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Career skills

Nilesh Thorat
Nilesh Thorat
Nilesh ThoratAsst.Professor at Indira Institute of Pharmacy,Sadavali (Devrukh) Dist-Ratnagiri 415804

Communication & Soft Skill Development,F. Y. B. Pharm. (Sem-I) SPPU (Pune University)

Career skills

1 of 39
CAREER SKILLLS
Presented by :Mr. N.V.Thorat
CAREER SKILLLS
Interview Skills
Applying for jobs
Cover letters
Resume & Effective profiling
Group discussion
Letter writing
e-mail writing
e-mail etiquettes
Career Skills
Interview Skills
• There are some easy steps that you can take that will increase your chances of
success at interviews.
• The following suggestion will help you prepare for an interview:
Self-evaluation It is important for you to think about yourself and your past
experiences in order to be ready to articulate what you have to offer an
employer.
• Consider the following topics:
How your present and past experience relate to the position
Your current and future career goals
What skills and expertise you have to offer
The skills that you would like to develop or improve
Location, salary, and lifestyle priorities
Kinds of people and environments you prefer
Past experiences you want to highlight such as volunteer work, hobbies,
travel.
Career Skills
Before the Interview
• Research the Company - A company's website is an excellent place to begin. It
usually gives you information on whether it is international or domestic, what its
revenues are, how many locations it has, and the nature of its major products. Most
companies are very proud of their websites. Don't be surprised if one of the first
questions interviewers ask when you arrive is, "Have you have had a chance to look
at our website?" Practice interviews - Write down a list of possible questions that you
think may be asked, then have a friend act as an interviewer and direct them to you
in a practice interview situation. Don't stop until you feel comfortable answering each
question. Practicing beforehand will make you feel more comfortable and relaxed
during the interview.
• Dress Professionally - Contact the HR Manager of the company or your recruiter, and
find out what the dress code is for the company at which you are going to interview.
Then dress one level above. For instance, if it is business casual, men can wear
dress pants, dress shirt, and sport coat. Women can wear a pantsuit, dress, or a skirt
and blouse. Visual impressions are very important. Therefore, if in doubt, always
dress on the conservative side.
• Arrival - Try to arrive at the interview location a little early. This gives you time to
determine where you need to go, and will give you a few minutes to collect your
thoughts. DO NOT arrive late. Nothing destroys your chance at impressing an
employer more than arriving late and offering no explanation. If you learn at the last
minute that you are going to be arriving late at the interview, call and let the
interviewer know. Interviewers understand that things can come up suddenly. You are
never considered late if you call and make them aware of the fact.
Career Skills
During the Interview
• First impressions - First impressions take only thirty seconds.
• Establishing rapport, direct and sustained eye contact, a firm handshake, a warm
smile, good posture, and introducing yourself in a confident manner are important
ingredients. A well-groomed, professional appearance is critical. Greet the
interviewer with a firm handshake, whether it is a woman or a man. (No one likes
a weak handshake.) Always maintain eye contact while shaking hands. Smile - A
smile denotes confidence in a candidate. Try to smile often. Also, don't be afraid
to use some hand animation while answering questions. This suggests
enthusiasm in a candidate.
• Body Language - Use good posture, and look the interviewer right in the eye. Sit
up straight. Never slouch.
• Speak Clearly - Don't mumble. It portrays a lack of confidence. Speak with
assurance.
This indicates confidence.
• Listen Before Answering - Allow the employer to begin the interview, but be
prepared with some opening statements or questions such as, "I understand that
this position involves…," or "What are you looking for in a job candidate?" Make
sure you understand the question. If not, ask the interviewer to clarify it. Don't be
afraid to take some time to think before answering. Interviewers are impressed
with someone who thinks out an answer before speaking.
• Give Brief Answers - Make your answer concise and to the point. Rambling tends
to suggest that you really don't have the answer to the question (s) asked.
Career Skills
• Previous Employers - Never, ever say anything negative about your present or
previous employers. No matter how much you may have disliked someone, find a
way to give your experiences a positive spin.
