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2019 dhdownunder game prototyping workshop

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Prototyping and Pitching Playfully Serious Games
10 Dec 2019 DHdownunder workshop 9.12.2019 Newcastle Australia

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2019 dhdownunder game prototyping workshop

  1. 1. Prototyping and Pitching Playfully Serious Games
 10 Dec 2019 DHdownunder workshop Erik Champion, Curtin University erik.champion@curtin.edu.au twitter @nzerik
  2. 2. Instructions 1/2 day workshop: the simulation of places, events and cultures through computer game interaction. 1. We begin with introductions and inspirations: are there particular ideas you would like to see in more playful form? 2. Short talk on game types, game mechanics, how games can be used in the humanities, simple tools and software. 3. Work in groups of 2-4 on a simple game level prototype. 4. Pitch your idea to class using physical or digital media. 5. Please bring a laptop if possible, pen and paper.
  3. 3. 2019 DHD Programme 9-12.30 Intros (20 minutes): YOU: name, research topic, game you liked+why, idea for project? 9:00:00 9:20:00 Overview: games, prototyping (40 minutes) 9:20:00 10:00:00 Group suggest ideas (10 minutes) 10:00:00 10:10:00 Short break/questions (20 minutes) 10:10:00 10:30:00 Selection of teams (10 minutes) 10:30:00 10:40:00 WORK on game prototypes, playtest solutions OR describe gamification of simulations 10:40:00 12:10:00 Present prototypes in class (20 minutes) 12:10:00 12:30:00
  4. 4. DONE DIRT CHEAP-Collect glyphs to develop power-Morrowind Mod 2005
  5. 5. WHY Digital games?? PROs • easy to change, simple IDE • easy to involve students • online forums help biggest • active modding community • inbuilt performance eval. • interaction more intuitive • Different ways of learning CONs • fast-moving technology (?) • less coding flexibility (?) • looked down upon • no pro support • artistic skill vs hist. accuracy • evaluating without disturbing • genre baggage
  6. 6. Serious Games For Prototyping? 
 “Playing games? It’s a serious way to win community backing for change “ https://theconversation.com/playing-games-its-a-serious-way-to-win- community-backing-for-change-116171 and https://www.audrc.org/
  7. 7. History through game engines • Resource management • Learn social behaviour (chat, observation, mimicry) • Visualise scale, landscape or climate • Depict levels of uncertainty • Filter, reconfigure, reconstruct • Immersion in excitement of the times • Select correct objects or appearance to move about the ‘world’, trade, advance social role or period of time • Decipher codes, language, avoid traps • Online walkthrough by teacher or inhabitant • Collaborative storytelling (in- world role-playing, film-making)
  8. 8. 1.communicate cultural significance 2.manage technical change 3.demonstrate archaeological method & principle 4.convey inhabitants’ viewpoints 5.link scholarly or intangible data 6.help communities convey traditions Not clear how to
  9. 9. Defining Games: engaging challenge? • A rule-based formal system with a variable and quantifiable outcome, where different outcomes are assigned different values, the player exerts effort in order to influence the outcome, the player feels attached to the outcome, and the consequences of the activity are optional and negotiable. (Juul 2003, para 15). • A system in which players engage in an artificial conflict, defined by rules, that results in a quantifiable outcome. (Salen and Zimmerman, 2004). • Possibility of temporary or permanent tactical resolution without conflict (mimesis, vertigo, chance?) • Discounts games that may never have a final outcome (e.g. cricket) • No mention of the importance of strategy. • An engaging challenge that offers up non-harmful outcomes to the real world situation of the participant (Champion, 2006).
  10. 10. Example: bust a cup • Engaging challenge • Feedback + reward system • Easy to learn, hard to master • It needs 2 players • Some element of danger • Anyone can build one • Games and prototypes don’t have to be digital https://shakethatbutton.com/bust-a-cup/ Stuff used :
 – pieces of wood
 – hammers
 – locks and chains
 – coffee cups Created by : Brian Shrank & Brian Gabor Jr.
  11. 11. Defining Gamification 1. Addition to websites and learning environments of quantifiable actions, can be ranked and processed (info stored), immediate & vastly exaggerated feedback & graphically designed in idiom of games. 2. Game-based rules structures & interfaces by corps “to manage and control brand-communities and to create value”, attraction of gamification to business and derision it has received (Fuchs 2013). 3. Goal in mind the player works to achieve; systematic or emergent rules; considered a form of play or competition • Critics! (Bogost 2011; Deterding et al. 2011; Fuchs 2014).
