• The process or multiplying or
increasing the number or plants of
the same species and at the same
time perpetuating their desirable
To retain the desirable characteristic
of mother plants
To rapidly increase the number of
To shorten the bearing age of plants.
To prevent the species from being
To produce superior strains and
disease resistant plants
Methods of Propagation
• Sexual Propagation
• Asexual Propagation
The propagation or reproducing of plants
Pollen is transferred from the anther to the
Fertilization occurs and seeds are
• In some fruit plants like papaya, this is the
most popular method of propagation.
• Seed propagated rootstocks are hardy and
develop better root system.
• Viruses don’t transmit through seeds, thus
mostly the seedlings are free from virus
• Occurrence of polyembryony (more than
one embryo in seed) in citrus and mango
leads to the development of uniform
seedlings as in asexual method.
A cotyledon is part of the embryo within the
seed of a plant. Often when the seed
germinates or begins to grow, the cotyledon
may become the first leaves of the seedling.
The outer layer and the protective covering
of a seed.
Radicle is the first part of a seedling to
emerge from the seed during the process of
germination. The radicle is the
embryonic root of the plant, and grows
downward in the soil.
The epicotyl is the embryonic shoot above
the cotyledons. In most plants the epicotyl
will eventually develop into the leaves of the
The hypocotyl (short for "hypocotyledonous
stem", meaning "below seed leaf") is the
stem of a germinating seedling, found below
the cotyledons (seed leaves) and above
the radicle (root)
Planting of seeds
• Planting depth depends on the size of the
• The larger the seed, the deeper it is
• Small seeds should be watered by
• Germination rate is the % that sprout.
– Example: 75 out of 100 = 75%
• Rates affected by….
– Seed viability.
– Type of plant.
– Quality of seed.
• -is an estimate of the viability of a
population of seeds. The equation to
calculate germination percentage is: GP =
seeds germinated/total seeds x 100.
56 is the number of seeds that is germinated
100 is the total number of seeds that is
• In this method of propagation the plants
are obtained from a vegetative portion of
the mother plant instead of seeds.
• In some fruit plants like banana, which do
not bear seeds, this is the only method of
• The plants are generally true-to-type,
uniform in growth, yielding capacity and
• Have short juvenile phase, thus come into
bearing earlier than seedling plants.
• Plants have restricted growth, thus cultural
practices and harvesting are easy.
Methods of Asexual
• There are different methods, which can be
used for commercial multiplication of
various fruit plants, these includes:
• Budding and;
• Detaching portion of the selected motherplant for the
purpose of producing new plants
• The three main types of cuttings are….
• The taking of a
piece of stem to
• The use of leaves
and sections of
leaves to reproduce
• Done from
• Veins must be cut!!!
• The use of roots
• Should be spaced
3 inches apart in
the rooting area.
• The process of including branch and twig to
produce roots while still attached to the parent
• The rooting of plant parts while they are still
attached to the “parent” plant.
• The types are….
– Air Layering.
– Trench Layering.
– Mound Layering.
• Also called Chinese
• Area of plant is
surrounded by a
medium that is
• Mother plant is bent
to the ground and
• Plants form at each
node on covered
• Rooted plant is cut off at
the soil level.
• As the season
progresses, soil is added
to cover the growing
• After 1 year, the shoots
are rooted and removed
from the parent plant.
• Joining separate plant parts together so that
they form a union and grow together to make
– Piece of plant at the top
of the graft.
– The piece of the plant at the
root or bottom of the graft.
• Scion & rootstock are the same size:
– Whip & tongue