• Be Truthful - Don't lie when asked about something you haven't done. The next
question will be "tell us about it."
• Know Your Resume - Be prepared to talk about every fact that is on your resume.
Many people embellish their accomplishments on their resumes. Avoid this, since
the only point of reference an interviewer has about you is the resume you
provide to him/her beforehand.
• Keep things at a professional level - Sometimes near the end of an interview, the
two parties start feeling comfortable with each other. Don't let this comfortable
feeling lead you to telling them something about yourself that they really
shouldn't know. Always keep things at a professional level.
• Look for Something in Common - This is something that has given us an edge in
the past. Try to find a common bond between yourself and your interviewer. If you
are being interviewed in an office, look at how the office is decorated. Look for
something you can identify with. Is his/her college diploma hanging on the wall?
Did you attend a nearby school, or perhaps one in the same Division? If so, make
a quick comment about it: "Did you attend Penn State? I attended the University
of Michigan. What a great football conference." Interviewers sometimes feel more
comfortable with people with whom they have something in common. This
approach has helped several candidates obtain a position over other qualified
candidates. Above all, be sincere.
Career Skills

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Career skills

  • 1. CAREER SKILLLS Presented by :Mr. N.V.Thorat
  • 2. CAREER SKILLLS Interview Skills Applying for jobs Cover letters Resume & Effective profiling Group discussion Letter writing e-mail writing e-mail etiquettes Career Skills
  • 3. Interview Skills • There are some easy steps that you can take that will increase your chances of success at interviews. • The following suggestion will help you prepare for an interview: Self-evaluation It is important for you to think about yourself and your past experiences in order to be ready to articulate what you have to offer an employer. • Consider the following topics: How your present and past experience relate to the position Your current and future career goals What skills and expertise you have to offer The skills that you would like to develop or improve Location, salary, and lifestyle priorities Kinds of people and environments you prefer Past experiences you want to highlight such as volunteer work, hobbies, travel. Career Skills
  • 4. Before the Interview • Research the Company - A company's website is an excellent place to begin. It usually gives you information on whether it is international or domestic, what its revenues are, how many locations it has, and the nature of its major products. Most companies are very proud of their websites. Don't be surprised if one of the first questions interviewers ask when you arrive is, "Have you have had a chance to look at our website?" Practice interviews - Write down a list of possible questions that you think may be asked, then have a friend act as an interviewer and direct them to you in a practice interview situation. Don't stop until you feel comfortable answering each question. Practicing beforehand will make you feel more comfortable and relaxed during the interview. • Dress Professionally - Contact the HR Manager of the company or your recruiter, and find out what the dress code is for the company at which you are going to interview. Then dress one level above. For instance, if it is business casual, men can wear dress pants, dress shirt, and sport coat. Women can wear a pantsuit, dress, or a skirt and blouse. Visual impressions are very important. Therefore, if in doubt, always dress on the conservative side. • Arrival - Try to arrive at the interview location a little early. This gives you time to determine where you need to go, and will give you a few minutes to collect your thoughts. DO NOT arrive late. Nothing destroys your chance at impressing an employer more than arriving late and offering no explanation. If you learn at the last minute that you are going to be arriving late at the interview, call and let the interviewer know. Interviewers understand that things can come up suddenly. You are never considered late if you call and make them aware of the fact. Career Skills
  • 5. During the Interview • First impressions - First impressions take only thirty seconds. • Establishing rapport, direct and sustained eye contact, a firm handshake, a warm smile, good posture, and introducing yourself in a confident manner are important ingredients. A well-groomed, professional appearance is critical. Greet the interviewer with a firm handshake, whether it is a woman or a man. (No one likes a weak handshake.) Always maintain eye contact while shaking hands. Smile - A smile denotes confidence in a candidate. Try to smile often. Also, don't be afraid to use some hand animation while answering questions. This suggests enthusiasm in a candidate. • Body Language - Use good posture, and look the interviewer right in the eye. Sit up straight. Never slouch. • Speak Clearly - Don't mumble. It portrays a lack of confidence. Speak with assurance. This indicates confidence. • Listen Before Answering - Allow the employer to begin the interview, but be prepared with some opening statements or questions such as, "I understand that this position involves…," or "What are you looking for in a job candidate?" Make sure you understand the question. If not, ask the interviewer to clarify it. Don't be afraid to take some time to think before answering. Interviewers are impressed with someone who thinks out an answer before speaking. • Give Brief Answers - Make your answer concise and to the point. Rambling tends to suggest that you really don't have the answer to the question (s) asked. Career Skills
