Public Policy Challenges in the Internet Video Age

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As Chief Technology Officer at the Federal Communications Commission, Henning Schulzrinne guides policies that drive technological innovation across the nation. At Columbia University, where Schulzrinne is professor and chair in the Department of Computer Science, he has led extensive information technology and telecommunications research and policy projects. At NYC Media Lab's Research Summit 2013, Henning shared what he has identified as the primary research challenges for multimedia communication transitioning from legacy, voice-only networks into a 4G/5G world.

This presentation was made at NYC Media Lab's Research Summit 2013 on September 19, 2013 at the Joseph Urban Theater at Hearst Tower. The Summit was a half-day deep dive into the Lab, featuring presentations and discussion on technologies and trends that are changing the industry. Corporate members also unveiled the results of NYC Media Lab's first round of seed research projects.

Learn more about NYC Media Lab: www.nycmedialab.org
Follow us on Twitter: @nycmedialab

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Public Policy Challenges in the Internet Video Age

  1. 1. Chief Technology Officer, Federal Communications Commission Professor, Columbia University HENNING SCHULZRINNE
  2. 2. Public Policy Challenges in the Internet Video Age Henning Schulzrinne
  3. 3. Video success à public policy challenges •  Almost all current communication challenges due to video •  Sample for this discussion: –  Spectrum à incentive auctions –  Video + text à IP transition –  Access for all à relay services •  Important, but have received relatively little research attention
  4. 4. SPECTRUM: OLD MEDIA TO NEW MEDIA
  5. 5. Video drives spectrum crunch © 2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public. 2012 and 2017, the highest growth rate of any mobile application category that we forecast. per month crossing the mobile network by 2017, 7.4 exabytes will be due to video (Figure 6) Figure 6. Mobile Video Will Generate Over 66 Percent of Mobile Data Traffic by 2017
  6. 6. 6   ATC U.S. Spectrum Allocation of Key Bands 1850 USGovt 1800 - 2200 MHz 1710 AWS-1 US Govt 1755 1865 1870 1895 1890 1885 1910 1930 1945 1950 1975 1970 1965 1990 2320 2345 23602305 WCSWCS DARS Aeronautical Telemetry 2110 2 GHz MSS 2200 US Govt 2025 2020 1525 1559 Advanced Wireless Services (AWS I) 1626.5 1660.5 Mobile Satellite (MSS) L-Band 1500 - 1800 MHz 700 - 1000 MHz 2300 - 2700 MHz Sprint AWS-2HBlock Aeronautical Telemetry 1610 Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) MSS Big LEO RadioAstronomy/ SpaceResearch/ MeteorologicalAids NationalFixed/Mob 1675 1670 LightSquared, Inmarsat Cellular 900SMR/B/ILT ISM/ Unlicensed/ US Govt/ Amateur Radio/ Location & Monitoring Fixed Microwave Public Safety/ B/ILT 806 824 782 776764 1 MHz Guard Bands A: 757-758/787-788 MHz B: 775-776/805-806 MHz PS: 763-775/793-805 MHz 752 746 794 849 851 Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Cellular 869 894 902 901896 929 928 Paging FixedMicrowave 941 940 932 935 Fixed Microwave Narrowband PCS 740 734 728 722 716 710 704 698 TV TerreStar, DBSD (DISH) 2 GHz MSS AWS-2JBlock TV Aux Broadcast (BAS) Government Satellite And Others 2155 AWS-3 1995 20001915 1920 2500 2506 2512 2518 2524 2530 2536 2542 2548 2554 2560 2566 ITFSD3 2572 2578 2584 2590 2596 2602 2608 2614 2620 2626 2632 2638 2644 2650 2656 2662 2668 2674 2680 2686 2690 ITFSC4 ITFSD4 ITFSC3 ITFSD1 ITFSC2 ITFSD2 ITFSC1 ITFSB3 ITFSA4 ITFSB4 ITFSA3 ITFSB1 ITFSA2 ITFSB2 ITFSA1 MMDSH3 ITFSG4 RChannel ITFSG3 ITFSG2 ITFSG1 MMDSH2 MMDSH1 MMDSE1 MMDSF1 MMDSE2 MMDSF2 MMDSE3 MMDSF3 MMDSE4 MMDSF4 EBSB4 EBSC4 EBSD4 EBSA4 EBSG4 BRSF4 BRSE4 KGuard JGuard BRS2 BRSE1 BRSE2 BRSE3 BRSF1 BRSF2 BRSF3 BRSH1 BRSH2 BRSH3 EBSG1 EBSG2 EBSG3 EBSD1 EBSD2 EBSD3 EBSC1 EBSC2 EBSC3 EBSB1 EBSB2 EBSB3 EBSA1 EBSA2 EBSA3 BRS1 2496 2502 2507.5 2513 2518.5 2524 2529.5 2535 2540.5 2546 2551.5 2557 2562.5 2568 2572 2578 2584 2590 2596 2602 2608 2614 2618 2624 2629.5 2635 2640.5 2646 2651.5 2657 2662.5 2668 2673.5 2679 2684.5 2690 Fixed - Satellite / Radio Astronomy / Space Research Old Allocation New Allocation 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 TV Channels Lower 700 MHz Band Upper 700 MHz Band A AB BC CD E C C 758 770 788 800 D DPublic Safety Public Safety Old Allocation New Allocation Mobile Satellite (MSS) L-Band LightSquared, Inmarsat Globalstar Iridium OPCorp Meteorological