New Zealand 1800 1900 Part B Economy And Politics 2011 Class Version


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NCEA Level 3 History
Political and Economic Change 1800-1900
Also some Social Change

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  • By 1853 wool made up 22 per cent of the value of exports, second only to timber (31 per cent). In 1853, 1·1 million pounds of wool, valued at £67,000 were exported; in 1863, 12·6 million pounds; and in 1873, 41·5 million pounds. Exports climbed to 100 million pounds in 1889,
  • New Zealand 1800 1900 Part B Economy And Politics 2011 Class Version

    1. 1. New Zealand 1800-1900 Part B: Economic and Political Change CLASS VERSION
    2. 2. Overview <ul><li>New Zealand was a Maori country in 1840. </li></ul><ul><li>Migration saw tens then hundreds of thousands of people arrive in the country. </li></ul><ul><li>Most arrived with their own aspirations, hopes and dreams. </li></ul><ul><li>More people saw more of the country exploited and developed. </li></ul><ul><li>New Industries emerged. </li></ul><ul><li>Economic expansion attracted more people. </li></ul><ul><li>More people with less traditional attitudes also saw calls for political change. </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional power bases were weakened and changed. </li></ul><ul><li>Political change saw the ‘small man’ emerge as an agent of change. </li></ul>
    3. 3. This Section of the Course <ul><li>This section of the course looks at Political and Economic changes after 1840. </li></ul><ul><li>Political and economic change were both affected by Migration which saw the Pakeha population increase from 2,000 in 1840 to 60,000 by 1860 and 900,000 by 1900. </li></ul><ul><li>At the same time the Maori population fell from 80,000 in 1840 to 60,000 in 1860 and 42,000 by 1892 </li></ul><ul><li>Economic change looks at how the land itself was exploited mainly in the form of different types of farming (Pastoralism) but also in resource exploitation mainly forestry and mining. </li></ul><ul><li>Political change sees the colony move from Crown Colony to Settler Government and the maturation from Provincialism to Party Politics . </li></ul>
    4. 4. Migration: Planned Migration <ul><li>Economic Growth was generated by an expanding population. </li></ul><ul><li>There were two types of migrant to New Zealand after 1840 . </li></ul><ul><li>Planned or Assisted migrants, were those who arrived as part of some scheme. </li></ul><ul><li>NZ Co. settlers in the 1840’s NZ Co. settled in and around the first settlements (Wellington, Nelson, New Plymouth) </li></ul><ul><li>The 1870’s Vogel Plan migrants came as part of a planned scheme to open up the and develop the country. (Taranaki, the 70 Mile Bush) </li></ul><ul><li>They were often family groups. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Migration: The Progress Industry (Planned)Systematic Colonisers <ul><li>Planned Migration was typified by The New Zealand Company which had a huge impact on New Zealand. For some Historians it is Wakefield and his activities which resulted in the Treaty in 1840. </li></ul><ul><li>The first migrants arrived at Port Nicholson January 1840 aboard the Tory. They were dumped on the beach at Petone, trapped between the swamps and the sea. </li></ul><ul><li>Meanwhile in the Bay of Islands Capt. Hobson was about to arrive to take up his new post. </li></ul><ul><li>This was in many ways the beginning of a struggle between Governor and Settler which would last for 30 years. </li></ul>Historiography: Page 126 C of C Page 62 WON
    6. 6. Wakefields Theory of ‘Sufficient Price’ <ul><li>Wakefield believed that past colonial ventures had failed because land was to easily available. </li></ul><ul><li>He wanted to restrict this and by placing a “sufficient price” on land force migrants to work before they could acquire the land. </li></ul><ul><li>Land would ne acquired from Natives as cheaply as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>The sale of land would fund the new migrants and provide a healthy profit. </li></ul><ul><li>Owners who had bought land in England would arrive WITH the funds to employ labourer’s to work on their farms. </li></ul><ul><li>Demand would ensure wages were high. </li></ul><ul><li>Wage-earners would own their own farms after three or four years. </li></ul><ul><li>Although he wanted denser settlement, the only close-knit unit in the colony he explicitly talked about was the family. </li></ul><ul><li>He recommended that assisted immigrants consist of young married couples. </li></ul>
    7. 7. The NZ Company: Broken Promises <ul><li>The NZ Company was responsible for the creation of Settlements at Wellington, New Plymouth, Wanganui and Nelson. </li></ul><ul><li>Each one required renegotiation of sales with Maori. </li></ul><ul><li>It was also supportive of the planned settlements in Canterbury and Otakou. (Otago) </li></ul><ul><li>Initially Settlements were hampered by a lack of food and land. </li></ul><ul><li>Early settlers became dependent upon Maori generosity and were frustrated at the slow progress in land sales. </li></ul><ul><li>The economic system envisaged by Wakefield never worked in the original settlements because of the lack of work. </li></ul><ul><li>Settlers spent their funds on food and too little was left to buy land when it was finally available. </li></ul>NZ Co. Settlements Canterbury Assoc. Free Church of Scot Assoc.
    8. 8. What Price Wellington? <ul><li>100 red blankets </li></ul><ul><li>2 tierces tobacco (packets) </li></ul><ul><li>2 cases soap </li></ul><ul><li>48 iron pots </li></ul><ul><li>60 red night caps </li></ul><ul><li>10 doz pairs of scissors </li></ul><ul><li>10 doz looking glasses </li></ul><ul><li>21 kegs gunpowder </li></ul><ul><li>15 fowling pieces (muskets) </li></ul><ul><li>1 keg lead slabs </li></ul><ul><li>1 cask ball catridges </li></ul><ul><li>100 tomahawks </li></ul><ul><li>100 cartouche bags (tote) </li></ul><ul><li>100 yards check (material) </li></ul><ul><li>100 yards ribbon </li></ul><ul><li>1 doz pairs shoes </li></ul><ul><li>10 doz combs </li></ul><ul><li>1 doz razors </li></ul><ul><li>1 doz sticks sealing wax </li></ul><ul><li>200 yards calico (material) </li></ul><ul><li>2 doz kerchiefs </li></ul><ul><li>200 pencils </li></ul><ul><li>1 case pipes </li></ul><ul><li>40 pipe tomahawks </li></ul><ul><li>50 steel axes </li></ul><ul><li>2 doz spades </li></ul><ul><li>12 bullet moulds </li></ul><ul><li>12 doz shirts </li></ul><ul><li>20 jackets </li></ul><ul><li>1,200 fish hooks </li></ul><ul><li>300 yards cotton duck (material) </li></ul><ul><li>1 doz hats </li></ul><ul><li>1 doz umbrellas </li></ul><ul><li>1 gross jews harp (instrument) </li></ul><ul><li>2 suits clothes </li></ul><ul><li>6 doz hoes (gardening implement) </li></ul><ul><li>2 doz adzes (carving implement) </li></ul><ul><li>1 doz shaving boxes </li></ul>
    9. 9. False Advertising: Wellington <ul><li>How is Wellington presented? </li></ul><ul><li>What appears in this image that differs today? </li></ul><ul><li>What is wrong with this image? </li></ul>
    10. 10. Absentee Owners <ul><li>In London land in the colonies was sold at Auction. </li></ul><ul><li>Many speculators saw a quick profit from rising property values. </li></ul><ul><li>As absentee owners they never intended to live in NZ. </li></ul><ul><li>As a result they did not employ the labourers the Directors expected. </li></ul><ul><li>Land Commissioner William Spain found only a small proportion of the 20M acres William Wakefield claimed were valid. </li></ul><ul><li>He allowed 60,000 acres in New Plymouth but later Governor Fitzroy would only accept 4,500 acres , infuriating the Settlers by limiting the area they could sell or develop </li></ul><ul><li>This seriously inhibited the chances for the settlements to prosper…. </li></ul>
    11. 11. The Settlements - Wakefields Theory II <ul><li>Wakefield intended to sell land to new settlers at a fixed (SUFFICIENT) price, high enough to make a good profit and to keep it out of reach of working class settlers. </li></ul><ul><li>Their labour would then be available for capitalists who could afford to buy land. Profits would be used to subsidise labourers fares and to develop public works. </li></ul><ul><li>This would maintain a steady supply of labour and restrict the spread of the settlements. A compact township based on intensive agriculture would be easier to supply services to. </li></ul><ul><li>Original sections would include both a town and a suburban section, a potential speculative windfall. </li></ul><ul><li>1000 Wellington sections were sold sight unsold to buyers who had no intention of migrating. </li></ul>
    12. 12. Britannia
    13. 13. Land Sales
    14. 14. Wellington 1840 <ul><li>The original Settlement was intended to be at Petone. </li></ul><ul><li>The settlement had to be moved across the harbour to Te Aro and Thorndon. </li></ul><ul><li>Settlers were enraged when Hobson moved the Capital only as far south as Auckland. </li></ul><ul><li>The settlement proved unsuitable to for agriculture as it did not have enough arable land, until the Hutt Valley was opened up in 1846-7. </li></ul><ul><li>The failure of agriculture led to economic decline. </li></ul><ul><li>Immigration virtually ceased by 1842. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1845 only 7000 of 110,00 acres had been surveyed. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1848 only 11% of settlers were listed as agriculturalists and only 1700 acres were in cultivation. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1848 only 85 of the original (1840) 436 settlers still remained in Wellington…. </li></ul><ul><li>The Settlers needed another site to expand into. </li></ul>Thorndon Flats Extension Reading
    15. 15. NZ company propaganda Petre
    16. 16. W(h)anganui 1840 <ul><li>Wanganui was purchased in 1840 and used as a way of providing the agricultural land Wellington had failed to. </li></ul><ul><li>Initially it supplied pigs pork and potatoes to Wellington. </li></ul><ul><li>Maori resistance to land sales also limited its growth. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1848 its population numbered only 156. </li></ul><ul><li>Disputes with local Maori continued to hinder their progress until 1849 when the land was purchased again. </li></ul><ul><li>Later it became a garrison town, hosting as many as 800 soldiers who protected the lower North Island from possible Kingitanga and later Pai Marire attack. </li></ul>
    17. 17. Nelson 1841 <ul><li>It was supposedly better planned, and land deals were more generous than in Wellington. </li></ul><ul><li>Unfortunately the actually site chosen proved to have too little available land. </li></ul><ul><li>Local Maori (Ngai Tahu) did not recognise the land sale made by Te Rauparaha (Ngati Toa). </li></ul><ul><li>The Settlement rapidly filled with Settlers. </li></ul><ul><li>1842 only 562 of 1000 Town allotments were sold, </li></ul><ul><li>There were few employers, 364 of the owners were absentee. </li></ul><ul><li>A building boom to house the settlers employed some for a few months. </li></ul><ul><li>Frustration grew as the available land was occupied, while settlers continued to arrive.. </li></ul><ul><li>This frustration resulted in the 1843 Wairau incident. </li></ul><ul><li>Settler worries about Maori continued until Te Rauparaha was arrested and the Hutt and Wanganui wars ended in 1847. </li></ul>
    18. 18. Neslon 1841
    19. 19. Takaka Nelson
    20. 20. New Plymouth 1841 <ul><li>New Plymouth suffered from the same problems as the other Wakefield settlements. </li></ul><ul><li>It was difficult to establish title to the land. </li></ul><ul><li>There was little work for the landless settlers. </li></ul><ul><li>Commissioner Spain & Fitzroy refused to accept their land claims. </li></ul><ul><li>It lacked a decent harbour. </li></ul><ul><li>Problems associated with importing enough food, resulted in shortages, exacerbated by the lack of land, and employers created widespread poverty. </li></ul>
    21. 21. The Road to Prosperity is through the Waitara… <ul><li>As the settlement grew it became safer for Maori (Wiremu Kingi & Te Atiawa) who had been in exile for 25 years to return to their land in 1848. </li></ul><ul><li>This restricted the settlers access to previously uninhabited lands north of the Waitara River. </li></ul><ul><li>Some Te Atiawa sold land despite opposition. from other Maori and in the 1850’s the Settlement began to prosper. </li></ul><ul><li>Despite losing a decision over the amount of land they owned, they had more land in the cultivation than any other settlement. </li></ul><ul><li>Settlers continued to covet the Waitara. </li></ul><ul><li>Te Atiawa clashes over land sales gave them hope. </li></ul><ul><li>The First Taranaki War almost closed the township in 1860. </li></ul>
