Achievement CriteriaAchievement Achievement withMeritAchievement withExcellence• Examine sources ofan historical eventthat is of significanceto New Zealanders.• Examine in-depthsources of anhistorical event thatis of significance toNew Zealanders.• Comprehensivelyexamine sources of anhistorical event that isof significance to NewZealanders.
The Standard• Analyse and evaluate evidence in historicalsources.• You should expect 4 - 5 resources.• You MUST• highlight or• Underline and• Annotate the information.• Ask questions about the Sources (Excellence)• Write a SUMMARY Report of your findings.• EssayOR• Paragraphs (Preferably)
Markers Comment• While the summary report should contain the substantive portion of thecandidate response, markers should consider all of the evidence provided withthe candidate response when awarding a grade, including highlighting,underlining, annotations, and notes.• Excessive highlighting should not be mistaken for perceptive selection ofevidence.• The schedule below provides possible responses at each grade level for theindividual questions within the sources of Part A.• The summary report in Part B should be an amalgamation of these responses,with the marker making an overall holistic judgment, also using any candidatenotes, highlighting etc on the sources as an aid to this process.• Markers can be guided in their grade allocation by using the Grade Score Marking(GSM) process for each question, but should also note that the AchievementStandard does not require demonstration of competency in all of the skills in theexam paper.
Explanatory Notes #1• Comprehensively examine sources involvesusing one or more historical skill(s) to showperceptive understanding of sources.• Showing perceptive understanding involves‘reading between the lines’ to drawconclusions that go beyond the immediatelyobvious, and/or to raise relevant questions(where appropriate) that demonstrate a highdegree of engagement with the source.• It could involve selecting and explainingevidence with an awareness of thelimitations of either the evidence or the basisfor making assumptions about it.
Explanatory Notes #2• Historical skills include:– Close reading– Comprehension– Extracting meaning.• Historical skills can identify concepts such as:– Perspectives– Reliability or bias– Continuity and change– Intent and motivation– Cause and effect.– Specific and general
Historical Relationships• A resource may present alternative views ideas about a topic, an idea, person orevent, you will need to consider these relationships in your answer.1. Cause and effect.– What was the cause and the short/long term effects1. Past and present.– How it was seen/viewed at the time and how it is seen/viewed in the present day.1. The specific and general.– What could be considered specific view of a particular person, idea or event as opposed to thegeneral view. (at the time or in the present)1. Continuity and Change.– What has remained the same since then or changed over time (often a viewpoint)1. Intent or Motivation– What did the Author intend for the source to achieve1. Reliability– How reliable is this piece of evidence? How useful is it to a Historian?1. Bias– An opinion/statement without any rational evidence to back it up.
Valid Judgements– You will need to make judgements based on what is in front of you.– This may be based on the type of resource, personal views, historical orgovernment reports.– distinguishing fact from opinion.• Newspapers ie beware Editorials and letters• Letters home – beware of hyperbole• Diary entries or journals• Official Reports– recognising specific points of view, bias and propaganda.• Newspapers with an agenda – some are conservative some are liberal• Letters are written by individuals whose viewpoint is limited by their experience.• Diaries are written by individuals whose viewpoint is limited by their experience.– being aware of the limitations of a single piece of evidence.• Point of view or agendas held or bias• Limited information, point of view– considering the reliability, validity and usefulness of evidence.• Compared to other possible sources• Viewpoint or agendas.• The actual source of the Information• What is NOT in the resource, what is missing and why is it not there?
Topic: Reverend Waddell and SweatingOn 30thSeptember 1888 the Reverend Rutherford Waddell delivered a sermon to the St.Andrews congregation of central Dunedin on the sin of cheapness. It was to prove the mostinfluential sermon in New Zealand history. ....he urged his congregation not to commit the sinof cheapness. Constant seeking of bargains [by consumers] only forced down wages, causingmisery to working people.Dunedin was fast becoming like London where middlemen [Factory Owners] sweated labourto enhance their profits. Women were the most common victims of this iniquitous practice;Waddell cited the case of a widow who was paid 2 pennies for finishing a pair of trousers.These disclosures shocked his congregation, some of whom wrote to the Otago Daily Times.Their letters caught the attention of the papers managing director, George Fenwick, who sentreporters out to investigate the operation of the factory system in Dunedin. This inquiryrevealed many abuses and a full-scale scandal broke in the early part of 1889.Milestones: Turning Points in New Zealand HistoryTom Brooking – Prof of History Otago University
Distinguishing fact from opinion:THE REV. MR WADDELL AND SOCIALISM. TO THE EDITOR.Sir, —Upon the whole I agree with ‘Civis estimate of Mr Waddell ‘s lecture, butas your correspondent ‘Sigma’ has suggested that your report of Mr Waddellslecture which appeared on the 26th. ult. was incorrect, permit me to say that Ihave made inquiry of a gentleman who was present when the lecture wasgiven, and he informed me that your resume was fairly correct, and that if thelecturers opinions differed from the opinions of the Socialists under review, itwas in the main impossible to tell which was the lecturers and which theSocialists. I may add that the gentleman I refer to is friendly to Mr Waddell, andnot at all likely to judge him harshly. -l am, etc.August 6. J. Wood.Otago Daily Times , 7 August 1888, Page 4Who are these people?
