Crossing theCrossing theMangatawhiriMangatawhiristreaMstreaMthe 1863 invasion of the waikatothe 1863 invasion of the waikato
The Main Players• Governor Gore Brown• Wiremu Kingi• Governor George Grey• General Duncan Cameron• Russell & McVeagh• Wiremu (the King Maker)Tamehana Tarapipipi• Te Wherowhero Tawhiao• Rewi Maniapoto• Titokowaru• Te Kooti2
3Grey, McLean and Land• Greys greatest success as a colonialgovernor was probably his managementof Maori affairs in the years 1845 to 1853.• He gave every appearance ofscrupulously observing the terms of theTreaty of Waitangi, and assured Maorithat their rights to their land were fullyrecognised.• Under the chief land purchasecommissioner, Donald McLean,procedures were evolved for negotiating asale at a tribal meeting.• The meeting had to agree to the sale.Often large numbers of Maori signed thepurchase agreement.• The land then became Crown land andwas sold to settlers at a profit, whichprovided significant government revenuesGovernor George Grey
4Te Kingitanga• A movement arose in the 1850s to establish aMaori king to protect Maori land from alienationand to make laws to end internal strife.• Tamihana Te Rauparaha had been to London andobserved the position and power of the Queen.• He also noted the unifying influence of the position.• In 1852 Matene Te Whiwhi travelled throughoutNew Zealand seeking a chief of high standing whowas willing to be king.• His groups motto was “Whakakotahitanga,”“Union.”• They proposed a confederacy of all the tribes, andthat one chief should be appointed as King orGovernor.• Iwikau Te Heuheu Tukino III, of Ngati Tuwharetoa,suggested that Te Wherowhero of Tainui shouldbe approached, and his choice was supported byWiremu (the Kingmaker) Tamihana, of Ngati Haua.
5Te Wherowhero (Potatau)• Te Wherowhero never regarded thekingship as being in opposition to thesovereignty of Queen Victoria, andwanted to work co-operatively with thegovernment.• In his speech of acceptance hestressed the spirit of unity symbolisedby the kingship, likening his position tothe eye of the needle throughwhich the white, black and redthreads must pass. He enjoined hispeople to hold fast to love, to the law,and to faith in God.• Some of his associates, however,sought to prevent or hindergovernment activities in areas whichsupported the King.• He died in 1860 and was succeededby his son, Matutaera (Who took thename Tawhiao).Te Wherowhero, Te Waru and Te Pakaru
6The Kingite Challenge• The King Movement threatened the principal ofEmpire in several ways.1. The King was a threat to the idea of British Authoritybeing paramount.2. The King would unite the tribes, and their disunitywas their greatest weakness.3. This had allowed the Europeans to establishthemselves in settlements and to move inland.4. By prohibiting the sale of land the King inhibited theEuropean ability to acquire land they believedbelonged to them.5. Settlers felt that the Kingites were bullying otherMaori from selling their land.6. This threatened the Governors ability to raiserevenue as land was bought cheaply and sold at agood profit to the settlers.7. This was the Governors most important source ofrevenue,
7Sovereignty and Control: What’ in a Name?• The various names attached tothe conflicts tend to indicate thecurrent thinking about theircauses• The Maori Wars (1800’s)• The Anglo-Maori Wars (1920’s)• The New Zealand Wars (1930) -Cowan• The Land Wars (1940’s)• The New Zealand Wars (1990’s)- Belich• The Land Wars (2009) -Survivors of the Wars Recorded in the early20thC
The Waitara Dispute 1858• In 1840 the NZ co had claimedseveral million acres.• Land Commissioner Spain hadreduced the area around NewPlymouth to only 4500 acres.• By 1858 the pressure from the everincreasing settler population createda huge demand for land.• The Government under Robert GoreBrown was unable to satisfy thisdemand.• There was an increasing demand todeal with Maori resistance to Britishauthority and to acquire the landrequired to allow expansion anddevelopment of the ‘waste’ land thatsurrounded many of the settlements9Historiography Page 57 C of C
Te Atiawa and the Waitara.• Te Atiawa were not a united Iwi.• Some wanted to sell land to the Europeansothers refused.• This disagreement led to fighting and deaths.• Eventually by the late 1850’s a faction led byTe Teira were prepared to defy Wiremu Kingiand offer land at the Waitara.• Settlers and the Government increasinglyviewed the refusal to sell as barrier tocivilisation.• “Land League” and Kingitanga becamesynonymous.•10Governor Robert Gore Brown