    22. 22. Assessing the Wakefield legacy <ul><li>The NZ Company brought 10,000 immigrants to NZ between 1839-1845 </li></ul><ul><li>Many found that conditions were quite different to those promised by commission collecting Agents. </li></ul><ul><li>Promises and lies were used to fill quota’s. </li></ul><ul><li>It also meant that many immigrants did not fit the requirements stated by the Company. </li></ul><ul><li>The retention rate suffered by Wellington was almost certainly reflected in the other Settlements. </li></ul><ul><li>Wakefield’s plans had many weaknesses. </li></ul><ul><li>The settlements were under funded with to few capitalists and too many labourers. </li></ul><ul><li>Riches in the settlements depended not on close knit highly priced agricultural settlement s but on loosely knit, cheaply priced, grazing. </li></ul><ul><li>Pastoralism was King. </li></ul><ul><li>Wakefield has to be acknowledged as the man who placed enough pressure on the crown that they were forced into the Treaty. </li></ul>Historiography See page 150 C of C
    23. 23. Settlement in the South <ul><li>Settlements in the south were Otago centered on Dunedin and Canterbury centered on Christchurch. </li></ul><ul><li>These were independently controlled planned settlements (with some input from Wakefield). </li></ul><ul><li>They quickly gave up on intensive farming for extensive sheep farming. </li></ul><ul><li>Ngai Tahu welcomed their presence as protection against Ngati Toa. </li></ul>
    24. 24. Otakau 1848 <ul><li>Otago was the first planned settlement that was not arranged by Wakefield, however the NZ Company was involved because of its expertise. The Free Scottish Churches involvement meant that there was an air of respectability to the affair lacking in other settlements. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of capital initially made life difficult. </li></ul><ul><li>The land had been acquired for the Nga Tahu for £2500 . </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers around the Settlement were soon able to produce large quantities of wheat for export to the Sydney market. </li></ul><ul><li>The real wealth lay outside the small settlement in the expansive grasslands and its riverbeds.. </li></ul>
    25. 25. Dunedin 1858
    26. 26. Wool and Gold <ul><li>In the 1840’s Sydney based entrepreneurs began to expand into the Southern grasslands. </li></ul><ul><li>Many shonky land deals took place. </li></ul><ul><li>In the 1850’s pastoralism spread from Wairarapa into the South and many farmers took up the challenge. </li></ul><ul><li>Pastoralism spread through the South. </li></ul><ul><li>This improved the economic outlook for Otago. </li></ul><ul><li>In the 1860’s Gold discoveries in Australia led to massive growth. (Melbourne) </li></ul><ul><li>Provinces began to offer a reward for the discovery of gold. </li></ul><ul><li>Gabriel Reads discovery in 1860 led to a Rush and Otago took off. </li></ul>
    27. 27. Dunedin 1871
    28. 28. Dunedin 1874
    29. 29. Canterbury 1850 <ul><li>The Canterbury Association led by John Godley wanted to avoid problems experienced by the NZ Company and chose to only sell land to people present in the settlement. </li></ul><ul><li>Land sales were still below expectations especially within the Settlement. </li></ul><ul><li>A drought during the 1850’s in Australia saw many graziers arrived having recognised the opportunity offered by the grasslands of the Canterbury plains. </li></ul><ul><li>Despite protests from Wakefield Godley changed the laws to allow cheap grazing leases. </li></ul><ul><li>Christchurch’s greatest advantage lay in its proximity to these grazing lands and the lack of any sizeable Maori opposition to their presence. </li></ul><ul><li>Government purchases of Ngai Tahu land made more and more available. </li></ul>
    30. 30. Lyttleton Harbour
    31. 31. Deans Property 1858
    32. 32. Christchurch 1860
    33. 33. Canterbury Provincial Govt. Building (1858)
    34. 34. Huts on the Mesopotamia Run
    35. 35. Cheviot Estate
    36. 36. Unplanned Migration <ul><li>Unplanned or Independent migrants were those who arrived in NZ independently. </li></ul><ul><li>Many of these arrived from Australia. </li></ul><ul><li>In the 1840’s Auckland became the largest unplanned settlement. </li></ul><ul><li>As the Capital, Auckland provided land for speculators and settlers and employment for those who could not yet afford land. </li></ul><ul><li>In the 1860’s many were often sojourners hoping to make their fortune exploiting resources like gold. </li></ul><ul><li>These migrants were often solitary males. </li></ul><ul><li>They opened up new areas like Otago & the West Coast. </li></ul>
    37. 37. Unplanned Settlement: Auckland <ul><li>Tamaki Makaurau was a perfect site for settlement. </li></ul><ul><li>With two harbours (Waitemata & Manukau) and plenty of available land it seemed ideal. </li></ul><ul><li>It also fell between the largest Maori groups (Waikato/Ngapuhi) </li></ul><ul><li>Ngati Whatua welcomed Hobson in 1840. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to Pakeha trade (and mana) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection from other Maori. ((Ngapuhi) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Large areas were bought and on-sold to settlers. </li></ul><ul><li>The presence of the Government also gave a welcome economic boost to the city. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speculators and potential profits. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Land for settlement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Land for the tandless labourers </li></ul></ul>
    38. 38. Auckland (Start as you mean to go on) <ul><li>Ngati Whatua sold 3,000 acres for £340. </li></ul><ul><li>Unplanned Auckland fared better than the other Settlements. </li></ul><ul><li>As the Capital it attracted speculators who could profit from the demand created by the housing demands of the administration. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1841 some city land was priced at £550 an acre. </li></ul><ul><li>Labourers could earn 8s a day. (More than double the average wage) </li></ul><ul><li>It soon earned a reputation as the ‘Australian” Colony – in 1847 it had 28 Brothels for only 5000 people and 12% of them had been arrested for drunkenness. </li></ul><ul><li>Abundant arable land allowed the ports to develop. </li></ul><ul><li>In the late 1850’s Grey’s military build up also contributed to its economic growth. </li></ul><ul><li>Confiscated land in the Waikato continued its growth. </li></ul>
    39. 39. Auckland 1840 <ul><li>Hobson moved the capital to The Auckland Isthmus after an invitation form Ngati Whatua who gifted several thousand acres as an incentive. </li></ul><ul><li>They also seemed keen on selling land. </li></ul><ul><li>Wellington settlers were enraged when Hobson moved the Capital only as far south as Auckland. </li></ul><ul><li>This thwarted possible profits that being the capital would have given them. </li></ul><ul><li>They argued that Wellington made better geographic sense. </li></ul><ul><li>For Hobson it made political sense, being placed between the two largest concentrations of Maori. (Ngapuhi and Waikato). </li></ul><ul><li>It also kept him away from the influence of the NZ Co. Settlers. </li></ul>
    40. 40. Auckland 1843
    41. 41. Queen Street 1859
    42. 42. Britomart Point 1864
    43. 43. Albert Barracks 1869
    44. 44. Auckland “Party Central” 1887
    45. 45. Queen Street 1889
    46. 46. The Progress Industry(s) <ul><li>Colonisation was in many respects encouraged and encouraged by (Belich) the Progress Industry. </li></ul><ul><li>Belich has identified a number of factors which contributed to the Progress Industry. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Public Works – increasing the range and scale of Infrastructure. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organised (Planned) Migration. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Belich also sees war as a means of removing ‘obstacles’ to progress. </li></ul><ul><li>There were allies. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extractive Industries – Sealing Whaling Flax </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manfacturing and Farming </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Together these assaulted nature, natives, emptiness and distance. </li></ul><ul><li>Land was taken, forest became grassland, settlers arrived and roads & rail closed the gaps between towns and provinces. </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually they turned NZ into a Greater Britain. </li></ul>
    47. 47. Other Influences: Explosive Migration <ul><li>Belich has recently begun to see migration to NZ and other places as explosive in its nature. </li></ul><ul><li>While there was a steady trickle of immigrants attracted by the Provinicial Governments there were periods when the numbers arriving boomed…. </li></ul><ul><li>This can certainly be seen in the 1840’s with the Wakefields (000’s) </li></ul><ul><li>Belich has also identified smaller ‘Rush’ Migrations associated with </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The 1860’s with the Gold Rushes.(*0,000’s) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>And finally the 1870’s with the Vogel scheme.(*00,000’s) </li></ul><ul><li>Belich believes such movements created huge changes in the settler population especially their economic and political power. </li></ul>
    48. 48. European Settlement
    49. 49. The Vogel Scheme <ul><li>After the New Zealand Company collapse in the early 1850’s Migration to New Zealand became a matter of chance. </li></ul><ul><li>The individual Provincial Governments used Migration Agents to attract Migrants to their part of New Zealand. </li></ul><ul><li>Through the 1850’s and 1860’s the southern Provinces did better as they had more land available and were not involved in the wars of the 1860’s. </li></ul><ul><li>They also prospered from the discovery of Gold in Otago, West Coast and Nelson areas. But this prosperity was often short-lived. </li></ul><ul><li>Nationally New Zealand was in stagnation as the 1870’s approached. </li></ul>
    50. 50. The Government and Pakeha Economic Development <ul><li>Initially the Colony and the Government were expected to be self funding, using land sales to finance the running of the Public Service. </li></ul><ul><li>Until Grey arrived, most Governors found this an impossible mission, as Maori simply refused to sell land for less than the market rate. </li></ul><ul><li>Economic realism overcame the Wakefields objections to the availability of cheap land. </li></ul><ul><li>Pastoralism shifted the focus south as settler development there increased based around cheap available land & the growth in sheep farming. </li></ul><ul><li>Grey encouraged this by allowing land to be made available at affordable rates. The government also ensured that the Gold fields Act ensured the development of Gold Mining. </li></ul>
    51. 51. Provincial Rivalries <ul><li>From 1852 the Provinces worked towards economic development based on their own self interest. </li></ul><ul><li>They relied on land sales to fund themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>They used immigration Agents and the promise of cheap land to attract settlers. </li></ul><ul><li>Land confiscations made even more land available and finally freed up the rich northern forests, the actions of the Native Land Court increased the transition of Maori land to Pakeha. </li></ul><ul><li>Central Governments role in Economic Development increased markedly with the arrival of Julius Vogel. </li></ul><ul><li>When the Provincial Governments proved difficult to work with Vogel had them abolished in 1876. </li></ul>
    52. 52. Sir Julius Vogel <ul><li>From 1865 to 1869 Vogel was effectively leader of the opposition until becoming Treasurer in 1869. </li></ul><ul><li>As Colonial Treasurer Vogel developed his scheme which included: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>borrowing ten million pounds. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acquisition of land in remote areas. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>construction of roads, railways and telegraphs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assisted Migration . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>He hoped that immigration combined with expanded infrastructure would result in expansion of the economy. </li></ul><ul><li>Vogel planned to set aside 6M acres to help pay for the scheme. </li></ul><ul><li>Vogel's policy was adopted by the House in 1870 and implemented during the seventies. </li></ul><ul><li>The new economic policy was popular within the country. It marked the end of an era of slow growth and conflict </li></ul><ul><li>He also set up State Life Insurance in 1869 and the Public Trust Office in 1872. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1873 almost 32,000 immigrants arrived in New Zealand followed by 18,000 the following year. </li></ul>
    53. 53. The Provinces
    54. 54. Vogels railways
    55. 55. Vogel’s Migrant Scheme. <ul><li>Between 1870 and 1880 more people arrived than did under Wakefield in the 1840’s or in the 1860’s Gold rushes. </li></ul><ul><li>In this decade 100,000 assisted and another 40,000 unassisted migrants arrived. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1873 alone, almost 32,000 immigrants arrived in New Zealand followed by 18,000 the following year. </li></ul><ul><li>Amongst the unassisted migrants were 5,000 Chinese although only half stayed. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the assisted migrants arrived as part of the Public Works Policy and thus went to Otago and Canterbury where most of these projects especially rail were located. </li></ul>
    56. 56. Vogels Migrant.
