Beemer

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  • For each triangle circled, I discussed the site’s specifics related to the potential hypotheses on why fish are not present.
  • For each triangle circled, I discussed the site’s specifics related to the potential hypotheses on why fish are not present.
  • Beemer

    1. 1. Juvenile Chinook salmon origin and non-natal useJuvenile Chinook salmon origin and non-natal use of small streams in the Whidbey Basinof small streams in the Whidbey Basin November 2010November 2010 Eric M. Beamer, Rich Henderson, and Karen Wolf,Eric M. Beamer, Rich Henderson, and Karen Wolf, Skagit River System CooperativeSkagit River System Cooperative Todd Zackey and Derek Marks, Tulalip TribesTodd Zackey and Derek Marks, Tulalip Tribes David Teel, NOAA FisheriesDavid Teel, NOAA Fisheries
    2. 2. What is meant by “non-natal” estuary?What is meant by “non-natal” estuary?  Skagit RiverSkagit River (up to 7 million wild juvenile Chinook(up to 7 million wild juvenile Chinook per year)per year)  Stillaguamish RiverStillaguamish River (up to 400,000 wild juvenile Chinook(up to 400,000 wild juvenile Chinook per year)per year)  Snohomish RiverSnohomish River (usually < 1 million wild juvenile(usually < 1 million wild juvenile Chinook per year)Chinook per year)
    3. 3. Background:Background: How did we get here?How did we get here?
    4. 4. Lone Tree Point, northern Skagit BayLone Tree Point, northern Skagit Bay Sediment Source Beach Accretion Beaches Accretion Beach Lagoon Creek Bedrock Drowned Stream Channel Transport Zone Tidal Channels Transport Zone
    5. 5. Conclusions from the Skagit Bay studyConclusions from the Skagit Bay study  Wild Chinook fry are accumulating in pocket estuary habitatWild Chinook fry are accumulating in pocket estuary habitat (from February through May, over 20 times more wild Chinook(from February through May, over 20 times more wild Chinook salmon occupy pocket estuary habitat than adjacent nearshoresalmon occupy pocket estuary habitat than adjacent nearshore areas)areas)  Pocket estuaries provide a faster growing environment thanPocket estuaries provide a faster growing environment than adjacent nearshore or offshore areas (pocket estuary fish areadjacent nearshore or offshore areas (pocket estuary fish are larger; water temperatures warm earlier; detritus retention islarger; water temperatures warm earlier; detritus retention is higher)higher)  Pocket estuaries are a safer environment for fry sized ChinookPocket estuaries are a safer environment for fry sized Chinook salmon than adjacent nearshore or offshore waters (very fewsalmon than adjacent nearshore or offshore waters (very few predatory fish in pocket estuaries are able to prey on wildpredatory fish in pocket estuaries are able to prey on wild Chinook salmon – the predators are too small)Chinook salmon – the predators are too small) From: Beamer, EM, A McBride, R Henderson, and K Wolf. 2003. The importance of non-natal pocket estuaries in Skagit Bay to wild Chinook salmon: an emerging priority for restoration. Skagit River System Cooperative, LaConner, WA. Available at www.skagitcoop.org.
    6. 6. Restoration at Lone Tree Lagoon and CreekRestoration at Lone Tree Lagoon and Creek
    7. 7. Change in fish distributionChange in fish distribution within Lone Tree Creekwithin Lone Tree Creek after restorationafter restoration
    8. 8. Timing and abundanceTiming and abundance  Early arriving,Early arriving, peaking in Aprilpeaking in April  Leaving by June orLeaving by June or JulyJuly  Different fish densityDifferent fish density by year (populationby year (population size and timing ofsize and timing of Skagit River flows)Skagit River flows) Lone Tree Creek Brood Year 2006, Juvenile Migration Year 2007 = 2.2 million 0.0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul AverageChinookperminuteofshocking Reach 2 Reach 3 Lone Tree Creek Brood Year 2007, Juvenile Migration Year 2008 = 1.7 million 0.0 0.0 0.0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul AverageChinookperminuteofshocking Reach 2 Reach 3