  12. 12. “Gamification Is Bullshit” (Ian Bogost) • BUT http://www.epicwinblog.net/2013/10/ can-we-use-game-mechanics-for.html 1. Games inherently fun, vs gamification makes (tries to make) things fun. 2. Games: space, action, movement, verbs. 3. Gamify: actions are tasks duties or work. 4. Can’t directly apply game mechanics to gamification. Inherent game play and discovery goes beyond gamification? University of Trondheim: Renaissance books, hands on alchemy
  13. 13. Games have desirable goals
  14. 14. Roger Caillois: forms of play? challenge modes Engages because you Archaeology Examples Pros/Cons Competition Agon (competition / strategy) Compete against people, long-term decision making Civilization? All those build empire games.. -Means to end +Strategic + Engaging Chance Alea Handle unpredictability, humour Could Spore be an archaeology game? -No causality + Engaging Vertigo Ilinx Mastery of commitment, mental focus, multi-tasking The extreme parkour of Assassin’s creed? -Distracts +Ergodic appreciation + Engaging Mimicry mimesis Observation, control and humour and roleplaying Maybe if Sims 4 was used as anthropological machinima? -Difficult for interfaces +Build empathy + Engaging
  15. 15. Mechanics: evade definitions 1. Action constrained by gameplay-Sicart 2008 2. “..tools, techniques, and widgets for gamifying a website or application.” Badgevillle 3. “constructs of rules or methods designed for interaction with the game state..” Wiki 4. "..any major chunk of gameplay in a video game..” Michael Stout, 5. Fixed and unchanging subsystem-Al Nelson, Quora 6. How you interact with the game dynamic, the generic gameplay methods- Ryan Allen 7. Methods by which the game moves forward, BGDF 8. Describes the game components at level of data representation and algorithms. (Hunicke et al)
  16. 16. 4-5 Types of Mechanics 1. Game progression mechanics (progress the player through the game) 2. Performance mechanics / Rewards and skills mastery mechanics (encourage player to improve + extend their range of skills and judgement) 3. Narrative mechanics (progress /unfold or bring together apparent story threads in relation to game play). Are dramatic mechanics a subset? 4. Behavioural and Role assimilation mechanics (mechanics which become habit through repeated game play, and accustom players to see things in certain ways) 5. Insight and reversal mechanics (disrupt the in-game or real-world expectations + presumptions of the player acquired previously or during game to reveal viewpoint taken for granted, or supplant a view created by game play.
  17. 17. Reversing Game Mechanics • In Space invaders you normally shoot down aliens. • What if you were an alien refugee feeling destruction and tried to land peacefully on earth? • Video: https:// www.youtube.com/watch? v=oSDd_ytw4T4 Games can reverse stereotypes 
 e.g. Space Refugees (Zach Whalen)
  18. 18. Never alone Website http://neveralonegame.com/ Trailer https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lM_80zVzwpI Shapeshifters roam the tundra in many Alaska Native stories. Shapeshifters roam the tundra in many Alaska Native stories. When was the last time a video game told you about a whole other culture? Took you somewhere remote you'd only heard about in passing, and let the people who've lived there speak to you in a generations-old voice? Never Alone does that all-too-rare thing and does it very well.
  19. 19. https://www.polygon.com/2018/9/3/17800798/this-land-is-my-land- preview-native-american-western-stealth-game This Land is My Land takes a different view of the Wild West than Red Dead Redemption This Land is My Land takes a different view of the Wild West than Red Dead Redemption
  20. 20. Some persuasive (?) games • Ian Bogost (2007) defined procedural rhetoric as ‘a practice of using processes persuasively.’ http://bogost.com/books/persuasive_games/ • Description https://ahatter.wordpress.com/serious-video-games/procedurality-and- september-12/ • Game http://www.newsgaming.com/games/index12.htm download windows version
  21. 21. Ian Bogost (2007) defined procedural rhetoric as ‘a practice of using processes persuasively.’ 1. What is success, defined by whom? 2. Too formalist? Better OR just for serious games? 3. How does PR work with agency, freedom of a player to choose? 4. Is Rhetoric empty argument? How does PR differ to Gamification? 5. Traditional rhetoric (speech +writing + oratory) also spatial? Can sequentially experienced art be PR? Karnak, Acropolis? 6. Rhetoric depends on memory, does it work for people with different cognitive load, with different strategies/ game-play, learning modalities? 7. Players often distort or misunderstand the rules! 8. Too similar to gamification?