    57. 57. Here and There
    58. 58. The Origins of Migrants <ul><li>Vogels Migrants were attracted from all over Britain. </li></ul><ul><li>The ability of Immigration Agents and the local conditions (economic/social) often influenced how many people came from any one region. </li></ul>
    59. 59. Vogel Migrants 1870-1900 <ul><li>In which years did migration peak? </li></ul><ul><li>When did assisted migration stop? </li></ul><ul><li>What might have led to the fall in migration? </li></ul>
    60. 60. The Rimutaka Hill Road 1870’s
    61. 61. Class ‘A’ Locomotive What does this engine tell us about NZ’s economy? What does this tell us about the changes in New Zealand in the 1870’s?
    62. 62. The future State Highway 2 through the Wairarapa
    63. 63. Carriage in 40 Mile Bush Featherston
    64. 64. The view over Featherston 1890’s
    65. 65. Canvas Hut: The Bush Frontier
    66. 66. Vogel Scheme Success…… <ul><li>140,000 new immigrants arrived. </li></ul><ul><li>Overall the population doubled in size. </li></ul><ul><li>4,000 miles of telegraph line increased communications. </li></ul><ul><li>This allowed the Provinces to be abolished. </li></ul><ul><li>1,000 miles of railway line including the South Island main trunk line was built. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the North Islands rail-line was also built. </li></ul><ul><li>New areas in the interior like 70 Mile Bush (Wairarapa) the Manawatu and the West Coast (Goldfields) were opened up. </li></ul>
    67. 67. A bright start…. <ul><li>Canterbury wheat fields increased five-fold (50,000 to 250,000 acres). </li></ul><ul><li>The number of factories doubled in this decade. (836 to 1643, as did the number of people employed here). </li></ul><ul><li>Railways opened up the West Coast coalfields. (Brunner) </li></ul><ul><li>The abolition of the Provinces allowed a more efficient Government of the Country. </li></ul>
    68. 68. … or failure? <ul><li>BUT </li></ul><ul><li>The Loans were a massive burden on the economy. </li></ul><ul><li>Interest and capital repayments needed constant growth. </li></ul><ul><li>The expected growth had not had the chance to establish itself before the world economy began to falter. </li></ul><ul><li>When the depression began to emerge the Government was forced to pay more for its loans. </li></ul><ul><li>Revenues had not reached predictions, loans became harder to find and to fund. </li></ul><ul><li>Lacking any vision the Government reduced spending (Retrenchment). </li></ul>
    69. 69. <ul><li>Vogel planned to borrow £10m but used £20m. </li></ul><ul><li>Economic development had only just begun to increase when an international recession turned into a fully fledged depression. </li></ul><ul><li>Prices for wheat and wool began to fall. </li></ul><ul><li>Gold outputs also began to decline. </li></ul><ul><li>Many of the new farms were still being broken in and many owed money to banks who needed to recall their funds. </li></ul><ul><li>Companies closed and Farms foreclosed. </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone blamed Vogel for their predicament. </li></ul><ul><li>The normal response by 19 th C Governments was to reduce or stop spending (RETRENCHMENT) – (SHADES of 2009!) </li></ul>Vogel’s fall from Grace: Depression
    70. 70. The downward (Recession) spiral Farmers incomes fall, they cut costs by employing fewer labourers and cutting back on spending in shops. International prices for wool fall. This signals a general decline in commodity prices. As suppliers/shops incomes fall they also cut costs employing fewer workers and cutting back on spending With most peoples incomes falling less and less is spent, Public & Private Retrenchments continue . Business confidence is low so little is invested in new ventures – people prefer to save their money. (Banks fail) With its tax collections falling the Government also reduces spending , especially in employment and supplies. (Retrenchment) ECONOMIC DEPRESSION
    71. 71. Scapegoat Grand scapegoat procession. The Tories and Renegades taking Vogel into the wilderness with all their sins . Cartoon shows G. Fisher giving conflicting election promises, Grey pushing with Atkinson and Bryce pulling a wheel chair into which a goat (i.e. Vogel) is bound. The scene is a path in front of craggy mountains, where vultures are hovering Published in 1887
    72. 72. Vogel Vampires
    73. 73. Economic Change Overview. <ul><li>Economic development sees New Zealand move from relatively small scale extraction of resources available from the coastline to development of the interior and the development of manufacturing industries. </li></ul><ul><li>Pastoralism and Gold opened up the country and provided export income. </li></ul><ul><li>Immigration encouraged economic growth. </li></ul><ul><li>This was possible because of the growing Pakeha population and the creation of export industries. </li></ul><ul><li>War also led to economic expansion. </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation led to new industries, like refrigeration. </li></ul><ul><li>1880’s Depression limited growth and created a climate for political change. </li></ul>
    74. 74. Economic Change <ul><li>This area focuses on the development and growth of 4 Main Industries. </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture – Food production for the Domestic and Export Markets </li></ul><ul><li>Timber - The destruction of the native forests for domestic use and for export </li></ul><ul><li>Gold - Initially in Otago, Westland and Thames. </li></ul><ul><li>Pastoralism - especially Sheep via Wool then frozen meat for export , and Dairy products. </li></ul>
    75. 75.
    76. 76. Industry <ul><li>Gold: Otago, West Coast, Nelson and Thames </li></ul><ul><li>Timber : Mainly centered around Kauri in the north and other timbers in Taranaki and Wairapapa. </li></ul><ul><li>Pastoralism : Mainly Otago and Canterbury, but also Wairarapa and Hawke Bay </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture : around the Waikato and major Towns </li></ul>
    77. 77. Agriculture <ul><li>Agriculture was based on labour. </li></ul><ul><li>Bush had to be cleared in a back breaking process based on the farmer his wife and any labourers he could afford to pay. </li></ul><ul><li>The hardest part was the initial land clearance which required dangerous burn-offs of the underbrush, then the clearance of the larger trees, planting crops around their stumps amongst the ashes of the bush. </li></ul><ul><li>This was easier in the southern grasslands in the 1850’s but eventually extended into the northern bushlands from 1872. </li></ul>
    78. 78. Fire to Clear Bush
    79. 79. Bush Clearance
    80. 80.
    81. 81. Growth in Agriculture <ul><li>Women's contribution was limited in a society where most gave up their property rights with marriage. </li></ul><ul><li>Most were able to contribute through management of the household. </li></ul><ul><li>Before 1880 most farming was small scale growing for a local market. </li></ul><ul><li>Most farms were mixed, offering vegetables meat milk etc. </li></ul><ul><li>In the South large scale wheat farming emerged on the plains that required little clearance. </li></ul><ul><li>Vogels schemes increased settlement and with it the size of the Agricultural sector. </li></ul>
    82. 82. Mixed farming - Willowbridge
    83. 83. Innovation <ul><li>Innovation was reflected in the development of better machinery, better land management and stock development. </li></ul><ul><li>This innovation would see machinery like Traction Engines from the 1880’s increasingly replace labourers </li></ul><ul><li>This would see the drift to the cities intensify by the end of the century. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1910 the majority of New Zealanders would live in large towns or cities. </li></ul>
    84. 84. Harvesting Wheat
    85. 85. Wheat
    86. 86. Canterbury Wheatfields
    87. 87. Traction Engine <ul><li>What does this picture tell us about changes in farming practices during the 1880s? </li></ul><ul><li>What does it tell us about the profitability of the farms? </li></ul><ul><li>What question(s) would you ask of the people in this picture? </li></ul>
    88. 88. Baling <ul><li>What would the effect of mechanisation be on farm life? </li></ul>
    89. 89. Giles Family, north Canterbury <ul><li>What does this picture tell us about life on farms in the 1880’s? </li></ul>
    90. 90. Timber
    91. 91. Timb er <ul><li>Initially the quality of the timber proved attractive to Pakeha. </li></ul><ul><li>Trees were cut to supply spars for shipping, often travelling back to Britain as the return cargo after dropping off convicts in Sydney. </li></ul><ul><li>Missionaries encouraged the trade as did Chiefs keen to trade, often supplying the labour to help the traders. </li></ul><ul><li>From 1840 Sawn timber developed, helping to fuel the building boom in Sydney, and later the building of ships. </li></ul><ul><li>Later pit sawing gave way to water and steam power. </li></ul><ul><li>Later the Auckland building boom fuelled demand for sawn logs and an increased demand for firewood. </li></ul>
    92. 92. Pit sawing Kauri <ul><li>Pit sawing meant men had to have a great deal of trust in their workmates. </li></ul><ul><li>What question(s) would you ask of the people in this picture? </li></ul>
    93. 93. Sawing Kauri
    94. 94. Bullock Teams
    95. 95. Building a Kauri Driving Dam
    96. 96. Kauri Dam waiting to be triggered <ul><li>a </li></ul>
    97. 97. Logs awaiting the trip
    98. 98. Kauri Dam after triggering
    99. 99. Clearing a log jam
    100. 100. Kauri Boom
    101. 101. Scow
    102. 102. Kauri Boom in Auckland
    103. 103. Kahikatea, Rimu and Totara <ul><li>New species were used as Kauri began to run out. </li></ul><ul><li>Kahikatea was found to be especially good for making boxes for exporting butter (Butter-Box Wood) and 95% of the existing stands were felled. </li></ul><ul><li>Rimu, Matai and Totara were also cut down. </li></ul><ul><li>By the 1890’s there were calls to regulate the destruction of the native forests. </li></ul><ul><li>With the removal of the Kauri from the northern forests the way was cleared for another industry to develop. </li></ul><ul><li>The Collection of Kauri Gum, initially from the cleared forests then later from the swampland that surrounded the area. </li></ul>
    104. 104. GOLD
    105. 105. 19 th Century Gold Rushes 1849 1851 1860 1896 300.000 100.000 20,000 10,000
    106. 106. Gold <ul><li>Gold discoveries had already been world-wide phenomena in California and Australia, attracting thousands of men searching for the ‘Mother Lode’. </li></ul><ul><li>In May 1861 Otago had had only 300 Pakeha residents. By 1862, 8000 miners had arrived from Victoria alone. By 1863 36,000 Pakeha lived in the area. </li></ul><ul><li>The West Coast then also gave up its Gold and its population also exploded. </li></ul><ul><li>Services sprang up to supply the Miners. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Entertainment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gold was then discovered in the Thames area , being close to Auckland it had a massive impact on its population which virtually emptied overnight. </li></ul><ul><li>Unfortunately its gold was embedded in quartz requiring more than a pan and riffle to extract it. </li></ul>
    107. 107. Goldfields 1862 Thames/Coromandel 1861 Gabriel’s Gully 1856 Collingwood 1862 Dunstan 1863 Shotover 1865 Buller Reefton Greymouth Hokitika 1899 Waihi
    108. 108. Blue Spur at Gabriel’s Gully
    109. 109. Dunstan, Otago
    110. 110. BNZ at Maori Point Otago
    111. 111. Hydaulic Mining
    112. 112. Sluicing <ul><li>How does this type of mining differ from earlier styles? </li></ul><ul><li>How might this have changed relationships on the golf fields? </li></ul>
    113. 113. 2 mile Water Race License
    114. 114. Water Sluice.