Aids/ Meteorological- Satellite Uplink Band Downlink Band TDD Band 1720 1730 1745 A B BA A B BA A B C D E F ISM/ MSS Big LEO Globalstar 2483.5 2495 2487.5 2008 AWS-1 A B C D E F TerreStar, DBSD (DISH) 21752120 2130 2145 Broadband PCS A B CD E F ATCATC Broadband PCS B CE FDA AWS-2HBlock Unlicensed PCS ISM/ Unlicensed AWS-2JBlock AA B BDC ATC Sirius Radio Legend Amateur Radio ATC ATC Public Safety/ B/ILT 900SMR/B/ILT IEEE Standard Band Designato HF 3-30 MHz VHF 30-300 MHz UHF 300-1000 MHz L band 1-2 GHz S band 2-4 GHz C band 4-8 GHz X band 8-12 GHz Ku band 12-18 GHz K band 18-27 GHZ Ka band 27-40 GHz V band 40-75 GHz W band 75-110 GHz mm wave 110-300 GHz 817 Sprint 862 Sprint Source: FCC, Sprint and Stifel Nicolaus Research Sprint Stifel Nicolaus does and seeks to do business with companies covered in its research reports. As a result, investors should be aware that the firm may have a conflict of interest that could affect the objectivity of this report. Investors should consider this report as only a single factor in making their investment decision. All relevant disclosures and certifications appear on pages 2-3 of this report. July 14, 201
  7. 7. What are Spectrum Incentive Auctions? •  Incentive auctions are a voluntary, market-based means of repurposing spectrum by encouraging licensees to voluntarily relinquish spectrum usage rights in exchange for a share of the proceeds from an auction of new licenses to use the repurposed spectrum. •  Currently: •  TV in VHF (54-88 MHz, 174-216 MHz) & UHF (476-698 MHz) à 298 MHz •  Cellular in 700 MHz, 800 MHz, 1.7 GHz, 2.1 GHz, 2.5 GHz à ~500 MHz •  Useful cellular bands: 500 MHz to 3 GHz (for now) •  Unlicensed data use mainly in 2.4, 5.8, 60 GHz
  8. 8. Broadcast Incentive Auction: Objectives • Create market-based process for repurposing maximum amount of UHF spectrum for flexible use Relieve Spectrum Crunch • Forward auction proceeds must exceed reverse auction payments • Cover repacking reimbursement and admin costs • Other congressional objectives (FirstNet, deficit reduction) Statutory Fiscal Objectives • Provide unique business opportunity for participating broadcasters • Preserve broadcast service for nonparticipating broadcasters Provide for a Healthy Broadcast Industry • Availability of low-band spectrum for a range of mobile broadband providers and a contiguous unlicensed band • Launchpad for advanced wireless networks Promote Innovation and a Vibrant Mobile Market
  9. 9. Broadcast Incentive Auction: Key Components Reverse Auction Forward Auction Broadcasters •  Offer to relinquish spectrum usage rights Mobile Broadband Providers •  Offer to purchase spectrum licenses Integration 1   2   3   4   5   6   7     1.  Broadcaster Options 2.  Reverse Auction Design 3.  Repacking of Broadcast Stations 4.  Forward Auction Design 5.  600 MHz Band Plan 6.  Integration of Forward and Reverse Auctions 7.  Unlicensed Use/TV Whitespaces
  10. 10. Incentive Auction Decision Tree Reverse   Auc1on   Forward   Auc1on   Maximum   Opening  Bids   Minimum   Opening  Bids   Ini1al   spectrum  clearing  target   (#  channels)   No   Yes   Close Auction Reduce  spectrum   clearing  target,   con1nue  auc1ons   Ascending  clock  stopping  rule:  Stops   for  a  license  category  when  there  is   no  excess  demand  for  that  category.   (The  stage  ends  when  all  clocks  have   stopped.)     Reverse  auc1on:  Winning  bidders  paid   last  offer  they  accepted,  channels   assigned  to  others   Forward  auc1on:  Winning  bidders  go   to    assignment  stage  to  be  assigned   specific  frequencies   Closing Rule Met? Descending  clock  stopping  rule:  Stops  for  a   sta1on  when  it  either  has  exited  or  must  be   cleared  to  achieve  the  clearing  target.  (The   stage  ends  when  all  clocks  have  stopped.  
  11. 11. 11   Participate and Stay on the Air: Channel- Sharing •  Stations share single transmitter and antenna –  Pairing through private negotiations –  Capital infusion from contribution of spectrum –  OpEx and CapEx savings •  Each station is licensed portion of 6- megahertz channel –  Two stations on a channel share 19.4 Mbps –  Can allocate bandwidth dynamically •  Call letters, channel guide number (PSIP), other indicia of station identity remain •  Includes all current licensee rights (e.g., must carry) Current: 12 MHz for Broadcasting 6 MHz Channel 17 6 MHz WXXX 21 WYYY Channel 22 6 MHz Potential: 6 MHz for Broadcasting 6 MHz for Auction
