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Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS),a condition in humans in which progressive failure of the immune system allows life-threatening opportunistic infections and cancers to thrive.

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  1. 1. HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus AIDS Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
  2. 2. ABOUT THE VIRUS Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a  lentivirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS),a condition in humans in which progressive failure of the immune system allows life-threatening opportunistic infections and cancers to thrive.
  3. 3. Over time, HIV can damage the immune system to such a degree that infections may begin to occur as a result of a weakened immune system. Eventually, one may acquire various illnesses due to the damage done by the virus. When this happens this is called AIDS or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.
  4. 4. What is the difference between HIV and AIDS? HIV is the virus which attacks the T-cells in the immune system. AIDS is the syndrome which appears in advanced stages of HIV infection. HIV is a virus. AIDS is a medical condition.
  5. 5. National Red Cross HIV presents the world with many challenges. Humanitarian  organizations have worked hard in the fight against HIV, making up for a lack of action in the earlier years of the epidemic. However, there is far more work to be done in partnership with affected communities and governments round the world.National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies have joined together in a Global Alliance on HIV. Their resolution is to do more and to do it better in their ollective fight against this epidemic.The IFRC is committed to doubling the reach of its HIV programme in prevention, treatment, care and support - and in tackling stigma and discrimination.
  6. 6. HIV history Genetic research indicates that HIV originated in  west central Africa during the early twentieth century. AIDS was first recognized by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in 1981 and its cause HIV infection was identified in the early part of the decade. Since its discovery, AIDS has caused an estimated 36 million deaths . As of 2012, approximately 35.3 million people are living with HIV globally. AIDS is considered a pandemic a disease outbreak which is present over a large area and is actively spreading . HIV/AIDS has had a great impact on society, both as an illness and as a source of discrimination. The disease also has significant economic impacts. It has attracted international medical and political attention as well as large-scale funding since it was identified in the 1980s.
  7. 7. Two types of HIV exist: HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is more virulent, is more easily transmitted and is the cause of the vast majority of HIV infections globally. The pandemic strain of HIV-1 is closely related to a virus found in the chimpanzees of the subspecies Pan troglodytes troglodytes, which lives in the forests of the Central African nations of Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Republic of Congo , and Central African Republic. HIV-2 is less transmittable and is largely confined to West Africa , along with its closest relative, a virus of the sooty mangabey (Cercocebus atys atys), an Old World monkey inhabiting southern Senegal, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, and western Ivory Coas.
  8. 8. How is HIV transmitted? HIV is found in the following body luids; semen, blood, vaginal fluids and breast milk.Infection can only occur when body fluids from an infected person enter the blood stream of another person. Worldwide, unprotected sex between men and women is the main route of HIV transmission. HIV can be transmitted by: Unprotected sex (sex without a condom) Sharing needles and syringes Unsterile body piercing or tattooing Mother to child Blood transfusion
  9. 9. HIV cannot be transmitted by: Coughing  Hugging  Kissing  Sneezing  Spitting  Crying  Sharing Cutlery and crockery  Bed Linen  Toilets or Showers  Mosquitoes  Or through any form of casual contact 
  10. 10. Asymptomatic HIV infection In many cases, after the initial symptoms disappear, there will not be any further symptoms for many years. During this time, the virus carries on developing and damages the immune system. This process can take up to 10 years. The infected person will experience no symptoms, feel well and appear healthy.latestage HIV infection If left untreated, HIV weakens the ability to fight infection. The person becomes vulnerable to serious illnesses. This stage of infection is known as AIDS.
  11. 11. Primary HIV infection: May be either asymptomatic or associated with acute retroviral syndrome. Stage I: HIV infection is asymptomatic with a CD4+ T cell count (also known as CD4 count) greater than 500 per microlitre (µl or cubic mm) of blood. May include generalized lymph node enlargement. Stage II: Mild symptoms which may include minor mucocutaneous manifestations and recurrent upper respiratory tract infections. A CD4 count of less than 500/µl. Stage III: Advanced symptoms which may include unexplained chronic diarrhea for longer than a month, severe bacterial infections including tuberculosis of the lung, and a CD4 count of less than 350/µl. Stage IV or AIDS: severe symptoms which include toxoplasmosis of the brain, candidiasis of the esophagus, trachea, bronchi or lungs and Kaposi's sarcoma. A CD4 count of less than 200/µl.