    115. 115. Companies replace Diggers
    116. 116.
    117. 117. Grahamtown (Thames)
    118. 118. A Gold Battery <ul><li>Gold held in quartz rock required heavy machinery to remove it. </li></ul><ul><li>Steam or water powered “Stamper’s” were used to crush the rock until the gold could be removed using chemicals. </li></ul><ul><li>The machinery and chemicals required large amounts of capital. </li></ul><ul><li>Miners were forced to band together to share their resources or even worse could only work for a wage. </li></ul>
    119. 119. 100 Crowded Years: Gold 1940: 100 Crowded Years (Centennial) 1970’s: Spot On – A children’s series
    120. 120. Gold and the Economy <ul><li>For a few years Gold was an important export commodity. It encouraged immigration especially amongst the Males. (See page 190 from C of C) </li></ul><ul><li>It created a whole new service industry, offering the services and supplies necessary to keep thousands of men working. </li></ul><ul><li>Dunedin flourished and so did the Run Holders who could now sell their ‘Tucker’ to the hungry miners. </li></ul><ul><li>Pakeha settlement suddenly covered almost all of the South Island. </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese Miners arrived later and were often marginalised and discriminated against. </li></ul>
    121. 121. Provincial Rivals <ul><li>In the 1860’s most of the wealth of the country was generated by the Southern provinces. </li></ul><ul><li>The North Island was wracked by war against Maori. </li></ul><ul><li>Taxes from the South was used to pay for the war. </li></ul><ul><li>Increasingly this led to resentment and calls for secession. (Vogel) </li></ul><ul><li>Even within the South, resentment led to calls conflict between Provinces especially between West Coast and Canterbury. </li></ul>
    122. 122. Provincial Rivalry
    123. 123. Murder on the Maungatapu <ul><li>In 1866 5 men were murdered. </li></ul><ul><li>Suspicion fell on a group who were spending freely in Nelson. </li></ul><ul><li>Burgess, Levy, Kelly and Sullivan, had served prison time in England, Australia and Otago for robbery and burglary. </li></ul><ul><li>Sullivan took the £200 reward and informed on the others. </li></ul><ul><li>The heads were removed and cast to to support the theories of phrenology, a pseudo-science that sought to determine personal characteristics by examining the shape of an individual's head. </li></ul>
    124. 124. Bright Fine Gold <ul><li>Spend it in the winter </li></ul><ul><li>Or die in the cold. </li></ul><ul><li>One a pecker, Tuapeka </li></ul><ul><li>Bright fine gold </li></ul><ul><li>Chorus. Bright fine gold, Bright fine gold. One a pecker, Tuapeka, Bright red gold. </li></ul><ul><li>Some are sons of fortune, </li></ul><ul><li>And my man came to see </li></ul><ul><li>That the riches in the river </li></ul><ul><li>Are not for such as he. </li></ul><ul><li>I'm weary of Otago </li></ul><ul><li>I'm weary of the snow, </li></ul><ul><li>Let my man strike it rich </li></ul><ul><li>And then we'll go. </li></ul>The Tune of BFG Sung as a Kids Song
    125. 125. Lyrics <ul><ul><li>1862. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In New Zealand, in 1861, gold rushes broke out almost simultaneously at Wangapeka, near Nelson , and in the Tuapeka River in Otago . This prompted newspaperman and political parodist Crosbie Ward to write next year, in 1862,  (Reeves 1883)  that soon New Zealand Nurses will sing their babies to sleep with the lullaby “Gold, gold , fine bright gold Tuapeka, Wangapeka, bright red gold. “ </li></ul><ul><li>Red gold contains copper. </li></ul><ul><li>1874. </li></ul><ul><li>And indeed, 22 years later, Frederick Young published this variation   (Young 1874), with the remark that it was the refrain of a New Zealand lullaby . (If this was the refrain of a lullaby, then we can infer that the lullaby had verses too .) </li></ul><ul><li>Gold, gold, gold - bright fine gold, Wangapeka, Tuapeka - gold, gold, gold. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1880 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Robert Fulton was born and raised near Tuapeka. </li></ul><ul><li>In his 1922 autobiography,  he wrote:- &quot;as a youngster, [he] remembers the nurse's lullabies to the smaller children:- “Bright fine gold, bright fine gold, One-a-pecker, Tuapeka, bright fine gold.“ </li></ul><ul><li>When Fulton wrote about the children using the digger's cry of &quot;Joe&quot; for anything unusual, he mentioned it was &quot;nigh on 40 years ago,&quot; thus giving the period in time when he heard the nurse's lullaby. </li></ul>
    126. 126. Bright Fine Gold on Record (Black Vinyl Thingies) <ul><li>1968 The Song-spinners,   Songs of the Gold Diggers (Kiwi) 1960s Gary & Everill Muir,   Folk Songs-2 EP S/EA 162 (Kiwi ) </li></ul><ul><li>1960s Don Fulton, son of Robert V Fulton 45 (in possession of Phil Garland) </li></ul><ul><li>1971 Phil Garland,   Down a Country Road (Kiwi) </li></ul><ul><li>1972 Phil Garland,   Song of a Young Country compilation LP (Kiwi Pacific) </li></ul><ul><li>1970s Kevin Scully,   Alone in the Hills 45 (Robbins) </li></ul><ul><li>1980 Graham Wilson,   Paydirt (LP) </li></ul><ul><li>1983 Gerry Hallom,   A Run a Minute (Fellside 36, England ) </li></ul><ul><li>1985 Arthur Toms,   Trypots, Cradles and Gutboards (Radio NZ) </li></ul><ul><li>1987 Pioneer Pog 'n' Scroggin Bush Band,   Pognorhythyms (LP) </li></ul><ul><li>1986 Phil Garland ,   Songs of Old New Zealand (Kiwi-Pacific ) </li></ul><ul><li>1991 Colonial Two-Step ,   Colonial Heritage Songs cass. (Gumdiggers) </li></ul><ul><li>1991 When the Cat's Been Spayed,   Down the Hall... CD (Kiwi-Pacific) </li></ul><ul><li>1999 Gordon Bok ,   In the Kind Land CD (Timberhead Camden, Maine USA,) </li></ul>
    127. 127.
    128. 128. The Chinese in NZ <ul><li>The Chinese came to NZ as sojourners. </li></ul><ul><li>They were invited by the Otago Provincial council. </li></ul><ul><li>They hoped to make enough money to return home rich. </li></ul><ul><li>They suffered discrimination from White NZ. </li></ul><ul><li>They were often the victims of race rioting – especially on the goldfields. </li></ul><ul><li>This was because of their appearance and their thrifty ways. </li></ul><ul><li>Pakeha resented the fact that they often discovered gold in abandoned claims. </li></ul><ul><li>A poll tax of £10 was imposed and this was later increased to £100. </li></ul>
    129. 129. Poll Tax Reciept
    130. 130. The Chinese
    131. 131.
