N Viro Fuel Technology, Dr Terry J Logan


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N Viro Fuel Technology, Dr Terry J Logan

  1. 1. The N-VIRO Fuel™ Technology Terry J. Logan, Ph.D.
  2. 2. Organic Wastes as Biomass Fuel  There are ~ 40 million tons of sewage sludge produced in the U.S. annually.  There are ~ 600 million tons of collectable manure.  There are ~ 150 million tons of organic municipal solid wastes (garbage).  There are high tip fees for sewage sludge (> $100/ton in the NE, ~ $25-40/ton nationally)  There are federal grants for treatment of manure.  There is increased interest in using organic wastes as biomass fuels.
  3. 3. Fuel and Ash Content of Organic Wastes Organic waste Energy value Ash content (kJ/kg) (% dry weight) Wood 19,000 0.5-1.5 Manure 15,000 10-25 Food waste 16,000 – 21,000 1-20 Sewage sludge 16,000 – 28,000 20-40 M unicipal solid waste 3,000 – 14,000 20
  4. 4. The N-VIRO Organic Waste Stabilization Process  Alkaline mineral by-products (fly ash, cement kiln dust, lime kiln dust) are mixed with dewatered sludge or manure.  Stabilization is achieved by a combination of high pH, heat and drying.  USEPA approved parameters for Class A disinfection of sewage sludge are pH 12 for 72 hours, 52 0C for 12 hours, and solids > 50 %.
  5. 5. The N-VIRO Stabilization Process
  6. 6. The N-VIRO Soil Product  The product of the N-Viro stabilization process is a dry, granular material with soil-like physical properties.  It is used as an agricultural soil amendment as a liming material, low analysis fertilizer and source of organic matter.  It is also used for land reclamation, and as a blend with compost to make horticultural topsoil.
  7. 7. Properties of N-VIRO Soil Characteristic Value Organic matter con tent (% dry weight) 30 Liming value (% dry weight) 25 Total nitrogen (% dry weight) 1 Total phosphorus (% dry weight) 0.5 Total potassium (% dry weight) 0.1 Total sulfur (% dry weight) 5 Total calcium (% dry weight) 12 Total magne sium (% dry weight) 2 Total boron (mg/kg d ry weight) 500 Total mangane se (mg/kg) 200 Total zinc (mg/kg) 200 pH 12 Solids content (% by weight) 60
  8. 8. The N-VIRO BioDry™ Process  Heated air is used to dry the sludge or manure mixed with alkaline by-products.  Drying is done in a rotary drum dryer.  Less by-product is used compared to the conventional process since part of the required heat for disinfection comes from the dryer.  Final solids content of the final product can be better controlled.  Final product is more uniform in particle size.
  9. 9. The N-Viro BioDry™ Process Sludge/fly ash leaving the mixer and entering the rotary drum dryer
  10. 10. Lessons Learned from the BioDry™ Process  Traditional sludge dryers are prone to fires and explosions because of the volatile nature of sludge.  Operational BioDryers have had not experienced these problems.  Research showed that the addition of mineral by-products to sludge raised ignition temperatures above air-drying temperatures.
  11. 11. The N-VIRO Fuel™ Process  The N-Viro Fuel process is a modification of the BioDry process.  The process uses less mineral by-products than the BioDry process, and recycles some of the dried material to further reduce the mineral component and increase the organic content and fuel value.  The process can be optimized for higher solids than produced for an agricultural product.  The N-Viro Fuel process still meets EPA requirements for Class A disinfection.
  12. 12. The N-VIRO Fuel™ Process 14-30 % solids Sludge cake Odor control 35 % solids 10 % dose Alkaline Mixer Dryer Heat pulse N-Viro additives Fuel® 70-90 % solids Recycle Coal blend
  13. 13. Characteristics of N-VIRO Fuel™  Has physical characteristics similar to coal.  Solids content is 70-90 % and can be controlled.  BTU value is 4,000-7,500/lb.  Ash content is 20-40 %.  Sulfur content is ~ 1 %.  Heavy metals are similar in concentration to that of coal; coal is higher in arsenic and sludges are higher in copper and zinc.  Biologically stable, low odor potential, and fully disinfected.
  14. 14. Synergy with Coal Fired Power Plants  Sludge production and power plant operations are both 24/7.  If the N-Viro Fuel® facility is co-located at the power plant, waste heat from the power plant can be used to run the dryer.  The N-Viro Fuel® process will utilize the power plant’s fly ash as additive.  N-Viro Fuel® contains lime which can offset limestone addition for SOx reduction.  The exhaust gases from the BioDryer contains ammonia which might be utilized for NOx reduction.  Sewage sludge and other waste organics are low in sulfur compared to most coals.  There should be opportunities to earn CO2, NOx and SOx credits.