  22. 22. Design Stage
  23. 23. Designing a Game Not A Walkthrough • What is the goal? Why try to achieve it? • Why is it an engaging challenge? Does it involve competition/mastery, chance, imitation, controlling vertigo/rush of movement/flight? • What is the feedback system, affordances and constraints, rewards and punishments?  • Does it level up/use mechanics to advance? • How does it offer different strategies, options? • What is learnt during or after the experience?
  24. 24. Designing a Prototype 1. How would your game provide an engaging challenge? 2. What is the core game play? 3. How is the player given feedback and how are they rewarded? 4. How would you create game balance, not too hard or too easy (unlike most software, games are easy to learn and hard to master) 5. How will mechanics advance the stages or levels of the game? 6. Does your prototype convey the above simply, effectively, in a fun way? 7. How will your prototype convey the fun AND catch any problems? 8. Will you ask friends or colleagues to test the prototype?
  25. 25. Questions to Ask When Designing 1. What should be experienced & interacted with, as specifically as possible. 2. Why create a specific experience in a game? (Our objectives?) 3. Where will it be played? (Environment, imaginative setting?) 4. How to convey the experience of the site, artefact or model? 1. Systems, methods, or findings leading to engaging learning experiences? 2. Reveal what is unknown or debated (how knowledge is established or contested)? 3. Interpretative systems or to test, demo, pose / test a scholarly argument? 5. When will the player receive suitable feedback?
  26. 26. 6 Steps 1. Determine cultural, historical or archaeological facts and interpretations of the site or model that are significant, hidden, or otherwise appropriate, engaging or transformative to explore. 2. Consider the environment it will be played in, not just the type of audience, together, alone, on a bus, in a lecture theatre, at a museum? 3. Design a game rather than a virtual environment: choose a challenge (Caillois’ modes of game experience or some other theory), and how core game play affects and is affected by the modality of experience. #2 and #3 also give us an idea of a setting and theme. 4. Define the core gameplay, what does the player typically do? Does the game scale, changing in effectiveness and complexity over time? Increasing complexity keeps interest. 5. Develop a reward and punishment system; how do the rewards and punishments interact with the core gameplay and move the game along (i.e. trigger its mechanics)? 6. End meaningfully. What is the end state? How will the game mechanics help us get there? Does reaching the end state create an intentional specific reflection, knowledge development, interpretation, experience or other feeling in the player?
  27. 27. Cultural Significance, Hidden features, uniqueness Place/context Move, Compete, Chance, Mimic Engaging Challenge What does the player typically do? Core game play Changes game state, 
 Feedback to player Mechanics Reward, Punishment, Hierarchical? Free? GOALS Methods; Facts; Tools; Techniques, Strategies Abilities: Spatial coordination; Reflexes; Observations; Memory; timing. What is Learnt?
  28. 28. Cultural Significance, Hidden features, uniqueness Place/context Move, Compete, Chance, Mimic Engaging Challenge What does the player typically do? Core game play Changes game state, 
 Feedback to player Mechanics Reward, Punishment, Hierarchical? Free? GOALS Methods; Facts; Tools; Techniques, Strategies Abilities: Spatial coordination; Reflexes; Observations; Memory; timing. What is Learnt?
  29. 29. Miguel Escobar, Heritage Interfaces 2016, NUS Singapore Consider THEMATIC interfaces Miguel Escobar
  30. 30. You need to challenge and build on each others ideas! 
 (3 groups from 2018)
  31. 31. Draw with movement!