  • 6. • Previous Employers - Never, ever say anything negative about your present or previous employers. No matter how much you may have disliked someone, find a way to give your experiences a positive spin. • Be Truthful - Don't lie when asked about something you haven't done. The next question will be "tell us about it." • Know Your Resume - Be prepared to talk about every fact that is on your resume. Many people embellish their accomplishments on their resumes. Avoid this, since the only point of reference an interviewer has about you is the resume you provide to him/her beforehand. • Keep things at a professional level - Sometimes near the end of an interview, the two parties start feeling comfortable with each other. Don't let this comfortable feeling lead you to telling them something about yourself that they really shouldn't know. Always keep things at a professional level. • Look for Something in Common - This is something that has given us an edge in the past. Try to find a common bond between yourself and your interviewer. If you are being interviewed in an office, look at how the office is decorated. Look for something you can identify with. Is his/her college diploma hanging on the wall? Did you attend a nearby school, or perhaps one in the same Division? If so, make a quick comment about it: "Did you attend Penn State? I attended the University of Michigan. What a great football conference." Interviewers sometimes feel more comfortable with people with whom they have something in common. This approach has helped several candidates obtain a position over other qualified candidates. Above all, be sincere. Career Skills
  • 7. After the Interview • Back in Touch - Ask the interviewer when she/he expects to get back to you on her/his decision. • Get Everyone's Business Card - Before you leave, be sure to get the business cards of all of the people with whom you visited. If you cannot do that, ask a secretary for their names and e-mail addresses. • Thank the Interviewer - Verbally thank the interviewer for taking the time to interview you, before leaving. Within a day, send thank-you letters to all of the interviewers with whom you spoke. This does not need to consist of a written letter sent via snail mail; an e-mailed thank-you works just as well. • Do not give up - Sometimes, within ten minutes of the start of an interview, you will know that the job is not one you want to pursue. If you begin to feel this way, don't give up on the interview. Continue to interview as if the job was the most important thing in the world. This provides you with practice for your next interview, which may be for your dream job! Not all interviews will lead to offers of employment, but, if you approach every interview as if it's the most important interview you ever had, you will come out a winner! Career Skills
  • 8. Additional tips • Focus on presenting a positive, enthusiastic tone • If you are asked to describe a weakness, mention lessons learned, and steer away from negative descriptions. • Think about three or four key points that you want to make about your personal characteristics, skills you have learned, and relevant experiences that demonstrate that you could perform the job well. • Find specific, rather than general, examples from your experience that illustrate important points about yourself. • When answering questions, focus on experiences that demonstrate flexibility, adaptability, responsibility, progress, achievement, creativity, initiative, and leadership. • If the employer signals the end of the interview and asks you for questions, and you haven't discussed some key points, say: "There are a couple of points I would like to mention." • After the interview, write a brief thank you letter. Express your appreciation for the opportunity to interview and learn about the organization, re-confirm your interest, and re-emphasize how your background and skills might be of interest to the organization. Career Skills