    132. 132. Arrowtown Chinese Settlement
    133. 133. PASTORALISM
    134. 134. Pastoralism <ul><li>Pastoralism was the farming of pasture for sheep. </li></ul><ul><li>New Zealand’s climate is perfect for growing grass. </li></ul><ul><li>The tussock lands of the south were perfect for extensive sheep farming. </li></ul><ul><li>The South Island already had plenty of tussock which when burnt off grew new shoots which Merino loved. </li></ul><ul><li>In the North Island bush clearance from the 1880’s allowed sheep to be run as well. </li></ul><ul><li>Refrigeration increased opportunities for expansion. </li></ul>
    135. 135. Wairarapa to Tuapeka <ul><li>The first big flocks were established in the Wairarapa, but soon its spread into Marlborough and then further south. </li></ul><ul><li>Good prices for wool encouraged the development of large farms (Runs) so that a few Run-holders could own large tracts of the southern tussock-lands. </li></ul><ul><li>Dodgy methods of acquiring/controlling land also helped. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1880 500 Runs of 5000 acres or more existed. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1890 1% of the South Island’s landowners controlled 78% of its land area. </li></ul><ul><li>These stations/runs ran with the help of itinerant labour who worked as shepherds, and later the large shearing gangs used to collect the wool. </li></ul><ul><li>Their labour created a wealthy upper class or royalty in the South. </li></ul><ul><li>For some this created resentment…. </li></ul>
    136. 136. How Runholders acquired the Great Estates. <ul><li>The first settlers to Canterbury and Otago had quickly realised the value of pastoralism and the need to dominate as large an area of land as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>The provinces in turn wanted to create as much wealth as possible so they made land available as leasehold (rented) rather than selling the land which required larger levels of equity. </li></ul><ul><li>Owners quickly realised there were ways of acquiring land without necessarily paying for ALL of it. </li></ul><ul><li>Dummying: where land purchases were limited Run-holders had their (extended) family buy adjoining parcels of land. </li></ul><ul><li>Gridironing: Run-holders bought land in long strips often encircling a large area of land that no-one else could access. </li></ul><ul><li>Spotting: The Runholder bought land surrounding waterways and valley floors leaving the hillsides without access to water. </li></ul>
    137. 137. The Great Estates. <ul><li>a </li></ul>
    138. 138. Ohaka Homestead
    139. 139. Samuel Butler sketch Mesopotamia
    140. 140. Taylors Station Canterbury
    141. 141. The Value of Wool <ul><li>In 1861 there were 158,000 acres (64,000 hectares) of good pasture in New Zealand. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1881 3.5 million acres were being farmed </li></ul><ul><li>In 1853, 1·1 million pounds (490 tonnes) of wool, valued at £67,000 were exported </li></ul><ul><li>In 1863 this rose to £12·6m ; and in 1873, £ 41·5m . Exports climbed to £100m in 1889 , </li></ul><ul><li>New grasses were sown, improved livestock were bred, and later freezing works were established. </li></ul><ul><li>Until development of the Corriedale, farmers relied upon the Australian bred Merino which produced good wool. </li></ul><ul><li>Their only drawback was their susceptibility to foot-rot in the warm, humid climate. </li></ul><ul><li>Vast amounts of wool were exported to Britain. </li></ul><ul><li>Sheep breeds used in NZ included: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Merino </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lincoln </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Romney Marsh </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cheviot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corriedale </li></ul></ul>
    142. 142. A Wooly Economy <ul><li>At least once and sometimes twice a year the sheep had to be shorn. </li></ul><ul><li>Large shearing gangs were employed to cut the wool, and bale it for transportation to ports for export. </li></ul><ul><li>The Gangs were itinerant workers employed seasonally to do the work. </li></ul><ul><li>In the North island the shearing gang fitted with Whanau and many gangs in the North were Maori. </li></ul><ul><li>Coastal shipping developed to assist in the movement of wool from farm to Port. </li></ul>
    143. 143. Blade Shearing <ul><li>English vs the faster Colonialstyle </li></ul>The Bowen Stylee 11min
    144. 144. Jingling Johnnies <ul><li>Shearers were known as jingling johnnies – presumably because of the noise made when their handpieces came together. </li></ul><ul><li>In the early years, shearing tallies were not high. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1856 at Te Awaiti, near Martinborough, a gang of eight men tackled 8,256 sheep. Their best day’s tally of 79, but the average was 35 sheep a day. </li></ul><ul><li>Tallies were low because the sheep were Merinos, a hard breed to shear, and the shearers had little knowledge of good technique or even how to sharpen the shears. </li></ul><ul><li>By the 1870s the daily tally rose to 70–80, with the ‘guns’ reaching 100. </li></ul><ul><li>It was tough work – hard on the wrists, hands and back. Shearing was a summer activity (usually from November to February) </li></ul><ul><li>The first shearing machines appeared in New Zealand in the late 1880s, originally driven by steam, often using a traction engine. Later, electricity made them more efficient and their use more widespread. </li></ul>
    145. 145. Transferring wool bales to ships <ul><li>What does this picture tell us about transportation within New Zealand? </li></ul>
    146. 146. Teviot Station at Tuapeka <ul><li>What does this picture tell us about the operation of Teviot Station? </li></ul>
    147. 147. Wool Hiccups <ul><li>Through the 1860’s and 1870’s sheep were the King of industries. </li></ul><ul><li>This was mainly in the value of the wool produced. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1876 a depression hit international wool prices. </li></ul><ul><li>Poor management practices began to impact on the runholders. </li></ul><ul><li>Rabbits began to compete with sheep for grass. </li></ul><ul><li>In some cases people saw ‘waves’ moving across hillsides. </li></ul><ul><li>Overgrazing on what remained exacerbated problems. </li></ul><ul><li>In Otago sheep numbers at the Moa Flat station were reduced from 120,000 to 45,000 head. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1887 about 1 ½ m acres of land had been abandoned in the two provinces alone. </li></ul>
    148. 148. Wool Baler and Bale <ul><li>What does this scene tell us about the scale of sheep farming? </li></ul><ul><li>What does it imply about the level of farming? </li></ul>
    149. 149. Traction Engine and Trailer <ul><li>If you could describe the following in ONE word…. </li></ul><ul><li>What do the building and engine tell us about the scale of this enterprise? </li></ul>
    150. 150. Timaru Breakwater <ul><li>What does this picture tell us about the economic potential and developments created by Sheep farming from the 1860 </li></ul>
    151. 151. Refrigeration: Innovation to the rescue <ul><li>The second phase in the development of sheep farming began with the successful marketing of a cargo of frozen mutton and lamb in London in May 1882. </li></ul><ul><li>The success of this pioneering shipment encouraged other sheep owners to export carcasses on their own account, or to form exporting companies. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1882 30,500 carcasses, mainly mutton, were exported. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1892 the total had reached 1.9 million, and by 1900 over 3 million. </li></ul><ul><li>Sheep farming now had two sources of income: Wool and Meat </li></ul><ul><li>In the north the newly opened lands especially around Taranaki, Auckland and Waikato allowed Dairying (Butter & Cheese) to develop. </li></ul>The “Dunedin” carried the first frozen shipment
    152. 152. Abbatoir
    153. 153. Belfast Freezing Works
    154. 154. Cows & Refrigeration <ul><li>Dairy farms were small family affairs, close to towns supplying milk. </li></ul><ul><li>Small local farms with 10-20 head grew into larger and larger farms with hundred of cows especially as mechanisation improved productivity. </li></ul><ul><li>The new dairy industry grew rapidly. </li></ul><ul><li>Large areas of new land were cleared for farming; the use of fertilisers, particularly phosphates, improved strains of pasture plants, and better methods of pasture management made possible the feeding of larger numbers of dairy cows . </li></ul><ul><li>Dairying developed rapidly in the North Island, especially in Taranaki. And Waikato </li></ul><ul><li>Hides were joined by butter and cheese as exports. </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers Co-operatives developed. </li></ul>
    155. 155. Small scale farming <ul><li>What does this picture tell us about the type of farming practiced in New Zealand…? </li></ul>
    156. 156. Bush Clearance <ul><li>What words would you use to describe this scene? </li></ul><ul><li>What does this tell us about the ‘scale’ of farming? </li></ul><ul><li>What appears to be holding development back? </li></ul>
    157. 157. Taranaki Dairy Farm 1900
    158. 158. Dairy factories and Cooperatives <ul><li>One of the first Dairy factory was established in the Taranaki by Chew Chong. </li></ul><ul><li>He wanted to make his own cheese to get a consistent taste. </li></ul><ul><li>But most Dairy farmers could not afford to develop factories on their own. </li></ul><ul><li>The Capital was easier to raise when they grouped together. </li></ul><ul><li>Pooling their finances allowed them to build their own factories. </li></ul><ul><li>Quickly these Cooperatives dominated the marketplace and helped to ensure that cheese was consistent. </li></ul>
    159. 159. Edendale Dairy factory 1895 <ul><li>What does this picture tell us about the development of Dairying in Southland? </li></ul><ul><li>What bobvious enefits were there in farming co-operatives? </li></ul>
    160. 160. Dairy output 1893-4
    161. 161. Butter & Cheese Production
    162. 162. Midhurst Dairy Co-op 1900 <ul><li>What in this picture indicates an advantage derived from Refrigeration for farmers? </li></ul>
    163. 163. Kauri Gum <ul><li>A by-product of Kauri was the large amounts of resin (gum) which was produced by the trees. </li></ul><ul><li>Maori had used it in fire making, tattooing and as chewing gum. </li></ul><ul><li>Europeans saw this as a product useful in the production of varnish. </li></ul><ul><li>It could be tapped, found on trees or dug up. </li></ul><ul><li>The gum on the ground was soon exhausted, then it was dug up from swamps. </li></ul><ul><li>It attracted Maori and Europeans but especially “Austrians” from Dalmatia. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1899 11,116 tonnes were exported. </li></ul>
    164. 164. The Gumdiggers – The Dalmatians <ul><li>Gum was found mainly in the swamps but could also be found in Rivers streams and beaches. </li></ul><ul><li>It was used mainly in the production of varnish. </li></ul><ul><li>It was hard back breaking work, requiring a lot of luck and patience. </li></ul><ul><li>Maori were often involved, usually working co-operatively. </li></ul><ul><li>Later it attracted a large number of Croatians from the Dalmatia in Austro-Hungary, who were often referred to simply as ‘Austrians’, which proved a problem for some in 1914. </li></ul><ul><li>They came to make their fortune but many stayed – refer to James Belich, and several Winemakers. </li></ul>
    165. 165.
    166. 166.
    167. 167. Gum Diggers
    168. 168.
    169. 169.
    170. 170.
    171. 171. The Effects of Economic Change <ul><li>Changes to the Economy affected many different areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Timber h elped to provide most of the timber to build Auckland and Wellington. Some even made it as far as Sydney and San Francisco. </li></ul><ul><li>Gold brought tens of thousands to Otago again creating new infrastructure and demands that helped many Runholder's through a recession. </li></ul><ul><li>It attracted large numbers of immigrants and opened up large parts of the South Island </li></ul><ul><li>Pastoralism created a whole new economy in the South and saved Canterbury and to a certain extent Otago & Southland. </li></ul><ul><li>Wool was a major export earner from the 1860’s </li></ul><ul><li>Refrigeration was a catalyst for opening up the Taranaki and developing new industries. (Dairy Factories: Cheese, Butter and Meat Works for Frozen Meat) </li></ul><ul><li>Gumdigging reinvigorated the far North and led to increased farming due to swamp drainage. </li></ul><ul><li>It created a whole raft of new industries and paved the way for urbanisation.. </li></ul>
    172. 172. Export 1853-1913 <ul><li>a </li></ul>
    173. 173. Economic Change = Social Change <ul><li>While most jobs created by the different Industries were for men some industries created new opportunities. </li></ul><ul><li>In Dunedin and other towns entrepreneurs realised the opportunity that wool offered and built factories for the production of woollen garments. </li></ul><ul><li>The jobs on offer were available for women and children. </li></ul><ul><li>Many were poorly paid and were expected to work long hours. </li></ul><ul><li>As the 1870’s ended and economic conditions deteriorated many women became the main wage earner for families. </li></ul><ul><li>Pay worsened and hours grew longer. </li></ul><ul><li>This led to Reverend Waddell’s sermon on the ‘Sin’ of Cheapness. </li></ul><ul><li>It was amongst women that the first Unions really took hold. </li></ul><ul><li>Lurid newspaper reports inflamed public support for the Unions. </li></ul><ul><li>Support for Unions would lead to growing support for the Liberals </li></ul>
    174. 174. Women <ul><li>In the first years of settlement few women had access to paid employment. </li></ul><ul><li>Most came out as part of a family. </li></ul><ul><li>Even by 1874 only 11% of women were paid to work. </li></ul><ul><li>Most work was an extension of their domestic duties. </li></ul><ul><li>Domestic Service was common especially amongst younger women. </li></ul><ul><li>Hours were long, the work often physically demanding and pay low. </li></ul><ul><li>From the 1870’s more women were employed in factories because the could be paid less than men. </li></ul>
    175. 175.