  12. 12. Stages:
  13. 13. Late-stage HIV infection If left untreated, HIV weakens the ability to fight infection. The person becomes vulnerable to serious illnesses. This stage of infection is known as AIDS.
  14. 14. Signs and Symptoms of HIV/AIDS Symptoms of early HIV infection may include: fever chills joint pain muscle ache sore throat sweats (particularly at night) enlarged glands a red rash tiredness weakness weight loss
  15. 15. Signs and symptoms of late-stage HIV infection may include: blurred vision  diarrhea, which is usually persistent or chronic dry cough  fever of above 37C (100F) lasting for weeks night sweats  permanent tiredness  shortness of breath  swollen glands lasting for weeks  weight loss  white spots on the tongue or mouth   
  16. 16. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHLs) The non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs) are diverse  group of blood cancers that include any kind of lymphoma except Hodgkin's lymphomas .Types of NHL vary significantly in their severity, from indolent to very aggressive. Kaposi sarcoma (KS) Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is a tumor caused by human herpesvirus 8 (HHV 8, also known as Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, KSHV).
  17. 17. Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) or  pneumocystosis is a form of penumonia, caused by the yeast-like fungus (which had previously been erroneously classified as a protozoan) pneumocystis jirovecii.
  18. 18. Treatments There's no cure for HIV/AIDS, but a variety of  drugs can be used in combination to control the virus. Each of the classes of anti-HIV drugs blocks the virus in different ways. It's best to combine at least three drugs from two different classes to avoid creating strains of HIV that are immune to single drugs. The classes of antiHIV drugs include:
  19. 19. What are the treatment options for HIV/AIDS? Earlier HIV antiretroviral treatment is crucial - it improves quality of life, extends life expectancy and reduces the risk of transmission, according to the World Health Organization's ssued in June 2013. new guidelines When an HIV-positive adult's CD4 cell count is 500 cells/mm3 or lower they should start treatment immediately. Currently, there is no vaccine or cure for HIV/AIDS. But treatments have evolved which are much more efficacious they can improve patients' general health and quality of life If an individual believes they have been exposed to the virus within the last 72 hours (three days), anti-HIV medication, called PEP (post-exposure prophylaxis) may stop infection. The treatment should be taken as soon as possible after contact with the virus. PEP is a very demanding treatment lasting four weeks. It is also associated with unpleasant side effects (diarrhea, malaise, nausea, weakness and fatigue).considerably.
  20. 20. HIV/AIDS and diarrhea - HIV-positive patients, and those with AIDS tend to suffer from diarrhea. It is the main reason people go off their medications, or switch to other antiretroviral therapies prematurely. On January 2nd 2013, the US Food and Drug Administration approved Fulyzaq (crofelemer 125 mg delayed-release tablets), the first antidiarrheal medication for patients with HIV/AIDS. Fulyzaq was created specifically for patients taking antiretroviral therapy for HIV/AIDS. Antifungal cream Ciclopirox eradicates HIV - researchers at the Rutgers New Jersey Medical School reported in the journal PLoS ONE that Ciclopirox, a widely used antifungal cream, as well as Deferiprone, a medication used to remove excess iron from the body, eradicate HIV in cultured cells. They added that when treatment stops, the virus does not return. Complementary or alternative medicine. Although widely used, alternative/complementary medications, such has herbal ones, have not been proven to be effective or ineffective. According to some limited studies, mineral or vitamin supplements may provide some benefits. Patients are urged to discuss these options with their doctors.
  21. 21. BY: Shaee Sh. Abdulla and my group … Student at sulaymaniyah university in kurdistan-iraq university of sulaymaniyah /faculty of agricultural sciences soil and water Department Thanks for whatching
  22. 22. THE END