  • 9. Some Interview Questions • Case Questions are often used by consulting companies to assess analytical and problem solving skills. The interviewer presents a situation and asks you to discuss possible solutions. A sample case question is, "Describe a managed care company that you think is successful and explain why. What do they do that works? What are their potential problems? What is your outlook for their future? What suggestions do you have for their future?" • Behavioral or situational questions are used to assess how you would behave in different circumstances and to predict your behavior in future, similar situations. An interviewer may ask, "Tell me about a time when a team you were working on was unable to proceed due to some interpersonal conflict. How did you respond, and what role did you play on the team?" • Role-play questions entail the interviewer asking you to put yourself in another role and decide how you would handle a specific problem. • Industry-specific questions are questions regarding the latest trends or issues in the industry. An interviewer may ask, "If you were a CEO of Microsoft’s main competitor, what actions would you take in the on-line services market?" • Brainteasers are quick questions where the obvious answer is not necessarily the right answer such as, "Which would you rather receive: fifty thousand pennies or a 10x10x10 room filled with pennies?" Career Skills
  • 10. General questions • Tell me about yourself. • What are your key experiences and accomplishments? • How would you rank your achievements? • What are your strengths and weaknesses? • How would your friends describe you? • Explain your reason for leaving your current job. • What are the most important things to you in a job? • What do you value in a supervisor? • How would you describe your management style? • What appeals to you about this job and organization? • Describe the ideal position in our company. • What qualities do you think make someone successful in our industry? • What would you like me to know most that is not on your resume? • Explain your understanding of the issues and trends in your specialty & in the overall industry. • Why are you qualified for this position? • Give an example of a situation where you demonstrated leadership. • Give an example of how you worked on a team. • What questions do you have about the organization? Questions for the interviewer are queries that usually focus on the culture or mission of the organization, and job responsibilities. This is not the time to bring up questions about salary, benefits, and vacation about which you can inquire after you have been offered the job. . Career Skills
  • 11. The Phone Interview • Due to a company's geographic location, travel costs, and divergent schedules, a phone interview may often be your initial contact with a prospective employer. Therefore, we're offering some phone interview tips. • Objective - The idea behind a phone interview is to gain an invitation for a personal interview, and to gather more information for future steps in the process. Preparation - Have a pad, pen, and a copy of your resume near the phone. Use a phone in a quiet area. Avoid any background noise. Also avoid using a cordless phone, because they tend to transmit poorly. • Speaking • a. Smile and be enthusiastic. Your enthusiasm will carry through to the interviewer. • b. Speak in a conversational manner, and be sure to speak loudly enough to be heard. Speak with some inflection and tone. • c. Let the interviewer do most of the talking. When s/he asks you a question, expound upon the answer. Use the opportunity to sell your skills and experience. • d. When the interview is over, let her/him know that you are very interested in scheduling a personal interview at her/his place of business Career Skills
  • 12. Applying for jobs Step 1 Decide what kind of job you want.. • In order to streamline the job application process, examine what your needs and desires are for employment. You can narrow down your options by taking a few things into consideration: • Consider the career field. • Consider your salary and benefit requirements. Step 2 Do your research. Before you begin sending out resumes and cover letters en masse, look into the companies you are applying for. Get a sense of the company’s personality and values by reading its mission statement. How to Apply for a Job The first step towards nabbing the job you want is knowing how to navigate the application process. With a little research, some finely tuned writing, and proactive communication, you can be well on your way to getting that call for an interview. Method One of Two: Getting Your Foot in the Door Career Skills
  • 13. Step 3 Write a resume •Even if the job you want doesn’t require the submission of a traditional resume, having an up-to-date resume is highly recommended. Resumes not only outline your education and work history, but they can also point to specific projects you’ve worked on or awards you’ve won. Information to include on your resume should entail: •Your current contact information, •Your educational background •Your work history for the past few years. •Your relevant skills. etc Step 4 Contact the employer to ask about the application process. Before You will likely have your call routed to the hiring or human resources manager. If they have openings, they may ask you to either come in to fill out an application or that you send them your resume and cover letter by mail or e- mail. Be sure to note this contact's name, and address all future communication to this person, by name. Career Skills