  12. 12. Repacking •  FCC is looking to recover contiguous blocks of spectrum (contiguous channels) on a nationwide or market-wide basis •  Broadcast service will continue after the auction: •  Stations not participating •  Stations not purchased in the auction •  Stations remaining on the air will be repacked into channels remaining for TV use
  13. 13. Effect of Repacking 21 50 Potential for service loss from co-channel interference 21 Service POP A (New) Station on Ch 50 receives new allotment on Ch 21 Channel Change Service Impacts Service POP A (Old) Service POP B (Old) Interference (POP C) New interference must not reduce population coverage by more than 0.5% 21 Service POP B (New)
  14. 14. 2   4   5   7   9   3   6   8   10   Non-­‐   Broadcast   spectrum   Non-­‐   Broadcast   spectrum   New York City Full Power TV Stations Philadelphia Full Power TV Stations Low Power TV White Space White Space White Space White Space Etc. Etc. •  TV channels are “allotted” to cities to serve the local area •  Other licensed and unlicensed services are also in TV bands •  “White Spaces” are the channels that are “unused” at any given location by licensed devices Low Power TV Only for illustrative purposes Wireless Microphones Wireless Microphones TV white spaces
  15. 15. THE IP TRANSITION
  16. 16. The three transitions From   to   mo1va1on   issues   Copper   à fiber   capacity   maintenance  cost   compe@@on  (“unbundled   network  elements”)   Wired   à wireless   mobility   cost  in  rural  areas   capacity   quality   Circuits   à packets  (IP)   flexibility   cost  per  bit   line  power   Neustar  May  2013   16   VoIP,  VoLTE  
  17. 17. Neustar  May  2013   17   When? TDM  switching   (core)   VoIP   access   fixed  4G   2013   no  single  transi@on  date!   numbering   E.164   human-­‐visible   hidden   “wireless  network  is  99%  wired”  
  18. 18. •  User behavior changes –  more text, less voice –  video conferencing for personal & business use (telepresence) –  landline à mobile –  OTT VoIP (for international calls) •  Core network technology changes –  IMS –  SIP trunking •  Access and end system changes –  large PBX all VoIP –  voice as app –  WebRTC 18   The transition of the PSTN Neustar  May  2013  
  19. 19. 19   Available access speeds 100  Mb/s+   20  Mb/s   5  Mb/s   2  Mb/s   1  Mb/s   18%   80%   95%   97%  100%  avg.  sustained   throughput   of  households   marginal   VOIP   10  Gb/s   common  now  –  future  capability   1  Gb/s   10  Mb/s   99%  by  2023?  Neustar  May  2013  
  20. 20. 20   Interstate switched access minutes 5 - 2 Chart 5.1 Interstate Switched Access Minutes of Use for Incumbent Local Exchange Carriers (in Billions) 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Neustar  May  2013  
  21. 21. Switches are ageing 1979   Nortel  DMS-­‐100   hcp://www.phworld.org/switch/ntess.htm   Neustar  May  2013   21  
  22. 22. Challenges & Opportunities Challenges •  Legacy circuit-switched services –  credit card readers –  TTYs –  FAA air traffic control systems •  Consumer protections •  Access competition (copper loops) •  Voice quality •  Network power (48V) Opportunities •  Multimedia services –  including for 911 •  Advanced services –  e.g., robocall filtering •  Lower cost operations •  More service competition
  23. 23. COMMUNICATION FOR ALL: VRS
  24. 24. Relay services for deaf & HoH •  VRS used by about 250,000 in US •  Provided at no cost to users audio   real-­‐1me  text   video   audio   speech-­‐to-­‐speech   cap@oned   telephone   VRS  (ASL)   real-­‐@me  text   TRS,  iTRS   TTY   video   VRS   VRS  direct  calls   711  
  25. 25. Challenges •  VRS as precursor of general consumer technology –  10-digit phone numbers, with video, text and audio •  Proprietary technology –  à transition to standards-based systems •  High cost: ~$5/minute for VRS –  à direct video communication for customer service calls? –  à automating speech-to-text and ASL-to-text? •  Fragmented: VRS, TRS, iTRS, captioned , STS, … –  à integrated video communication platform in progress
  26. 26. Conclusion •  Fundamental transition –  VRS as first interoperable video conferencing service using telephone numbers •  Other challenges needing research attention: –  Indoor location determination for 9-1-1 –  Resiliency for communication networks –  Securing key communication identifiers –  Automated fault diagnosis for consumers –  Cheaper digging for fiber cables
  27. 27. LEARN MORE ABOUT NYC MEDIA LAB: www.nycmedialab.org @nycmedialab

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