 (3 groups from 2019)
  32. 32. Exercise: Rapid prototyping (groups) https://www.iamnotmypixels.com/how-to-use-crazy-8s-to-generate-design-ideas/ • Gather together your UX supplies, including A4 paper, markers and sticky dots • Give each person an A4 sheet of paper and ask them to draw eight boxes on it. Or, for even more ease, simply use my free downloadable Crazy 8’s template! • Set a timer for 8 minutes and ask the group to sketch 8 quick ideas each in 8 minutes • When the timer pings, everyone stops sketching • At this point (time-dependent) you can either: – Ask people to present their top three ideas to the group – Ask people pick their three favourite ideas. Give them 6 more minutes to sketch out these three ideas further. Then ask them to present them to the group. • Give everyone 2 sticky dots, vote on their favourite ideas out of the whole group – NB UX sketching https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oakzPi2urR8 – https://www.tandemseven.com/experience-design/ux-agile-run-product-design-sprint/ – https://www.uxbooth.com/articles/40-hours-to-prototype/) https://www.iamnotmypixels.com/how-to-use- crazy-8s-to-generate-design-ideas/
  33. 33. Designing interactions.. • Download and read chapter 10 People and Prototypes http:// www.designinginteractions.c om/download plus tribute to Bill Moggridge (optional) https://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=PWkk9sr_GOs • How prototypes helped Apple https:// www.cultofmac.com/ 488008/jony-ive-book- excerpt-iphone/
  34. 34. Examples in Augmented Reality • AR prototype with cartoon https:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=LYFk25OQJ_8 (effects: SPARK AR Studio https:// sparkar.facebook.com/ar-studio/ • AR Creator Cartoon https:// apps.apple.com/au/app/ar-creator- cartoon/id1374011229) • WebXR tutorial https:// codelabs.developers.google.com/ codelabs/ar-with-webxr/#0 Building an augmented reality (AR) application using the WebXR Device API
  35. 35. Twine: to prototype games http://www.sibylmoon.com/twine-as-a- prototyping-tool/ 1. User flows. 2. Code architecture. 3. Branching narratives. 4. Other branching game structures. https:// rmcphersonnarrativedesign.wordpress.c om/2015/03/30/to-live-using-twine-as-a- prototyping-tool/ With sugar cube https:// opensource.com/article/18/2/twine- gaming Explanation, interactive fiction examples https://www.gamasutra.com/blogs/ LizEngland/20150313/238709/ What_is_Twine_For_Developers.php https://www.christytuckerlearning.com/ branching-scenario-prototype-in-twine/ • Venus Meets Venus by kaleidofish, Twine (2014). Free http://ifdb.tads.org/viewgame? id=fbvvkywbvcovbinl • the uncle who works for nintendo by Michael Lutz (2014), Twine. Free http:// ifdb.tads.org/viewgame? id=dwgm9le9d8uh2ibq [https://ztul.itch.io/the-uncle- who-works-for-nintendo] horror Some twine stories
  36. 36. Twine examples • https://www.mcvuk.com/development/a-guide-to-twine (many examples) • https://www.mcvuk.com/development/developer-guide-what-is-twine • http://www.sfwa.org/creating-interactive-fiction-guide-using-twine/ • https://jennaherdman.gitbooks.io/a-digital-humanities-primer-for-english-students/ content/Twine%20Tool%20Tutorial.html • Twine wiki • TwineHub • Free twine hosting http://philome.la/allieisanant/merry-wanderer play free game http:// philome.la/allieisanant/merry-wanderer/play • https://jennaherdman.gitbooks.io/a-digital-humanities-primer-for-english-students/ content/Digital%20Mapping.html Digital Mapping Tool Tutorial • https://jennaherdman.gitbooks.io/a-digital-humanities-primer-for-english-students/ content/Twine%20Tool%20Tutorial.html
  37. 37. Ink/inkle https://www.inklestudios.com/blog/ OR https://www.inklestudios.com/inklewriter/ Play demo the intercept https://www.inklestudios.com/ink/theintercept/ Code https://github.com/inkle/the-intercept/blob/master/Assets/Ink/TheIntercept.ink Heaven’s Vault
  38. 38. Storyboarding https://webdesign.tutsplus.com/articles/storyboarding-vs-prototyping-when-to-use-each-- cms-28707
