February1864, in easily his greatest military achievement, Cameron brilliantly outflanked the Paterangi line and took it and the whole district at low cost, gravely and permanently weakening the King movement. Many Maori still believe that he managed this by breaking an agreement on the neutrality of the village of Rangiawhao, where Kingite non-combatants were assembled </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department
    193. 204. Orakau 1864 <ul><li>Maori who arrived late decided to challenge the British by building a new Pa. Rewi was related to them and felt required to support them. </li></ul><ul><li>The Pa was defended by about 300 Maori (as many as a third were women) who faced 1200 troops led by Brigadier General Carey . </li></ul><ul><li>It had no water and was easily surrounded. . Maori help arrived too late and unable to get to the Pa sat instead &quot;...on the hill and wept their farewell, for they thought that...none (would) escape...&quot; (Belich p171) </li></ul><ul><li>There were 5 Assaults and the offer of surrender before the Maori attempted to break out. </li></ul><ul><li>Belich argues that while the Maori saw Orakau as a defeat it was &quot;the cruellest disappointment of the entire war&quot; for the British (p 175). </li></ul><ul><li>The King Movement still existed, now behind the &quot;aukati&quot; (boundary) to the Ngati Maniapoto land </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department
    194. 205. Rewi Maniapoto at Orakau <ul><li>'Ka whawhai tonu matou, Ake! Ake! Ake!' </li></ul><ul><li>(We will fight on for ever and ever). </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department
    195. 206. The King Retreats <ul><li>With their forces almost surrounded the Kingite army melted into the bush. </li></ul><ul><li>Again Cameron was denied his decisive victory. </li></ul><ul><li>With his lines of communication stretched and vulnerable he halted and consolidated his position. </li></ul><ul><li>The King was now surrounded by his strongest supporters the Ngati Maniapoto. </li></ul><ul><li>The Kingites began to dig more pa in preparation for more fighting. </li></ul><ul><li>Cameron had received new of developments in Tauranga, another Kingite stronghold. </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department
    196. 207. Tukaroto Matutaera Potatau Te Wherowhero Tawhiao The wars of the 1860s in Taranaki and Waikato and the government's subsequent confiscation of Maori land saw Tawhiao and his people rendered virtually landless and forced to retreat as wandering refugees into the heartland of Ngati Maniapoto, now known as the King Country. As a result of the invasion of Waikato by British forces in 1863 on the pretext that the Waikato tribes were preparing to attack Auckland, Tawhiao and his people lost over a million acres to the settler government and subsequently to the settlers themselves.
    197. 208. Waikato War 3 Wellington High School History Department
    198. 209. The War in Tauranga <ul><li>The war in the Waikato was at an end but Cameron wanted a decisive victory. He also wanted to end the tacit support given to the Kingites by Maori from other regions. </li></ul><ul><li>When an opportunity presented itself at Tauranga, Cameron halted operations in the Waikato basin and took his striking force east. </li></ul><ul><li>The coastal location of the Maori position, the Gate Pa, enabled him to concentrate crack troops and a vast artillery train against it. His preparations for battle on 29 April were impeccable, but his assault force was routed. </li></ul><ul><li>Despite his reputation for stoicism, 'the general dashed his field-glass on the ground, turned his back on the fugitives, and retired to his tent to conceal his emotion.' </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department Cameron (leaning on wheel) with troops
    199. 210. Welcome to my Parlour... Gate Pa <ul><li>Gate Pa was an interesting version of the modern Pa. It seems to have been deliberately built to withstand an assault by heavy weapons, and more to the point to allow an assault by troops. </li></ul><ul><li>The siting of the flagpole to fool the artillery and the building of loopholes inside the bunkers to allow firing into the interior of the Pa, point to a clever and very deadly trap. </li></ul><ul><li>However once again when it appeared to have served its purpose, it was abandoned. </li></ul><ul><li>Settler and Military reaction to the defeat was extreme with many preferring to believe military incompetence or cowardice rather than Maori ingenuity was responsible for the rout. </li></ul><ul><li>A victory at Te Ranga shortly afterwards helped mollify their disquiet. </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department An incident from the attack when water was given to a wounded Trooper.
    200. 211. Gate Pa’s fortifications Wellington High School History Department
    201. 212. Gate Pa Wellington High School History Department
    202. 213. Winners and Losers <ul><li>The Government/Settlers objectives : </li></ul><ul><li>To finally defeat the Maori Kingitanga in battle. </li></ul><ul><li>To prove the authority of the Crown and British Law. </li></ul><ul><li>To free up the ‘wasteland’ and ensure its availability to the Settlers. </li></ul><ul><li>To protect future settlements and pay back the loan. </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department <ul><li>Maori responses to the attacks: </li></ul><ul><li>No decisive battles meant the Kingite army remained intact. </li></ul><ul><li>The Maori King remained safe in his Rohe. </li></ul><ul><li>Almost all of the land vacated by Maori was now confiscated. </li></ul><ul><li>The ‘fencibles’ occupied the land and the surplus was sold to repay the war loan. </li></ul>
    203. 214. Kupapa and Ranger <ul><li>One of the most important of the military units that the Imperial and Government had was the Queenite or Kupapa . These were Maori who fought with the Crown but often with their own agenda. While ostensibly led by Europeans they were answerable only to their own Rangatira. </li></ul><ul><li>Often they were more interested in revenge for past slights and used the conflict as an excuse to attack old adversaries. </li></ul><ul><li>These Maori were extremely effective in the fighting. Often defeats that were inflicted were as a direct result of their contribution. </li></ul><ul><li>The Forest Rangers were local militia who often fought in conjunction with Kupapa using the same tactics and often wearing the similar uniform. </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department Hohepa Tamamutu dressed in Kupapa attire
    204. 215. Gustavus Von Tempsky Wellington High School History Department
    205. 216. The Aftermath of the Wars <ul><li>Read Pages 71-84 C of C </li></ul><ul><li>Read to Page 45 to 47 WON </li></ul>Wellington High School History Department Extension Reading “ War and Survivors” by Judith Binney (Extension) “ The NZ Wars” by James Belich (Book or Precis in the Extension Reading) “ Mondays Warriors” Maurice Shadbolt (Novel)
    206. 217. A New Religion: Pai Marire. <ul><li>The wars spluttered to a halt and the Maori King held fast behind the aukati. Having gained the best of the Waikato land the Government stood back. </li></ul><ul><li>Elsewhere Maori defiance still simmered and resulted in conflicts in the Sout