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DPF's Reduce GHG Emissions


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DPF's Reduce GHG Emissions

  1. 1. Summary of the Benefits of Using Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF) to Reduce the Effect of Green House Gas (GHG) Emissions
  2. 2. NxtGen Emission Controls Inc. Corporate Headquarters Manufacturing & Application & Technology Center Engineering Center 220-13155 Delf Place 50453 West Pontiac Trail Richmond, British Columbia Wixom, Michigan 48393 Canada V6V 2A2 USA Tel 604 688 7841 Tel 248 669 4900 Fax 604 688 8698 Fax 248 669 4901
  3. 3. Acknowledgements The report was put out in 2009 by senior scientist, Bruce Hill, PhD, at the clean air task force (CATF).
  4. 4. Global Warming – Green House Gases (GHG) • Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a major GHG pollutant and is commonly used as a metric to demonstrate the GHG effect of other pollutants (CO2 equivalency) • Two fundamental approaches to modeling CO2 equivalency • Global warming potential (GWP) • Global temperature change potential (GTP) • Both are often based on short term or “pulse” emissions, the impacts of which have typically been modeled globally (integrated) over 20, 50 or 100 year periods (e.g., GWP20) •There is a need to measure effects of sustained emissions for applications like a DPF in operation for a decade (data on sustained emissions is scarce)
  5. 5. Global Warming Potential (GWP) -Adopted as part of the Kyoto protocol -Established to create a common CO2-equivalent scale for comparing the potential effect of different GHG in meeting each country’s reduction commitments (GWP of CO2 = 1 unit of radiative force) -GWP is the most widely accepted CO2 equivalent metric presently including policy circles Global Temperature Potential (GTP) -A temperature change (easily understandable compared to radiative forcing in GWP) -Potentially a more practical approach -Cannot find much data in literature on sustained emissions Results in the report are based on GTP sustained emissions which are similar in magnitude to the “best estimate” GWP used
  6. 6. Black carbon is a light absorptive heat sink • PM = black carbon (soot), organic carbon (SOF) and some sulfate • SOF is reflective (cools) – taken into account for calculations • Sulfate = reflective (cools) helps nucleate clouds which are reflective (very small contribution with ULSD) GWP20 of soot = 2200 GWP20 of PM ~1590 CO2 equivalency GWP20 of SOF = (-250) (assuming SOF/soot fraction of 1/3) • Soot absorbs heat and radiates heat back to the atmosphere and raises air temp •Soot deposits darken snow and ice surfaces, absorbing heat and accelerates spring melting
  7. 7. CARB Level 3 DPFs can + capture as high as 99% of soot (this study uses a conservative 90% efficiency) + DPF = 16.5% net CO2 equivalent reductions + Retrofitting six class 8 + trucks with Pre-2007 no DPF DPFs + Eliminates GWP of 1 class 8 truck without a DPF (GWP = combined total CO2 and black + carbon pollution)
  8. 8. The break even fuel penalty of a DPF system for GWP20 is 22% (GWP100 = 7%) Fuel penalty is due to: -Back pressure -exotherm generation (active) This study uses a conservative estimate of 2% FP -For a class 8 truck, the net CO2 benefit from a DPF per gallon of fuel = 2080g CO2eq/gallon diesel fuel -That is at a 2% FP, a net 16.5% reduction in CO2 equivalent emissions to the atmosphere (net 15% for 3.5% FP)
  9. 9. Summary of findings from the CATF study