Accepting the Challenge• When an offer to sell land was madein the Taranaki, (by Teira) thenvetoed by other senior Maori(Wiremu Kingi).• These Maori were not aligned to theKingitanga.• But the Governor took it as achance to challenge the Maori(Kingite) authority.• Despite some misgivings (fromsome settlers) the land wassurveyed and when challenged theGovernor replied with force.• Kingi replied by building a Pa at teKohia.• The New Zealand Wars had begun.11
Defeat.....?• Initially the Military was overconfident in theirability to defeat the Maori.• General Gold wanted to face the enemy inopen battle, hoping to inflict a devastatingdefeat upon these ‘savages’ and force asurrender.• Te Kohia should have shown him how Kingiwas going to engage him.• A well protected fighting Pa, with a safeescape route, it was not designed to bedefended for long.• The campaign became one of frustration.• Maori built a Pa.• British advance and attack• Maori withdraw• Maori built another Pa.• The lack of success frustrated Settlers whoexpected more form their soldiers.16
17“The Kingite Influence”• As the war progressed Kingi called forhelp.• Friends and relatives came fromTauranga, Rotorua, and Taupo, but thebulk were from the Tainui tribes of theWaikato. (Belich p.102.)• The Kingites who arrived made it possiblefor part-time warriors and farmers to fighta war against full-time professionalsoldiers.• At any one time there were probably nofewer than 400 Kingite warriors and asmany as 800 in January 1861.• Aucklanders continued to rely on theproduce that was supplied by theWaikato.• Their trade with the Kingites allowed thecontinuation of the war effort. It also madeit easier to obtain ammunition, despiteGovernment restrictions.Wiremu Kingi
18Changing Leaders and tactics• After several setbacks and little to show for all his effortColonel Gold was replaced by General Pratt.• Settlers alarmed at the lack of success began to worryabout attacks on a besieged New Plymouth and eventhreats to Auckland.• Many left for the safer South Island or even Australia.• Pratt tried to use Saps (trenches) to threaten thenumerous Pa which surrounded New Plymouth. It was aslow and easily evaded tactic which seemed toemphasise the British impotence in the face of an enemythat refused to fight in a conventional manner.• The slow rate of advance was frustrating for thefrightened settlers who expected the British Empire to bemore robust against painted savages. They derided theGeneral and his soldiers for their lack of success.• After the intervention of Wiremu Tamehana a truce ofsorts was established.• Browne and his successor Grey both realised that thepre-requisite to establishing British sovereignty lay withthe destruction of the Kingite power in the Waikato.
21General Cameron• Cameron was keen to have a brush with theMaori, but ironically he arrived at theconclusion of the Taranaki war.• However, Governor Thomas Gore Brownewas planning an invasion of Waikato tocrush the Maori King movement and, at ameeting of the New Zealand ExecutiveCouncil, Cameron enthusiastically supportedthis course.• I strongly recommended that they [theKingites] should be called to account, withoutloss of time, for their participation in the[Taranaki] rebellion.• Then, in mid 1861, Browne was sacked andreplaced by Governor George Grey, and, toCamerons bitter disappointment, theinvasion was called off.General Cameron
22Kohimaramara 1860• In July 1860 Governor Gore Browne sought toisolate the Kingitanga and its supporters whenhe invited about 200 chiefs to a conference atKohimarama near Auckland.• Those deemed to be rebellious, from areassuch as Taranaki and Waikato, were notinvited.• The conference reaffirmed the Treaty ofWaitangi and the sovereignty of QueenVictoria, but those present did not endorse thegovernments line in Taranaki.• Nor did they condemn the Kingitanga.• Gore Browne was not pleased. Public opinionwas critical of his performance as governorand no significant progress had been made inTaranaki.• A breakthrough came in March 1861 whenWiremu Tamihana visited Taranaki andarranged a truce.
23Kohimaramara 1860• An unexpected result was for some chiefsto see this as being a chance to create aMaori Assembly.• The chiefs wanted the conference to be aregular event, and New ZealandsParliament voted the funds to stageanother conference.• George Grey, governor again from 1861,had other ideas.• He cancelled the plans, partly because hedid not think it wise to call a number ofsemi-barbarous Natives together to framea Constitution for themselves.• He proposed, instead, that Maori districtsbe administered through runanga (tribalassemblies), supervised by the Crown.