  39. 39. • “Storyboards and Sketch Prototypes for Rapid Interface Visualization – “Describe the task with a series of images, showing the user, the environment, and the computer.” OR – “Describe the interface with a series of screen images, indicating the user’s representation and the computer’s response.” [“what happens next?”] • Storyboarding vs. Prototyping: When to Use Each • https://Create Storyboards for your web comics – What event or user interaction causes which things to animate – How said things animate – Why the animation improves the interaction • How to storyboard your game tools i.e. Canv Storyboard tips
  40. 40. Storyboard tools • https://www.storyboardthat.com/storyboard-creator free trial • https://schools.pixton.com/schools/overview free trial • https://www.studiobinder.com/blog/top-10-storyboard- software-of-2016-free-storyboard-templates/ not all free nb https://www.shotprofessional.com/
  41. 41. Game card prototypes • https://streamlinedgaming.com/how-to-make-a-board-game-prototype/ (nanDECK for windows) • How to design a board or card game: 10 prototyping tips • http://www.storybench.org/classroom-card-game-teach-digital- storytelling-skills/ (download cards http://storybench.org/docs/ storydeck.pdf) • Card editor https://bitbucket.org/mattsinger/card-editor free (https:// www.npmjs.com/package/card-game-generator) • http://www.CardsAgainstHumanity.com Ask a question from a Black Card, everyone else answers with funniest White Card. […] download PDF here • https://www.patreon.com/paperize (beta) download video or Github • https://boardgamegeek.com/thread/991506/resources-card-game-makers
  42. 42. Using presentation software •Using Powerpoint to prototype your UI: •http://boxesandarrows.com/interactive-prototypes-with- powerpoint/ •https://medium.com/berlin-lean-prototyping/5-tips-to-convert-your- powerpoint-into-prototyping-tool-e02d96728efe Apple keynote •https://www.smashingmagazine.com/2015/08/animating-in- keynote/ •https://keynotopia.com/guides/ •For iPhone https://webdesign.tutsplus.com/tutorials/how-to-demo- an-ios-prototype-in-keynote--cms-22279
  43. 43. 2D games • https://www.pcgamer.com/the- secret-history-of-underdog- game-engine-rpg-maker-and- how-it-got-its-bad-reputation//  • http://superpowers-html5.com/ index.en.html • https://gdevelop-app.com/ • https://www.defold.com/ 2D games http://www.crayonphysics.com http://42bytes.rocks/two http://www.drawastickman.com
  44. 44. Create Guided WebXR landscape tours? https://sketchfab.com/
  45. 45. Scan the World https://www.myminifactory.com/ scantheworld
  46. 46. Virtual Theater District of Pompeii http://publicvr.org/html/pro_pompeii.html OR http://publicvr.org/ PompeiiVRML/ OR http://publicvr.org/images/UnrealPompeiiShots/ index.html
  47. 47. • draw with VR • Export to Unity from TiltVR/HTC Vive-Oculus Rebecca Kerr, Curtin https://rebeccaknotebook.wordpress.com/2018/02/16/interactive- Draw 3D in VR (Tilt brush)
  48. 48. Photogrammetry: free • https://alicevision.github.io/ tutorials at https:// www.blendernation.com/2018/08/26/how-to-photoscan- easy-and-free-meshroom-and-blender/ – Meshlab + Sketchfab+ Regard3D (a free and open source structure-from-motion program.)
  49. 49. Other tools • GIMP • BLENDER • INKSCAPE (a professional vector graphics editor for Windows, Mac OS X and Linux - free and open source) https://inkscape.org/en/ • https://www.pixelmator.com/pro/ new beta version
  50. 50. Prototype with AR https://developers.google.com/ar/ discover/ https://developer.apple.com/augmented- reality/ •http://argonjs.io/ •Magic book AR •Apple ARKit or Google ARCore •Six Top Tools to Build Augmented Reality Mobile Apps
  51. 51. AR VR • https://skarredghost.com/2018/03/03/create-webvr- experience-using-unity/ • https://medium.com/@stew_rtsmith/space-rocks-technical- deep-dive-9bf67fb8a467 • https://www.pcmag.com/feature/362057/how-unity-is- building-its-future-on-ar-vr-and-ai • https://aframe.io/ Make WebVR with HTML for Vive, Rift, Daydream, GearVR, desktop • Design tool for AR and VR • Storyboard AR free but windows/HTC Vive only
  52. 52. SENSORY urban history? Bodily Experiences-smell Indirect Biofed Environments http://www.dead-mens-eyes.org/ Champion and Dekker, Biofeedback and Virtual Environments, IJAC 2011 or. http:// papers.cumincad.org/data/works/att/caadria2011_023.content.pdf The ARtefactKit - Stu Eve
  53. 53. http://thegamedesignroundtable.com/2018/02/23/189- gaming-the-past-with-jeremiah-mccall/ audio
  54. 54. The End? https://medium.com/seed-digital/ how-to-business-model-canvas- explained-ad3676b6fe4a

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