  • 14. Step 5 Write a cover letter, Make sure it is specific to both the company and the job. If possible, address the contact letter to a specific contact person. This demonstrates that you took the time to research the information and are not simply mass- emailing every employer you can find. Consider discussing the following topics in your cover letter: •How your background makes you valuable asset to the role & to the company. •What it is you hope to gain from working in this role. •What unique talents would you bring to this position? •What specifically interests you about this position Step 6 Get a second (or third) opinion. Ask friends or family members to review your resume and cover letter for typos. They may be able to point out things that are missing, or items that could be rephrased. If possible, get advice from someone working in the field you are applying for. Career Skills
  • 15. Step 7.Locate references Though you may not have to provide a list of references right away, it is wise to tap people early to ask whether they would consider being a professional reference for you. It is recommended that you secure at least three references. At least two of these references should be people whom you have worked with and who can speak to your job performance. Be sure you have your references' updated contact information, including mailing and email addresses, phone number, current title, and current company. Step 8 Apply. Once you have fine-tuned your resume and cover letter, it is time to begin the application process. Applications are typically submitted in one of three ways: In person. Online. By mail. Career Skills
  • 16. Step 9.Follow up. Checking on the status of your application shows your interest in the position and ensures that your application materials have made it to the appropriate person. Calling right away can seem demanding and off-putting. Career Skills
  • 17. 1.Make sure your online presence is squeaky clean. Employers and recruiters often scour the internet looking for you, and any negativity they see can push you to the back of the pack. 2.When you do finally get an interview, be sure to dress for the job you want. Clothes that make you feel good and confident can influence the way you carry yourself in an interview. Method One of Two: Getting the Job Offer Apply to the job you want is just first in a series of steps towards securing an offer. With some planning, forethought, and a little practice, moving through the job hiring process will be a snap! Career Skills
  • 18. 3.Be prompt.. Plan to arrive at interviews 10-15 minutes ahead of time to allow for any traffic or public transportation issues. This will also give you a few minutes to compose yourself and review any notes you have brought with you 4.Show interest and enthusiasm at your job interview Being positive and speaking about the job in a knowledgeable way shows you did your research, and that can win you big points. 5.Refer to your notes. Ask you interviewer if it's ok that you take notes. Your notebook can double as a cheat-sheet where you list accomplishments and highlight stories that demonstrate your abilities. Career Skills
  • 19. 6.Employ proper etiquette. Following up with a thank you note after an interview demonstrates good manners, and leaves a lasting impression. Try to make the note substantive and mention what you were able to take away from the interview. Advertisement Tips Honesty is the best policy when filling out a job applications, too. Always thank the employer for their time and consideration. If you were declined for the job, before thanking the interviewer, ask what could have helped your chances and if there are any other similar job offerings somewhere else. If you get an interview, follow up with a thank-you letter. Career Skills
  • 20. Cover Letter Application Letter • A job application is an offer for service by Applicant. • Drafting effective job application letters is very important skill. • Job application letter acts as covering letter to the applicant Bio-Data, or Curriculum vitae to project for applicant as the ideal candidate for the post. • Plays crucial role in deciding the applicant’s eligibility and ability for the particular job position. The letter has to project adequately the applicant’s abilities, qualities, traits and belief. • It helps the recruiters, in short listing the candidates for the interview. • Many deserving candidates not get the chance to appear for the interview because of ineffective job application letters. On the contrary, many candidates with average skills and qualification are short listed for the interview because of job application letter. • The Job application or covering letter • Highlights the applicant’s academic background, experience and elaborate on his accomplishments. Career Skills
  • 21. Objective – To draw attention of employer and create interest in meeting the applicant. • It requires the applicant to research the organization and the requirements of the position on offer. If he feels that the job and the organization suit his qualification and requirements then he should go ached and draft application letter. • Bio data of the applicant does not change; it is only the covering letter/job application letter will need to drafted as per organization and post for which application is being made. • Applicant to research the requirements of the position for which he is applying. • The letter should be natural and project positive personality of applicant. The letter should state how the applicant could prove useful to the organization and how his qualification are apt for the post. • Application letter should be so well drafted that it should make the employer want to meet the applicant. Career Skills