Grey prepares the ground• Grey was unwilling to share the country withthe King.• He chose to postpone the attack on theWaikato.• Publicly he preached peace.• Privately he began to prepare for war.• Claiming danger to Auckland he requestedmore troops.• Imperial regiments arrived from Australiaand India. (The Royal Tigers)• Grey recruited troops from Australia on thepromise of land. (The Fencibles)• He also began to build a military road fromAuckland towards the Waikato.• By 1863 he had a total force in excess of18,000 Imperial and local Militia.• Loans in London were secured on the basisof future land confiscations. 24
26Kupapa and Ranger• One of the most important of the militaryunits that the Imperial and Government hadwas the Queenite or Kupapa. These wereMaori who fought with the Crown but oftenwith their own agenda. While ostensibly ledby Europeans they were answerable only totheir own Rangatira.• Often they were more interested in revengefor past slights and used the conflict as anexcuse to attack old adversaries.• These Maori were extremely effective in thefighting. Often defeats that were inflictedwere as a direct result of their contribution.• The Forest Rangers were local militia whooften fought in conjunction with Kupapausing the same tactics and often wearingthe similar uniform.Hohepa Tamamutu dressed in Kupapa attire
27The Waikato War 1863• Cameron planned to advance steadily on theWaikato heartland, using his great superiority innumbers and supplies, hoping to force theMaori into a decisive battle which would end thewar quickly.• The Maori, under Rewi Maniapoto andTawhana Tikaokao, opposed him with adefensive line centred on Meremere.• They also used the strategy of raids on theBritish lines of communication.• The Maori raids prevented Cameron fromconcentrating enough troops to attackMeremere until 30 October.• When he finally did attack, the Maori escapedwithout loss. Cameron was blamed for thewholly unexpected delay of three months beforethe advance on Meremere, and it is true thatthe Maori had won the first round.Wiremu Tamehana Tarapipi Te Waharoa
30Rangiriri Nov 1963• Nevertheless Cameron moved on upthe Waikato River.• The Maori army had had to dispersefor economic reasons.• Cameron advanced on the next line atRangiriri. Most of its defenders hadalready left.• Cameron attacked the rump of it atRangiriri on 20 November.• Eight British assaults were repulsed,only one was partially successfulcapturing part of the rampart.• Despite this after 130 casualtiesCameron retired for the night.• Cameron managed to take the pa thenext morning, capturing 180 prisonersafter misunderstanduing a flag of truce.• Back row, from left: Rewi Maniapoto, TawhanaTikaokao, Taonui Hikaka, Hone Wetere TeRerenga. Front row, from left: Te Rangituataka,Te Naunau Hikaka.
39Paterangi• Cameron continuedhis advance untilconfronted by thePaterangi line.• It was the mostformidable group ofpa the Maori had everbuilt.• It protected theKingite’s richestagricultural area andgarrisoned by theirstrongest army.
40Rangiaowhia• On 20--21 February1864, in easily his greatest military achievement, Cameron brilliantlyoutflanked the Paterangi line and took it and the whole district at low cost, gravely andpermanently weakening the King movement. Many Maori still believe that he managedthis by breaking an agreement on the neutrality of the village of Rangiawhao, whereKingite non-combatants were assembled
41Orakau 1864• Maori who arrived late decided to challengethe British by building a new Pa. Rewi wasrelated to them and felt required to supportthem.• The Pa was defended by about 300 Maori (asmany as a third were women) who faced 1200troops led by Brigadier General Carey.• It had no water and was easily surrounded. .Maori help arrived too late and unable to get tothe Pa sat instead "...on the hill and wept theirfarewell, for they thought that...none (would)escape..." (Belich p171)• There were 5 Assaults and the offer ofsurrender before the Maori attempted to breakout.• Belich argues that while the Maori saw Orakauas a defeat it was "the cruellest disappointmentof the entire war" for the British (p 175).• The King Movement still existed, now behindthe "aukati" (boundary) to the Ngati Maniapotoland
42Rewi Maniapoto at OrakauKa whawhai tonu matou, Ake! Ake! Ake!(We will fight on for ever and ever).
43The King Retreats to his Rohe• With their forces almost surrounded theKingite army melted into the bush.• Again Cameron was denied his decisivevictory.• With his lines of communicationstretched and vulnerable he halted andconsolidated his position.• The King was now surrounded by hisstrongest supporters the NgatiManiapoto.• The Kingites began to dig more pa inpreparation for more fighting.• Cameron had received new ofdevelopments in Tauranga, anotherKingite stronghold.