    176. 176. The ‘Sin of Cheapness’ <ul><li>As the number of factories grew so did demand for labour and despite lower rates paid to women, many saw more opportunities in this work than in Service. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1889 Reverend Waddell preached his sermon on the ‘Sin of Cheapness’. </li></ul><ul><li>Hours were long and pay was usually low. Work was often taken home to fulfill quotas. </li></ul><ul><li>Few factories complied to any standards and were dangerous to work in. </li></ul><ul><li>It was amongst women that the first Unions began to flourish. </li></ul><ul><li>The Tayloresses Union was the first.. </li></ul>
    177. 177. Factory
    178. 178. Children <ul><li>There were few laws covering children’s schooling. </li></ul><ul><li>Many families could not afford to lose children to school as they were more valuable as unpaid labour. </li></ul><ul><li>This was especially true on small farms. </li></ul><ul><li>In the cities families used their children’s work to supplement the parents own meagre wages. </li></ul><ul><li>As the Great Depression worsened many children were used to supplement the family income. </li></ul><ul><li>Hours were long and the work often dangerous, wages were low. </li></ul>
    179. 179. The downward spiral (Recession become a Depression) Farmers incomes fall, they cut costs by employing fewer labourers and cutting Back on spending. International prices for wool fall. This signals a general decline in commodity prices. As suppliers incomes fall they also cut costs employing fewer workers and cutting back on spending With most peoples incomes falling less and less is spent, Public & Private Retrenchments continue. Business confidence is low so little is invested in new ventures – people prefer to save their money. (Banks fail) With its tax collections falling the Government also reduces spending, especially in employment and supplies. (Retrenchment) ECONOMIC DEPRESSION
    180. 180. The Downward Economic Spiral <ul><li>Overseas (or large local) Banks recall funds or make it harder (more expensive) to lend from them. Large Businesses and Government can no longer borrow to fund investment or expansion. </li></ul><ul><li>They spend less locally as they try to continue to pay for previous borrowings. Government spending on infrastructure (road rail etc.) is reduced. Government employees are laid off. </li></ul><ul><li>With less money being spent Local Businesses (Wool Buyers) have less money to invest. </li></ul><ul><li>They purchase less from their suppliers (farmers) and try to reduce their own costs (push down prices). This may close some businesses (reduce stock, foreclosure) or employ fewer people. (farm labourers). They may reduce their prices to encourage sales or to become more competitive (wool prices). </li></ul><ul><li>With fewer people employed there is less money spent on luxuries (housing, clothes). Later less is spent on essentials as people ‘make do’ or find cheaper alternatives. (farm supplies and services) </li></ul><ul><li>With less being spent in local businesses they are forced to further reduce spending – more redundancies occur. (drovers, shearers, labourers, shop workers, Woollen mills etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Widespread unemployment occurs. Demands on charities increase as people fail to earn enough to feed themselves. (Salvation Army etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Some leave the area (urbanisation) or the country (Australia) in search of better opportunities. </li></ul><ul><li>Repeat steps 4-6 and increase step 7 endlessly . The Depression runs from about 1879 to 1896) . </li></ul>
    181. 181. Depression: The Economics of it. <ul><li>New Zealand has a small economy and relies on external investment to revive it – if overseas investors are in a depression as well, then NZ is rarely their first choice. </li></ul><ul><li>In the 1880’s confidence was affected by the collapse of the Bank of Glasgow. </li></ul><ul><li>The Bank then its creditors demanded their money back. </li></ul><ul><li>This caused a crisis in confidence amongst other Bankers who also began to reduce their own lending or called in loans. </li></ul><ul><li>The Government owed a lot to the Banks. (Vogel Scheme) </li></ul><ul><li>The Government had to reduce its spending/increase its income. </li></ul><ul><li>Traditionally Governments would Retrench (Limit or reduce their own spending) </li></ul><ul><li>This meant purchasing less and employing fewer workers. </li></ul><ul><li>Internationally commodity prices fell. </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural goods are already low value goods and prices fell rapidly. </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers received less for their goods, many were already overextended. </li></ul><ul><li>Many farmers retrenched to survive. Some destroyed entire flocks. </li></ul><ul><li>Unable to repay debts many lost their farms. </li></ul><ul><li>It can take years for farmers to rebuild their capacity (flocks). </li></ul>
    182. 182. 1880’s DEPRESSION <ul><li>Wool prices fell, Gold began to become scarce and the rabbit plague damaged the pastoralism in the South. </li></ul><ul><li>1878 the Bank of Glasgow a big investor in NZ collapsed. Its investments were recalled and unemployment increased dramatically. </li></ul><ul><li>The Grey Government was heavily in Debt which did not engender faith from Business leaders. </li></ul><ul><li>Economic downturn led to Political instability. </li></ul><ul><li>1882 the Australian market for NZ Wheat collapsed. </li></ul><ul><li>The Depression effected the South Island almost immediately. </li></ul><ul><li>The North was able to weather the storm for 5 years as it relied less on sheep than the south and the continued availability of Maori land kept its economy buoyant. </li></ul>
    183. 183. Swaggers <ul><li>Swaggers were effectively unemployed labourers who wandered the country looking for work. T </li></ul><ul><li>hey were often seasonal and itinerant. </li></ul><ul><li>The lack of any welfare made their position tenuous. </li></ul><ul><li>In the 1880’s a world wide depression drove down the prices of most agricultural products. New Zealand especially dependent on agriculture suffered badly. </li></ul><ul><li>Swaggers were at the bottom of the Economy and found this period hardest. </li></ul><ul><li>20,000 swaggers were wandering the Wairarapa? </li></ul>
    184. 184. Trade Unions <ul><li>As in Australia many Settlers arrived in New Zealand hoping to leave the trappings of the old world behind. </li></ul><ul><li>In this way an idea that society should be as egalitarian as possible developed. </li></ul><ul><li>Many wanted to ensure that the inequalities of working life in Britain were not duplicated here. </li></ul><ul><li>From 1840 there were demands for a 40 hour week. </li></ul><ul><li>The lack of skilled workers gave them considerable bargaining power. </li></ul><ul><li>Unions began in the 1850’s, but they were few and far between. </li></ul><ul><li>Most laws actually favoured the employer, until the 1878 Trade union Act they had no legal standing. </li></ul><ul><li>From 1876 the Trades Council in Auckland was able to co-ordinate their activities in areas of common concern. </li></ul>
    185. 185. Samuel Parnell DBNZ <ul><li>Among Parnell's fellow passengers when he arrived was a shipping agent, George Hunter, who, asked Parnell to erect a store for him. 'I will do my best,' replied Parnell, 'but I must make this condition, Mr. Hunter, that on the job the hours shall only be eight for the day.' Hunter protested, this was preposterous; but Parnell insisted: </li></ul><ul><li>'There are,' he argued, 'twenty-four hours per day given us; eight of these should be for work, eight for sleep, and the remaining eight for recreation and in which for men to do what little things they want for themselves. I am ready to start to-morrow morning at eight o'clock, but it must be on these terms or none at all.‘ </li></ul><ul><li>'You know Mr. Parnell,' Hunter persisted, 'that in London the bell rang at six o'clock, and if a man was not there ready to turn to he lost a quarter of a day.' 'We're not in London', replied Parnell. </li></ul><ul><li>Other employers tried to impose the traditional long hours, but Parnell met incoming ships, talked to the workmen and enlisted their support. </li></ul><ul><li>The eight hour working day thus became established in the Wellington settlement </li></ul>
    186. 186. Wages, Working Conditions and Unions <ul><li>The effects of the Depression were to drive down working conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Competition for jobs meant that workers had to compete, accepting longer hours for lower pay in order to survive. </li></ul><ul><li>Employers took advantage to ensure their margins. This was exacerbated by the widespread use of sub-contracting or bit-work. In textiles this meant women were only paid for the work they did rather than the hours worked. 2 Shillings for sewing a gross of sacks. </li></ul><ul><li>13 hour days and 6 day weeks became the norm and inhumane demands were sometimes made on workers. As conditions worsened Unions developed, despite the support that Employers received from the Government. </li></ul><ul><li>Watersiders were amongst the first to organise and a National Conference was held in Auckland in 1886. As the depression continued support withered. Unionism had its greatest boost from Australia where Unions had a stronger hold. </li></ul><ul><li>Militants among Railways and Seamen made headway in 1890, and continued to campaign for a standard (minimum) wage and working day. </li></ul>
    187. 187. Slaying the Sweating Dragon
    188. 188. Sweating <ul><li>Social Commentators began to question the conditions endured by some workers and were led by Rev. Waddell of Dunedin. </li></ul><ul><li>He claimed that Sweating occurred. The working of women for low pay for long hours. This mirrored a campaign that was happening in Britain. Most colonists believed they had left such exploitation behind and his revelation led to calls for an investigation. </li></ul><ul><li>A Royal Commission investigated and was regaled by tales of poor pay and inhuman treatment, some who gave evidence lost their jobs. </li></ul><ul><li>The Commission could not decide whether sweating existed in the same way that it did in Britain but did note that where Unionised labour existed the worst excesses of Industrialisation had been avoided. </li></ul>
    189. 189. POLITICAL CHANGE
    190. 190. Hobson and the Crown Colony <ul><li>Following his visit in 1837 aboard the Rattlesnake and his subsequent recommendations, Hobson was despatched in 1840 to secure an agreement with the Maori. He was appointed Lieutenant Governor, as NZ was seen as an addition to NSW. </li></ul><ul><li>Not only did he want to control the arriving migrants but also to control the rampant speculation that was driven by Australians like WC Wentworth who claimed to have purchased the South Island for a few hundred pounds. </li></ul><ul><li>Instead of the ‘Factories’ he had proposed in 1837, Hobson set about annexing ‘such parts of New Zealand which they may be willing to place under her Majestys dominion’ </li></ul><ul><li>The South Island would be annexed by right of discovery. </li></ul><ul><li>Under Hobson New Zealand was a Crown Colony. The Governor ruled unilaterally with advice from a select group of advisors. </li></ul>
    191. 191. The Governors <ul><li>1840 - Sir George Gipps (NSW) </li></ul><ul><li>1841 - William Hobson </li></ul><ul><li>1842 - Willoughby Shortland (Admin) </li></ul><ul><li>1843 - Robert Fitzroy </li></ul><ul><li>1845 - George Grey </li></ul><ul><li>1853 - Robert Henry Wynyard (Admin) </li></ul><ul><li>1855 - Thomas Gore Browne </li></ul><ul><li>1861 - George Grey </li></ul><ul><li>1868 - George Ferguson Bowen </li></ul><ul><li>1873 - Sir James Fergusson </li></ul><ul><li>1875 - Marquess of Normanby </li></ul><ul><li>1879 - Sir Hercules George Robinson </li></ul><ul><li>1880 - Sir Arthur Hamilton Gordon </li></ul><ul><li>1883 - Sir William Francis Drummond Jervois </li></ul><ul><li>1889 - Earl of Onslow </li></ul><ul><li>1892 - Earl of Glasgow </li></ul><ul><li>1897 - Earl of Ranfurly </li></ul>Do not copy this Slide