  • 22. Contents Heading-Consist of name and complete address of the applicant on the top right corner of the letter.The date should be positioned just below the heading. Inside address-The address of the organization and addressed as indicated in the advertisements. Subject- Cleary mention job position for which the application is written. Reference-Mention the source from where the applicant has received information about the vaancy. Salutation-should be ‘Sir’ Body-First paragraph should mention purpose of the application letter, specific position and source of information about vacancy. Second paragraph should draw attention to the applicants educational qualificvation and eligibility.The applicant should highlight every accomplishment given in bio data.Third paragraph give details of the experience and the contribution in the field for which application is requested.Concluding paragraph should requestfor an interview. Complimentary close-“Your’s faithfully’ A copy of Curriculum vitae (C.V.) or resume enclosed with the job application. Photocopies of educational certificates should be enclosed with the application. Career Skills
  • 24. Resume a document used by persons to present their backgrounds and skills. Resumes can be used for a variety of reasons, but most often they are used to secure employment. A typical resume contains a summary of relevant job experience and education. The resume is usually one of the first items, along with a cover letter and sometimes an application for employment, which a potential employer sees regarding the job seeker and is typically used to screen applicants, often followed by an interview. The resume is comparable to a curriculum vitae (CV) in many countries The word resume comes from the French word resume meaning "summarized" or "summary". Thus the two meanings are false friends. Leonardo Da Vinci is credited with the first resume. Description In many contexts, a resume is typically limited to one or two pages of size A4 or Letter-size, highlighting only those experiences and qualifications that the author considers most relevant tothe desired position. A resume is a marketing tool in which the content should be adapted to suit each individual job application and/or applications aimed at a particular industry Resume & Effective profiling Career Skills
  • 25. Styles Resumes may be organized in different ways. The following are some of the more common formats: Reverse chronological resume A reverse chronological resume lists a candidate's job experiences in chronological order, generally covering the previous 10 to 15 years. Positions are listed with starting and ending dates. Current positions on a resume typically list the starting date to the present or to the current year. Both are considered acceptable. Functional resume A functional resume lists work experience and skills sorted by skill area or job function. The functional resume is used to focus on skills that are specific to the type of position being sought. Hybrid resume The hybrid resume balances the functional and chronological approaches. A resume organized this way typically leads with a functional list of job skills, followed by a chronological list of employers. The hybrid resume has a tendency to repeat itself and is, therefore, less widely used than the other two. Career Skills
  • 26. Online resumes Some employers only to accept resumes electronically. Many employers now find candidates' resumes through search engines, which makes it more important for candidates to use appropriate keywords when writing a resume. Larger employers use Applicant Tracking Systems to search, filter, and manage high volumes of resumes. Job ads may direct applicants to email a resume to a company or visit its website and submit a resume in an electronic format. Some require Microsoft Word documents, while others will only accept resumes formatted in HTML, PDF, or plain ASCII text. One advantage for employers to online resumes is the significant cost saving compared to traditional hiring methods. Another is that potential employers no longer have to sort through massive stacks of paper. Infographic, video and website resumes As the Internet becomes more driven by multimedia, jobseekers have sought to take advantage of the trend by moving their resumes away from the traditional paper and email media. Resume evaluation Many resume development agencies offer resume evaluation services wherein they evaluate the resume and suggest any necessary changes. Career Skills