44Tukaroto Matutaera PotatauTe Wherowhero TawhiaoThe wars of the 1860s in Taranakiand Waikato and the governmentssubsequent confiscation of Maori landsaw Tawhiao and his people renderedvirtually landless and forced to retreatas wandering refugees into theheartland of Ngati Maniapoto, nowknown as the King Country.As a result of the invasion of Waikatoby British forces in 1863 on thepretext that the Waikato tribes werepreparing to attack Auckland,Tawhiao and his people lost over amillion acres to the settler governmentand subsequently to the settlersthemselves.
46The War in Tauranga• The war in the Waikato was at an endbut Cameron wanted a decisivevictory. He also wanted to end the tacitsupport given to the Kingites by Maorifrom other regions.• When an opportunity presented itself atTauranga, Cameron halted operationsin the Waikato basin and took hisstriking force east.• The coastal location of the Maoriposition, the Gate Pa, enabled him toconcentrate crack troops and a vastartillery train against it. Hispreparations for battle on 29 April wereimpeccable, but his assault force wasrouted.• Despite his reputation for stoicism, thegeneral dashed his field-glass on theground, turned his back on thefugitives, and retired to his tent toconceal his emotion.Cameron (leaning on wheel) with troops
47Welcome to my Parlour... Gate Pa• Gate Pa was an interesting version of themodern Pa. It seems to have beendeliberately built to withstand an assault byheavy weapons, and more to the point toallow an assault by troops.• The siting of the flagpole to fool the artilleryand the building of loopholes inside thebunkers to allow firing into the interior ofthe Pa, point to a clever and very deadlytrap.• However once again when it appeared tohave served its purpose, it wasabandoned.• Settler and Military reaction to the defeatwas extreme with many preferring tobelieve military incompetence or cowardicerather than Maori ingenuity wasresponsible for the rout.• A victory at Te Ranga shortly afterwardshelped mollify their disquiet.An incident from the attack whenwater was given to a woundedTrooper.
Winners and Losers• The Government/Settlersobjectives :• To finally defeat the MaoriKingitanga in battle.• To prove the authority of theCrown and British Law.• To free up the ‘wasteland’and ensure its availability tothe Settlers.• To protect future settlementsand pay back the loan.50• Maori responses to theattacks:• No decisive battles meantthe Kingite army remainedintact.• The Maori King remainedsafe in his Rohe.• Almost all of the landvacated by Maori was nowconfiscated.• The ‘fencibles’ occupied theland and the surplus wassold to repay the war loan.
52The Aftermath of the Wars• Read Pages 71-84 C of C• Read to Page 45 to 47 WONExtension Reading“War and Survivors” by Judith Binney (Extension)“The NZ Wars” by James Belich (Book or Precis in the Extension Reading)“Mondays Warriors” Maurice Shadbolt (Novel)
53A New Religion: Pai Marire.• The wars spluttered to a halt and the Maori Kingheld fast behind the aukati. Having gained the bestof the Waikato land the Government stood back.• Elsewhere Maori defiance still simmered andresulted in conflicts in the South Taranaki and EastCoast.• Some of this conflict was centred around the newreligions which often concentrated on the oldtestament Jehovah and traditional maori beliefs.• In 1864 King Tawhiao converted to the Pai Marirereligion of Te Ua.• Based on a peaceful ideal it became a victim ofmisinterpreation by both its followers and by Pakeha.• Many of its adherents bellieved they could becomeimpervious to bullets when chanting Hau Hau….• This became the european name of their movement.• This new warfare was to be more bloody with lessregard to traditional rules of war that Imperial troopsand Maori had held to in the past.Te Ua
Wellington High School HistoryDepartment54The Murder of Carl Volkner: 1865• Pai Marire began to send their own missionariesaround the country.• The murder of the Missionary Carl Volkner inOpotiki horrified Europeans.• He had been warned by visiting Hauhau led byKereopa and when suspected of spying on theiractivities was hung from a tree.• To the Settlers horror, reports that his eyes hadbeen eaten revived vivid memories ofTitokowaru and the cannibalism associated withhis campaigns.• A local chief was charged with this incident.• Later, as further punishment, a large section ofWhakatohea land was confiscated in punishmentfor this event.• The arrival of Hau Hau Missionaries was alsoassociated with outbreaks of the East CoastWars between Ngapuhi Hapu.54
Wellington High School HistoryDepartment55Volkners Murder Site55