    192. 192. The Crown Colony <ul><li>Much of the early part of this period relates to the r elationship between the Governors and the Settlers. </li></ul><ul><li>It was not an easy relationship. The Governors were torn between representing the Crowns interests and satisfying the Settlers demands. </li></ul><ul><li>For some protecting Maori was important, for some it wasn’t. </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-emption of land sales was a an annoyance to both the Settlers and Maori, as it made speculation by Europeans difficult and with a Government monopoly over buying, the prices paid to Maori remained low. </li></ul><ul><li>Maori were slow to sell land and Hobson’s administration quickly became insolvent. Hobson was dogged by ill health and after his death was replaced by Shortland as Administrator then Fitzroy. </li></ul><ul><li>Fitzroy “..inherited an impossible situation and succeeded in making it worse” (Sinclair p76.) He appears to have been well intentioned but almost incompetent in his dealings with Maori and the Settlers. </li></ul><ul><li>Later after it’s the creation the Colonial Government becomes increasingly important although the Governor remained as a buffer between them and the Maori. Governors retained control of Native Affairs. </li></ul><ul><li>George Grey is the dominant figure in the time. </li></ul>
    193. 193. The 1846 Constitution. <ul><li>In 1846 the New Zealand Constriction Act was passed. It established two provincial parliaments for New Ulster (NI) and New Munster (SI). There would also be a level of Central Government above this. Grey managed to defer it. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1852 a second Constitution Bill was passed. It established a National Assembly and a Provincial system. </li></ul><ul><li>The Franchise was limited by Property. </li></ul><ul><li>The original 6 provinces were Auckland, New Plymouth, Wellington, Nelson, Canterbury and Otago. </li></ul><ul><li>The General Assembly had authority over the provinces but the parochialism of the provinces isolated by distance, became a major frustration for the central government, and tended to hinder national development at the expense of local issues. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1875 the Provinces (Assemblies) were abolished. </li></ul>GOVERNOR Legislative Council 2 Legislative Council 2 House of Representatives House of Representatives
    194. 194. New Ulster & New Muster <ul><li>The 1846 Constitution called for representative Governments in the two provinces based in each large island. </li></ul><ul><li>New Ulster in the north of the North Is. </li></ul><ul><li>New Munster in the remainder </li></ul><ul><li>New Leinster in Stewart Is. </li></ul><ul><li>There would also be a Central government (Based in Auckland) </li></ul><ul><li>Grey was unwilling to share power at this stage and deferred the transition for 5 years. </li></ul>
    195. 195. The 1852 Constitution: Settler Government. <ul><li>The news of a new constitution was greeted enthusiastically. </li></ul><ul><li>This would create 2 House system of Government with a Provincial System below it. (Who’s in Charge?) </li></ul><ul><li>Elections were held in 1853 but no majority could be reached and no Ministry was established. </li></ul><ul><li>A new round of elections were held in 1855 and at the meeting in Auckland, Henry Sewell led the first Ministry for 2 weeks. </li></ul><ul><li>William Fox led the next Ministry for another fortnight and was then replaced by Edward Stafford. </li></ul><ul><li>A lack of organised parties or opposition would dog politics for the next 40 years. </li></ul>
    196. 196. The Provinces <ul><li>The original six provinces were: </li></ul><ul><li>Auckland </li></ul><ul><li>New Plymouth (later Taranaki) </li></ul><ul><li>Wellington </li></ul><ul><li>Nelson </li></ul><ul><li>Canterbury </li></ul><ul><li>Otago </li></ul><ul><li>After 1852 more were created </li></ul><ul><li>Hawkes Bay </li></ul><ul><li>Marlborough </li></ul><ul><li>Westland </li></ul><ul><li>Southland </li></ul>Historiography: Page 130 C of C GOVERNOR Legislative Council 6 Legislative Council 6 House of Representatives House of Representatives GREAT BRITAIN
    197. 197. The Settler Government Legislative Council Appointed by the Government. Parliament Members Elected by Voters. There are no Parties until 1890 Governor General Appointed by British Government Bills are introduced to Parliament and are then voted on 3 times, before Being passed on to the Legislative Council which votes on it, before being passed through to the GG for to be signed when it become an Act of Parliament (Law). Bills can be vetoed by either the Legislative Council or by the GG. In 1891 Atkinson stacked the Council with his supporters who then held up many of the Liberal reforms.
    198. 198. Political Manoeuvring 1856 - 1891 <ul><li>Elections should be held every 3 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Candidates standing for election were individuals. </li></ul><ul><li>They stood on purely local issues and represented their constituents voraciously. </li></ul><ul><li>Once in Parliament they tended to band together with other MP’s with similar viewpoints. (ie Aucklanders, Farmers etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Whoever could muster the largest grouping of factions could then seek to form a Government. </li></ul><ul><li>This Ministry was named after the leader. </li></ul><ul><li>If he lost the confidence of the group or a rival could offer more, then their allegiance could be transferred. </li></ul><ul><li>The Government could then be changed without an election. (See 1856.1876, 1884). </li></ul><ul><li>There were 26 Ministries between 1856 and 1891 </li></ul><ul><li>Because of their conservative nature the 1860 -1877 Ministries are also called the “Continuous Ministry”. </li></ul>
    199. 199. The Premiers <ul><li>1856 - Henry Sewell </li></ul><ul><li>1856 - William Fox </li></ul><ul><li>1856 - Edward Stafford </li></ul><ul><li>1861 - William Fox </li></ul><ul><li>1862 - Alfred Dommett </li></ul><ul><li>1863 - Frederick Whitaker </li></ul><ul><li>1864 - Frederick Weld </li></ul><ul><li>1865 - Edward Stafford </li></ul><ul><li>1869 - William Fox </li></ul><ul><li>1872 - Edward Stafford </li></ul><ul><li>1872 - George Water house </li></ul><ul><li>1873 - William Fox </li></ul><ul><li>1873 - Julius Vogel </li></ul><ul><li>1875 - Daniel Pollen </li></ul><ul><li>1876 - Julius Vogel </li></ul><ul><li>1876 - Harry Atkinson </li></ul><ul><li>1876 - Harry Atkinson (recon) </li></ul><ul><li>1877 - George Grey </li></ul><ul><li>1879 - John Hall </li></ul><ul><li>1882 - Frederick Whitaker </li></ul><ul><li>1883 - Harry Atkinson </li></ul><ul><li>1884 - Robert Stout </li></ul><ul><li>1884 - Harry Atkinson </li></ul><ul><li>1884 - Robert Stout </li></ul><ul><li>1887 - Harry Atkinson </li></ul><ul><li>1891 - John Ballance </li></ul><ul><li>1893 - Richard Seddon </li></ul><ul><li>1906 - William Hall-Jones </li></ul>
    200. 200. The Franchise(s) <ul><li>1852 - Voting for Males aged 21 who own or rent land ( £50 Rural £10 Urban). Maori disenfranchised through communal ownership. </li></ul><ul><li>1860 – Franchise extended to Miners.(Gold) </li></ul><ul><li>1867 - 4 Maori Seats established. A ‘short term’ measure. </li></ul><ul><li>1879 - Franchise broadened – land ownership requirement abolished. All males may vote. </li></ul><ul><li>1889 – Representation Act establishes a country quota . (Smaller constituencies). Ends Plural voting. </li></ul><ul><li>1893 – Women receive the Vote. Effective Universal Suffrage. </li></ul>
    201. 201. The move toward Party Politics <ul><li>The ‘Continuous Ministry’ of Fox, Vogel & Atkinson which had been in power since 1860 collapsed in 1877. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1879 the Grey Government was in trouble. Grey was forced to confront some of its leading members and lost a confidence vote allowing John Hall to form a Government. </li></ul><ul><li>Hall allowed (limited) universal franchise but preferred retrenchment. </li></ul><ul><li>Although he survived the 1881 election he lost the majority the following year. </li></ul><ul><li>The Depression arrived. </li></ul><ul><li>Atkinson and Whittaker led the Ministry for a year continued retrenchment policies eventually alienating the populace. </li></ul><ul><li>Vogel then formed a Ministry with Stout, promising change but was unable to make any. </li></ul><ul><li>The Depression spread north and worsened. </li></ul>Stout
    202. 202. The Scarecrow Ministry 1887 <ul><li>Atkinson was again invited to form a Government, but had to appease the Run Holders and the Auckland Bloc who both favoured further retrenchment. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1887-8 the Depression worsened. </li></ul><ul><li>Every interest group had their own solution including closing schools, eradicating pests, removing transport costs even removing run-holders….others preferred the idea of using tariffs to protect small businesses. </li></ul><ul><li>Protectionist Leagues were set up especially in the South Island. </li></ul><ul><li>Atkinson could achieve little given the divisions in his Ministry but was finally able to authorise a small loan in 1887 and small tariff in 1888. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1889 parliament passed the Representation Act strengthening the Rural Vote but abolishing the plural vote. </li></ul>Historiography: Page 248 Party Politics
    203. 203. New Ideas from the 1880’s <ul><li>At the end of the 1880’s a new mood had emerged. Increasingly people began to join together to agitate for change or to simply exploit their collective power. </li></ul><ul><li>The perception that the best land was owned by a few saw the creation of a Land Nationalisation League. </li></ul><ul><li>The desire to create a State Bank to help control the Economy and dilute the power of foreign banks grew. </li></ul><ul><li>Working conditions increasingly came to the fore as people saw many of the evils of Industrialisation arrive in the form of Sweating . </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol and its abuse saw activism for its abolition saw the creation of WCTU </li></ul><ul><li>Increasingly social reform was linked to Socialism, a movement that had similar followings in Australia, the USA and Europe. </li></ul>
    204. 204. Economic Change = Political Change <ul><li>Economic change was tied to innovation and industry. </li></ul><ul><li>Refrigeration opened up a new opportunity for farmers. </li></ul><ul><li>Regions like Canterbury and Taranaki prospered. </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing expanded based on the expansion of transport especially railways. </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing employment grew by 66% in the 1880’s. </li></ul><ul><li>Despite the fall in export earnings Incomes did not fall but Real Incomes stagnated. </li></ul><ul><li>Despite the expansion of Refrigeration, Wool had reached saturation rates in areas developed for pastoralism, and Gold extraction had declined, creating the feel of a Depression . </li></ul><ul><li>The ‘Depression’ had created a lot of social unrest (WCTU & Prohibition)and resulted in Social activism and the gradual emergence of a fledgling Union Movement. </li></ul><ul><li>Defeat of the Maritime Strike led to increased support for the Liberals </li></ul>
    205. 205. The 1890 Election <ul><li>Atkinson was faced with a real Leader of the Opposition in the form of John Ballance. </li></ul><ul><li>Ballance campaigned on Land reform which appealed to both Town and Country. </li></ul><ul><li>Atkinson was unpopular in the urban areas especially for the Rural Quota (Vote) which created resentment. </li></ul><ul><li>An emergent Labour Party campaigned for the first time. </li></ul><ul><li>Atkinson attempted to form a Ministry but could not and Ballance was asked to form a Government. </li></ul><ul><li>In his Cabinet he had Seddon, William Pember Reeves, Jock McKenzie & Stout. </li></ul>