  • 27. 1.Choose how you want to format your resume In order to streamline the job application process, examine what your Because you are writing a combination resume, there is no strict format guidelines or boundaries which you need to follow. Multiple people will have very different looking combination resume, so focus on what you're good at. In addition to your work and education experience, you can choose to include skills, awards and achievements, volunteer history, and special qualifications. 2.List your employment history. This can be done in one of two ways. If your work history includes positions in more than one field, you should list your jobs under functional sub-headings, which categorize the skills you used at each particular one. If you can demonstrate that your evolving work history highlights the key skills you want to promote, you may want to list your work history in chronological order, without including any sub-headings.Be sure to provide the general information for each employer/position including the name of the company, location, your title, your duties, and the dates that you worked there. How to Make a Resume A resume is a self-advertisement that, when done properly, shows how your skills, experience, and achievements match the requirements of the job you want. Method : Combination Resume Career Skills
  • 28. 3.Provide information about your education. The details you include about your education will be the same as the details you’d include in other resume styles; the difference is in where you present the information on the resume. For each college, university, or trade school you have attended, list the name and location of the institution, the degree or certificate you received, and the years you attended. 4.Supply other pertinent information. After you've made note of your education and work history, give a list of any other information you feel like might be helpful for your employer to have. Choose to include any of the additional sections such as special qualifications, skills, awards and achievements, or volunteer service. 5.List your references. Include 2-4 professional references (not family or friends)along with their contact information. Be sure to include their name, your relationship to them, and their email, address, and phone number. Career Skills
  • 29. Effective profiling • A well written profile statement can make your resume come alive. • A profile statement or profile summary is an essential component of modern resume. • The interviewer is flooded with resumes from which he has to pick the one he wishes to interview. • The profile statement provide an opportunity to the applicant to grab the interviewer attention and provide a snapshot of unique qualities he has to offer. • A profile statement should be designed to articulate the strongest and most relevant skills and achievements in the most effective manner. • The profile statement should make the candidate standout from a whole lot of the aspirants. • Use concise language to highlight the candidate’s positive aspects. • It should describe professional experience. • It can also include career objective of the candidate. Career Skills
  • 30. Group discussion Group Discussion is a forum where people sit together ,discuss a topic with the commonobjective of finding a solution for an issue or analyzing an issue that is given to them to discuss. The group members are expected to discuss the topic / issue and try to arrive at aconclusion within limited time period. Purpose- To evaluate certain attributes. Group Discussion is litmus test for the individual behavior as a team player. Apart from the flow of original thoughts and ideas it become very important that the way they are communicated and the ability of an individual to asset well her/his idea in acceptablemanner. Career Skills
  • 31. •No criteria for group size. •The group size ranges from 8-15 per group. •The most popular group size is 10-12 members in a group. Importance •Enhance learning-Learn more. •Shows weakness & helps to strengthen them •Rectifies mistakes •Helps on ‘How to study & how to male preparation for exam’. •Helps for oral exam •Improves your communication skills Career Skills
  • 32. Letter writing The business letter unlike personal letter has to be drafted very carefully as it projects the image of the company to the public. Elements of Business letters •Letter head- At the top,Company’s name,logo,Addr,Tel,Fax,e-mail,website etc •Date •Reference (Optional)- no. by which letter reffered in future •Inside address- Address of person /company to whom letter is addressed •Attention marking (Optional) •Special marking (Optional) •Salutation- e.g- Dear Sir/Madam. Respected Sir etc. •Subject- subject/purpose behind the correspondence •Body- Introduction,Main body,Closing paragraph •Complementary close- Yours respectfully,Yours sincearly,Yours faithfully yours truly etc •Signature- •Name & Designation of the communicator •Identification mark (Optional) •Post script (Optional) •Enclosure/Attachments (Optional) -If attaching any documents with letter •Carbon Copies / C.C.(Optional) -extra copies of the letter which sent to other person Career Skills
  • 33. Layout of Business letter The Heading ----------------- PH----------------------- _______________________________________________________________________ Date:-----/-----/---- Inside Address --------------------- --------------------- Subject:-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Reference:---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Salutation ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -----------------------------------The Body---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Complementary close Signature line Encl:1 :2 Career Skills