56South Taranaki• In order to quell Maori restistance Cameronwas ordered to march on the southernTaranaki, he refused and was replaced byGeneral Chute.• Chute employed scorched earth tactics todestroy and drive out Maori Tribes.• His drive around Mount Taranaki fromWhanganui to new Plymouth, left many tribesalmost landless and starving.• The loss of life and destruction of theirlifestyle would lead to a change in thepeaceful nature of the new religion.• Te Whiti, Tohu and Titokowaru all initiallyestablished peaceful religions. But as theirplight became worse as Pakeha confiscationof land continued to take their land,• Titokowaru in particular saw resistance asnecessary.General Chute
Titokowaru’s War 1868• Titokowaru had chosen to accept the new realityand preached peace.• He travelled in his ‘Year of the Lamb’ calling for co-operation.• As creeping confiscation increased pressure on hisIwi’s land, he lashed out.• He attacked Turu turu Mokai (nr Hawera).• Initially he had only 80 warriors but as successcontinued his support grew.• He defeated several constabulary units whoattacked his home at Te Ngutu O Te Manu.• He drove the Europeans back towards Whanganui.• At Tauranga-Ika his support suddenly disappeared.58
63Te Kooti’s War 1868-72Extension ReadingMaori Prophet Leaders : Binney“Season of the Jew” Maurice Shadbolt (Novel)• Te Kooti is an interesting case. Initiallyhe had fought as a Kupapa againstHauhau, but was arrested and sent tothe Chathams where he had visionsand created a new religion.• Ringatu.• Escaping to the East Coast, he becameinfamous for the massacre of bothPakeha and Maori.• He would lead the Militia in a furiouschase around the Ureweras with the aidof the Tuhoe.• Eventually he was granted access tothe Rohe Potae and eventually apardon in 1883.
67Confiscation and The Land Court• Binney has described the establishment of theMaori Land Court as an Act of War.• The Wars had left many of the most powerfulTribes without large areas of their most valuableagricultural land.• Now the Colonial Government which could notdefeat them on the battlefield turned to theCourtroom to win the lands they desired.• Waikato lost most of their most fertile land.• Kupapa and Neutral tribes also lost land• Ngati Maniapoto lost almost none.Extension Reading:“The Native Land Court and the MaoriCommunities” Judith Binney (Extension)
68Battlefield to Courtroom• The Land Confiscations were bad enough but did notsatisfy the Settler demands, now the Government usedthe Law to acquire the ‘wastelands’ that Maori did notneed or use.• The Government left the King behind the Aukati within theRohe Potae, where he could defy them but could achievelittle.• Peace returned to the Taranaki and eventually theWaikato and even the East Coast, and as Grey hadpredicted the Government began to dig around the King.• Laws were passes transferring land in the Waikato toarmed settlers and other legislation was used to whittleaway at the land which was still owned by Maori.• The Native Schools Act (1867) began the assimilation ofthe Maori, educating them in English. Some Maori sawthis as a good thing, in much the same way that Nga Puhiin the north had seen education in the 1820’s as a way ofimproving themselves and acquiring the best things inEuropean culture.• The Maori Representation Act (1867) created the 4Maori Seats, initially its representatives were from Kupapatribes. Despite their best efforts the fact there were only 4always limited their ability to truly represent Maoriinterests.
69The Native Land Court• The court was established to secure Maori claims to land.• It was supposed to identify and acknowledge ownership often confused by yearsof warfare and migration.• With ownership established, parting Maori from their land became easier.• Anyone (Maori or Pakeha) could claim land regardless of whether it wasoccupied.• Maori occupiers were asset rich but cash poor.• When a claim was made against a block of land Maori occupiers were forced tohave it surveyed, creating a debt which often went unpaid.• When a court was set up in a nearby town Maori were expected to wait there untiltheir case came before it.• Absence meant that their ownership became void.• While waiting they were forced to leave fields untended and to buy food andstores from accommodating shopkeepers… on tick.• Often even if they won their case Maori were forced to sell land to repay theirdebts.• In some places, (Hawkes Bay) claimants, surveyors and shopkeepers workedtogether to acquire land from Maori.
73Parihaka• Followers of the Pai Maririe leader Te Ua Te Whiti and Tohu built thesettlement of Parihaka based on his teachings. It was centered inconfiscated land which had been labelled as unwanted.• Pakeha prejudice meant that no matter what was said by te Whiti it wasoften misinterpreted or misrepresented.• The Government began to survey the land and Te Whiti sent out thePloughmen to disrupt their progress. They were arrested and many weresent to the South Island.• Eventually Te Whiti, Tohu and Titokowaru were arrested and put on trial, butthe charges were thrown out. The Government changed the law.• Eventually 1600 volunteers invaded Parihaka, expelling Maori from otherdistricts and destroying the Settlement. Te Whiti and Tohu were sent toOtago.