Recognising specific points of view, bias and propaganda.Sweating: Work or Slavery?• Journalists discovered that the worst abuses were being perpetrated on womenworking in the textile industry and boys involved in shoe making and printing. Highlevels of male unemployment forced more women out to work; by 1890 3000women were employed in Dunedin. Because women earned much less than men,they helped employers reduce costs. Most worked long hours for low rates of payin dirty, noisy and sometimes dangerous conditions. A 72-hour week made up ofsix 13-hour days was common and the standard rate for such long hours was ameagre 9 shillings (90c) a week. Factory workers, however, were better off thanthose who took work home on a piece rate basis. Outworkers were very poorlypaid. One bag maker was paid 2 shillings for stitching a gross (144) of 25-poundbags. She in turn employed girls whom she paid 71/2 pence (7.5c) per gross of 25pound bags. After paying all her expenses the womans income had been reducedfrom £1 2s 6d to 18 shillings a week while her girls were paid the merest pittance.Milestones: Turning Points in New Zealand HistoryTom Brooking.
Being aware of the limitations: THE SWEATING COMMISSION, 1890Evidence on the benefits of trade union activities from Ellen Wilson, a Dunedin shirt-finisher.ELLEN WILSON examined.“I am a shirt finisher... The best week I had then, working hard, was 10s. 6d.;that was working from 9 in the morning till 11 at night, with no hours offfor meals.”“I got about ten minutes for dinner, and when I got home at night I used totake a short time to do a little extra cooking; but I could scarcely take timeto get my meals.”“I can now make 12s. to 13s. a week; and a good finisher would make 18s. aweek inside the eight hours per day. I can make 12s. per week now,working eight hours per day, whereas before it took me fourteen hours tomake 1s. 10½d.”[Shirt Finishers worked from Home attaching collars, buttons or cuffs andwere usually paid by the number of shirts completed]
Considering the reliability, validity and usefulness of evidence : THE SWEATINGCOMMISSION, 1890: Evidence on the benefits of trade union activities from HarrietMorrison, Vice-President of the Tailoresses Union,Miss HARRIET MORRISON examined.“I am Vice-president of the Tailoresses Union.... Working ordinary hours inthe factory, the girls earn 2s. 6d. per day. When they take work home,perhaps they could make an extra shilling. Including both day and nightwork, they could earn 3s. 4d., not including Saturday. This was previous tothe establishment of the Union.”“It [membership of the Union] has stopped entirely the taking of work home.Since the formation of the Union I have made it my business to inquirestrictly, and keep a very strict watch. I have others to watch too, for me,with the exception of one or two instances which have: been done awaywith since....”
Fighting the Sweating Dragon– distinguishing factfrom opinion.– recognising specificpoints of view, biasand propaganda.– being aware of thelimitations of asingle piece ofevidence.– considering thereliability, validityand usefulness ofevidence.St. George (Harriet Morrison) fighting the Sweating Dragon (1892)
Von Tempskys death– distinguishing factfrom opinion.– recognisingspecific points ofview, bias andpropaganda.– being aware of thelimitations of asingle piece ofevidence.– considering thereliability, validityand usefulness ofevidence.
Port Nicholson in 1840– distinguishing factfrom opinion.– recognisingspecific points ofview, bias andpropaganda.– being aware of thelimitations of asingle piece ofevidence.– considering thereliability, validityand usefulness ofevidence.
Vogels Migration Scheme– distinguishing factfrom opinion.– recognisingspecific points ofview, bias andpropaganda.– being aware of thelimitations of asingle piece ofevidence.– considering thereliability, validityand usefulness ofevidence.Source: NZHistory.net for the Ministry of Culture & Heritage
Marking for Grade Score MarkingNØ No response; no relevant evidence.N1 Little relevant information noted.N2The response is substantively incorrect even if there are one or more correctpoints (ie, the requirement to satisfactorily demonstrate ‘understanding’ hasnot been met). For example:Source One: ONE perspective identified with some evidence, OR TWOperspectives identified but NO valid evidence.Source Two: one or more points incorrectly identifiedSource Three: one or more points incorrectly identified AND / OR inaccuratereliability assessmentSource Four: one or more points incorrectly identified AND / OR inaccuratereliability assessment.
GSM: AchievedACHIEVEMENTPossible Coverage of Source 1 and Source 2A3 TWO perspectives are described, with limited relevant evidence.A4 TWO perspectives are described, with some relevant evidence.Possible Coverage of Source 3A3 ONE relevant piece of information is described.A4 TWO relevant pieces of information are described.Possible Coverage of Source 4A3ONE valid comment on reliability is described OR ONE valid piece of information isidentified.A4ONE valid comment on reliability is described AND ONE valid piece of informationis identified.
GSM: ExcellenceACHIEVEMENT WITH EXCELLENCEPossible Coverage of Source 1 and Source 2E7 TWO perspectives explained with detailed relevant evidence.E8 TWO perspectives perceptively explained with detailed relevant evidence.Possible Coverage of Source 3E7 TWO relevant pieces of information are explained in detail with relevant evidence.E8TWO relevant pieces of information are explained in detail and perceptively withrelevant evidence.Possible Coverage of Source 4E7ONE valid comment on reliability is explained in detail AND ONE valid piece ofinformation is explained in detail.E8ONE valid comment on reliability is explained in detail and perceptively AND ONEor more valid pieces of information is explained perceptively.