  • 34. e-mail writing . Sample Email Message • SUBJECT: Technical Reporting – Memo Question • Dear Ms. Gard, • I am a student in your Technical Reporting class, and I am • confused about today’s homework assignment. I would appreciate it if • you could explain what you mean by an “incident report.” Is there a place • in the textbook where I can find an example? • Thank you very much for your help. • Sincerely, • Jim Smith • Jim.Smith@witc.edu • 715-333-4444 Career Skills
  • 35. Basic Rules of Email Communication • Be sure to include the following: - proper subject line - greeting - introduction (if necessary) - request - thank you/closing remark - signature • Use proper written, not spoken, language. • Do not assume that the reader will “get” a joke or understand sarcasm. • Be thoughtful and respectful in what you write. • Do not make demands. • Choose your words carefully. • Assume everything you write is a public document. • Avoid talking about other people in an email message. • Use proper grammar and sentence structure. Spell-check your message! • If your message includes a request, always close with a thank you to the recipient for considering it. • Do not expect or demand an immediate response. • Reread your message before sending it, and rephrase if necessary. • If you receive a confusing or unclear email message. - give the writer the benefit of the doubt. - ask politely for clarification. - suggest discussing the matter in person.Career Skills
  • 36. e-mail etiquettes •Etiquette governing communication on the Internet •Rules for how to communicate appropriately and respectfully online . •When we converse, we expect other people to observe certain rules of behavior. The same is true for e-mail, the most popular form of online communication. Here are a few pointers to help you communicate more effectively. 1. Clearly summarize your message in the subject line. Properly titled messages help people organize and prioritize their e-mail. 2. Don't use the CC (Carbon Copy) function to copy your message to everyone. This is particularly true at work. These days everyone receives too much e-mail. Unnecessary messages are annoying. If only a few people really need to receive your message, only direct it to them. Similarly, when responding to e-mail, do not respond to all recipients. By choosing Reply to All or a similar button when responding to a message, you may end up broadcasting your response to your entire company. •Sending Attachments •Some wireless devices don't have the software required to open an attachment like a Word document or spreadsheet. Career Skills
  • 37. 3. Use BCCs (Blind Carbon Copies) when addressing a message to a group of people who don't necessarily know each other. Just as it's not polite to give out a person's telephone number without his or her knowledge, it's not polite to broadcast everyone's e-mail address. For instance, when you send a message to 30 people and use the To or CC fields to address the message, all 30 people see each other's address. By using BCC, each recipient sees only two--theirs and yours. 4. Keep your messages short and focused. Few people enjoy reading on their computer screens; fewer still on small smartphone screens and other mobile devices. Recipients tend to ignore long messages. 5. Avoid using all capital letters. IT MAKES IT LOOK LIKE YOU'RE SHOUTING! IT'S ALSO MORE DIFFICULT TO READ 6.Don't write anything you wouldn't say in public. Anyone can easily forward your message, even accidentally. This could leave you in an embarrassing position if you divulged confidential information, made a nasty comment about someone or circulated an off-color joke. If you don't want to potentially share something you write, consider using the telephone. Career Skills
  • 38. 7.Use a smiley to make sure that a statement is not misunderstood. Smileys are typically used in personal e-mail and are not considered appropriate for business. Insert them judiciously in office e-mail. If your message needs a smiley for better understanding, most likely you should not be delivering it via e-mail. Even with a smiley, someone may misconstrue your message. Smiley Use smiles to support a statement. It's rude to write something mean or derogatory, then place a happy smiley at the end of the sentence. Refer to the Smiley article for a list of commonly used ones Check Your Spelling Use your e-mail program's spell checker to make sure your message isn't compromised by misspelled words. 8.Avoid sending e-mail to large numbers of people unless you have a legitimate reason to do it. E-mail sent to many recipients may be considered spam. 9. Avoid nasty e-mail. These messages have their own term: flame. Flame e-mail is an insulting message designed to cause pain, as when someone "gets burned." Career Skills
  • 39. 10.Include your name at the bottom of the message. The message contains your e-mail address in the header, but the recipient may not know that the sender's address is yours, especially if it's different from your real name. E-mail etiquette may take a while to learn, but don't let your fear of making mistakes inhibit you. All Internet users were beginners once, so most people are quite forgiving. Career Skills