    206. 206. The Forgotten Leader: John Ballance <ul><li>During his premiership Ballance established the Liberal Federation. it marked a maturing of New Zealand politics </li></ul><ul><li>In his capacity as colonial treasurer he introduced land and income taxes to replace the property tax. Other legislation included the Land Act 1892 and the Land for Settlements Act 1892. </li></ul><ul><li>The new taxes met with considerable criticism, but this was largely silenced when the premier announced a record budget surplus in 1892. </li></ul><ul><li>Coming after long years of depression and coinciding with an improvement in the economy, the announcement marked the beginning of the public's association of Ballance 'the Rain-Maker' with the return of prosperity. </li></ul>Historiography Page 253
    207. 207. The Liberal Caucus
    208. 208. The Liberal Cabinet Seddon, Cadman, McKenzie, Ward, Pember Reeves Buckley Ballance
    209. 209. The Liberals <ul><li>The Liberal’s who took power in 1891 would stay in power until 1912. They were determined to provide the strong central Government which the regions needed to prosper. </li></ul><ul><li>They believed that the Government should be even handed in its Governance and that disadvantaged groups might require their assistance, and where Monopolies existed they should be able to intervene. </li></ul><ul><li>They wanted to avoid the worst of Urban development by encouraging people to stay in the country. They decided to make more rural land available by breaking up the Big Estates. </li></ul><ul><li>The Liberals were made even more popular by the recalcitrance of the Legislative Council which Atkinson had stacked. This seemed to emphasise the difference between Privilege and Democracy. </li></ul><ul><li>They hoped to ensure that their reforms would not cause a budget blowout by spending no more than the taxes they collected (A balanced Budget). Reeves especially wanted Labour Reform and created a Bureau of Industry which would later become the Department of Labour. </li></ul>
    210. 210. Richard Seddon
    211. 211. “ King Dick” Seddon <ul><li>Seddon had to battle Stout for the leadership of the Liberals. </li></ul><ul><li>Stout tried to undermine Seddon with Prohibition and Suffrage but was eventually out manoeuvred by the better politician. </li></ul><ul><li>The 1893 Election confirmed Seddon’s position as leader. </li></ul><ul><li>Seddon led a strong caucus and established discipline amongst his members making it difficult for members to criticise the government. </li></ul><ul><li>He maintained the ideal of a balanced budget. </li></ul><ul><li>To attract the urban vote the Liberlas introduced labour reform including the Industrial Conciliation and Arbitration Act. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1894 the Bank of New Zealand was rescued and in 1896 Seddon introduced measure to assist the elderly. In the election of 1896 the Liberals lost support but retained enough seats to keep power. </li></ul>
    212. 212. The Liberals: their Acts of Parliament <ul><li>1891 Land and Income Tax Assessment Act: taxed land especially absentee landlords . </li></ul><ul><li>1892 Land for Settlements Act: Set aside £50K to buy large estates . </li></ul><ul><li>1892 Lease in Perpetuity Act: Allowed existing Leasers a 999 year lease on their land. </li></ul><ul><li>1893 Local Option Act: Allowed Local voters to decide on Prohibition in their districts. </li></ul><ul><li>1893 Advances to Settlers Act: Allowed farmers to lend cash to improve their farms. </li></ul><ul><li>1893 Government Electoral Bill: gave Women the Vote </li></ul><ul><li>1892 Compulsory Purchase: Allowed government to buy land </li></ul><ul><li>1894 Bank of New Zealand Guarantee Act: Gave the Government power to appoint its President and Auditor in return for a Guarantee that saved it. </li></ul><ul><li>1894 Factory Act: Required factories be registered and inspected, setting minimum health standards. </li></ul><ul><li>1894 Shop and Shop Assistants Act: Regulated work and conditions in shops. </li></ul><ul><li>1894 Industrial Arbitration and Conciliation Act: Set up to settle industrial disputes, its decisions were binding on both parties. </li></ul><ul><li>1898 Old Age Pension : Paid a pension to those of good character </li></ul>
    213. 213. Looking back at the Liberals <ul><li>New Zealand Politics and the Liberals were dominated by Seddon. Skilful within the House and a populist who appealed to the ordinary voter he was able to create a stable Government. </li></ul><ul><li>Seddon’s party was driven from the top and it was not until 1899 that a move was made to create local branches. (the Liberal Federation) </li></ul><ul><li>It set the scene for the creation of Parties which would represent particular sectors of the people. (Labour and National). </li></ul>
    214. 214. Society & Suffrage <ul><li>As society changed so did the role of women and their place in society. </li></ul><ul><li>The ‘Frontier’ nature of New Zealand society meant that women were more active in their roles and acquired new roles. Management of the home often meant management of the farm as well. </li></ul><ul><li>Increasingly they saw themselves as the guardians of society. </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol was seen as the greatest enemy of a stable society and temperance was seen as a way of controlling its use (and abuse). </li></ul><ul><li>When attempts at getting men to change the laws failed then they decided they needed to become more actively involved in the parliamentary process. </li></ul><ul><li>Suffrage was as much about encouraging temperance or prohibition as it was gaining equality. </li></ul>
    215. 215. Society becomes more genteel <ul><li>Males and especially the number of unmarried males dominated early colonial society. </li></ul><ul><li>Many lived and worked in an almost exclusively male environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Drinking dominated their social life. </li></ul><ul><li>Some see this as creating many of the features of New Zealand Identity: Hard Working, Individualistic, Inventive, Tough but Fair. </li></ul><ul><li>While drinking was important many Goldfields boasted Libraries Mechanics Institutes or Athenaeums. </li></ul><ul><li>As the century progressed the Male however had to modify his behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>As the century progressed the sex ratio began to even out. As towns developed a middle class grew. </li></ul><ul><li>Middle class women often had more time on their hands & were well educated. </li></ul><ul><li>Growing temperance movements showed a change in the mood of society and the growing influence of women. </li></ul><ul><li>The new respectability was sometimes seen as a softening of the Frontier culture. </li></ul><ul><li>Despite this male culture survived and is living happily in Upper Hutt. </li></ul><ul><li>Professionals also became more established especially with the establishment of professional organisation for Doctors and Lawyers. </li></ul>
    216. 216. Values Fears and Aspirations <ul><li>Emigrating to the other side of the world called for a particularly strong individuals. </li></ul><ul><li>It generally appealed to the young and fit. </li></ul><ul><li>The groups who travelled out to NZ represented a cross-section of Britains middle and lower classes. </li></ul><ul><li>(SEE SLAINS CASTLE LIST.) </li></ul><ul><li>Because of the demand for skilled labour they could be more demanding, which saw the 40 hour week become an expectation. </li></ul><ul><li>Manual labourers as well became more independent. </li></ul><ul><li>Hard workers who completed tasks without complaint and asserted their rights were respected. </li></ul>
    217. 217. The Arrival of the Tory
    218. 218. Blick Family
    219. 219. Gore Browne Family
    220. 220. Maori Wedding Motueka
    221. 221. Norwegian Family
    222. 222.
    223. 223. Social Issues: Egalitarianism <ul><li>Victorian ideals of hard work and thrift remained key features of New Zealand society, but new themes began to appear. </li></ul><ul><li>The frontier society had been rough and hard, a place for men there were few women. </li></ul><ul><li>This had created a culture based around male ideals and sensibilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Belich calls it “Crew Culture’ while Phillips describes it as ‘Mateship’. </li></ul><ul><li>Both ideas have a common trait. Men bonded together, depended on each other and trusted each other, often in dangerous situations. </li></ul><ul><li>They expected to be treated equally and to get a fair share. </li></ul><ul><li>Democracy ruled and men were judged by their character and work ethic rather than their breeding or education. </li></ul><ul><li>Much of the Labour Legislation of the Liberal reflected this ideal. </li></ul><ul><li>Land Policies also reflected an appeal to the ‘Small Man” who had voted for them. </li></ul><ul><li>The Pension in 1898 was a change from the Victorian idea of why people were poor and how the State should assist them. </li></ul><ul><li>The Sufrage movement was also a reflection of the changing attitudes towards people. </li></ul>
    224. 224. Johnstons Temperance Hotel
    225. 225. Kate Sheppard DBNZ <ul><li>In 1885 Mary Leavitt , an American evangelist delegate from the Woman's Christian Temperance, completed a speaking tour of NZ. </li></ul><ul><li>Kate Sheppard became a founding member of the New Zealand Women's Christian Temperance Union. </li></ul><ul><li>Sheppard was motivated by humanitarian principles and a strong sense of justice : 'All that separates, whether of race, class, creed, or sex, is inhuman, and must be overcome'. </li></ul><ul><li>Attempts to enforce Temperance or Prohibition failed in Parliament. </li></ul><ul><li>Proposed social and legislative reforms concerning temperance and the welfare of women and children would be more effectively carried out if women possessed the right to vote and the right to representation in Parliament. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1887 franchise departments were formed within the local unions and Sheppard was appointed national superintendent of the franchise and legislation department. </li></ul>
    226. 226. Juveniles, Lunatics, Criminals and Women <ul><li>The emphasis throughout the campaign, however, was on the right of women to vote; that right had previously been extended to males over 21 years. </li></ul><ul><li>By excluding Women, it was claimed the Government had classed them with juveniles, lunatics and criminals. </li></ul><ul><li>The franchise department of the WCTU took the first of three major petitions to Parliament in 1891. </li></ul><ul><li>The petitions were presented by Sir John Hall, and strongly supported by Alfred Saunders and the premier, John Ballance. </li></ul><ul><li>Robert Stout was also a keen supporter. </li></ul><ul><li>It must be remembered that many men were teetotalers. </li></ul>John Hall
    227. 227. Suffrage Campaigners Ada Wells Amey and William Daldey
    228. 228. Suffrage Campaigners. Annie Schnackenberg Anna & Robt. Stout
    229. 229.
    230. 230.
    231. 231. Petition <ul><li>In June 1891 Kate Sheppard inaugurated and began editing a women's page in the Prohibitionist , the national temperance magazine. </li></ul><ul><li>She began a petition seeking the franchise. </li></ul><ul><li>The first was signed by more than 9,000 women, and the second in 1892 by more than 19,000. </li></ul><ul><li>With the formation of franchise leagues in many centres, and the increasing activity and growth of the WCTU auxiliaries in the smaller centres, the largest petition ever presented to Parliament was collected in 1893 with nearly 32,000 signatures. </li></ul><ul><li>John Hall theatrically unrolled it across the floor of Parliament. </li></ul><ul><li>The small band of 600 women members of the WCTU had successfully roused public opinion to the extent that Parliament could no longer ignore their demands. </li></ul>Anna and Robert Stout
    232. 232.
    233. 233.
    234. 234. a <ul><li>a </li></ul>
    235. 235. Only the Wife
    236. 236. The last gasp. <ul><li>Seddon had opposed the petitions. </li></ul><ul><li>When the final Bill was presented he allowed it to pass as he expected it to fail in the Upper Chamber. </li></ul><ul><li>Two Liberal members who had been antagonised by Seddon chose to support the Bill and it passed into Law. </li></ul><ul><li>Realising he could not stop it Seddon then congratulated Sheppard and gifted the pen used to pass it into law to her. </li></ul>
    237. 237. The Summit
    238. 238. The National Council of Women
    239. 239. The End