    9. 9. Conclusions from Lone Tree andConclusions from Lone Tree and next stepsnext steps  Findings from the Lone Tree experience:Findings from the Lone Tree experience:  Juvenile Chinook are consistently present in the creek.Juvenile Chinook are consistently present in the creek.  Juvenile Chinook timing is similar to pocket estuaries (early in the year).Juvenile Chinook timing is similar to pocket estuaries (early in the year).  The fish appear to be rearing (staying in the creek for days to weeks).The fish appear to be rearing (staying in the creek for days to weeks).  After restoration, more Chinook moved into the creek suggestingAfter restoration, more Chinook moved into the creek suggesting preference for low salinity or freshwater habitat, at least early in the year.preference for low salinity or freshwater habitat, at least early in the year.  Next steps/questions:Next steps/questions:  Are the same patterns true for other small streams within the WhidbeyAre the same patterns true for other small streams within the Whidbey Basin?Basin?  What is the residence and growth of individual Chinook salmon?What is the residence and growth of individual Chinook salmon?  Are small streams draining directly into non-natal estuaries or theAre small streams draining directly into non-natal estuaries or the nearshore important for Skagit (and Puget Sound) Chinook recovery?nearshore important for Skagit (and Puget Sound) Chinook recovery?
    10. 10. Results to date from “next steps”Results to date from “next steps”  Juvenile Chinook salmon:Juvenile Chinook salmon:  Patterns of presencePatterns of presence  Origin of juvenile Chinook where presentOrigin of juvenile Chinook where present  Residence period and growth within streamsResidence period and growth within streams
    11. 11. Presence ofPresence of juvenile Chinookjuvenile Chinook in small streamsin small streams  12 of 18 streams shocked had12 of 18 streams shocked had juvenile Chinook in 2009 andjuvenile Chinook in 2009 and 2010 (so far)2010 (so far)  Why not presence in some areas?Why not presence in some areas? Hypotheses:Hypotheses:  Watershed size (~300 acre orWatershed size (~300 acre or > for Chinook presence)> for Chinook presence)  Pathways to habitatPathways to habitat  locallocal -within lagoons or-within lagoons or tidal estuaries, SRTs, Diketidal estuaries, SRTs, Dike breachbreach  landscapelandscape – distance from– distance from source Chinook populationssource Chinook populations
    12. 12. What theseWhat these streams lookstreams look like?like?  Strawberry Pt CreekStrawberry Pt Creek  1-2 meters bankfull width1-2 meters bankfull width  Length used by Chinook fryLength used by Chinook fry = ~50 meters= ~50 meters  Pool depths up to 0.35Pool depths up to 0.35 metersmeters
    13. 13. View from mouthView from mouth
    14. 14. Just upstreamJust upstream of bridgeof bridge
    15. 15. The upstream Chinook salmon fryThe upstream Chinook salmon fry barrier (0.37 meter drop)barrier (0.37 meter drop)
    16. 16. Stawberry Creek 42 fish 2.4% 81.0% 4.8% 11.9% SneeOosh Creek 14 fish 7.1% 78.6% 7.1% 7.1% Lone Tree Creek 220 fish 3.2% 75.0% 5.5% 14.5% 1.8% Wild juvenile Chinook Origin 4 . 3 % 1 0 . 0 % 1 0 . 0 % 4 . 3 % 1 0 . 0 % 1 0 . 0 % 5 9 . 6 % 8 . 5 % 2 3 . 4 % Canada Washington Coast Strait of Juan de Fuca South Sound Falls / Hood Canal South Sound Springs Nooksack Springs Skagit Skykomish Stillaguamish
    17. 17. Orr (Zook) Creek 19 fish 31.6% 36.8% 10.5% 21.1% Merril & Ring Creeks 12 fish 25.0% 16.7% 33.3% 25.0% Kristoferson Creek 22 fish 4.5% 59.1%4.5% 31.8% Wild juvenile Chinook Origin 4.3% 10.0% 10.0% 4.3% 10.0% 10.0% 59.6% 8.5% 23.4% Canada Washington Coast Strait of Juan de Fuca South Sound Falls / Hood Canal South Sound Springs Nooksack Springs Skagit Skykomish Stillaguamish
    18. 18. Residence and growth of individualResidence and growth of individual Chinook salmonChinook salmon  Opportunistic results from 2009Opportunistic results from 2009  Some fish appear to rear in the same streams for monthsSome fish appear to rear in the same streams for months  Two fish lived in one creek for 112 days eachTwo fish lived in one creek for 112 days each  Growth rates were:Growth rates were:  0.25 mm/day in Feb through April0.25 mm/day in Feb through April  0.43 mm/day in May0.43 mm/day in May  0.57 mm/day in June0.57 mm/day in June  Collecting data in 2010Collecting data in 2010  High recapture rate suggest high degree of residencyHigh recapture rate suggest high degree of residency  DNA analysis on individuals for growth, movement,DNA analysis on individuals for growth, movement, residencyresidency
    19. 19. So what?So what?  Are we protecting small streams and theirAre we protecting small streams and their watersheds as Chinook habitat?watersheds as Chinook habitat?  They are easy to man handle (disturb)They are easy to man handle (disturb)  Regulations adequate?Regulations adequate?  Are our tools adequate (mapping)?Are our tools adequate (mapping)?

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