Born in Blood and Fire - Chapter 2


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  • -Map shows us the current linguistic legacy of Spanish and Portuguese colonialism.
  • -Steps of economic and political development: 1. Spanish look for wealth, find silver in Potosí and Zacatecas. 2. New economies develop around mines, structures transportation routes and ports. 3. Secondary economies to support new cities -- clothing, food 4. Political structure emerges (viceroys, taxes). -For Portuguese, all centered around sugar plantations/mills, mills become small cities, similar structural consequences as for Spanish.
  • Hegemony represents two components to domination of European colonizers over the lives and minds of indigenous Americans and slaves: 1. Social hierarchy (religion, patriarchy, and patronage) were enforced through violent and non-violent means. 2. Continued imposition of language, customs, religion, social structures leads to unspoken (tacit) acceptance of the norms. People stop challenging and begin accepting structures.
  • -Ask students to “popcorn” words – quick whip around the room, must throw out one word only about what this Diego Rivera image makes them think about. Can be anything. -Point to the image of “La Malinche” with the first mestizo baby (blue eyed in the center); probably a self-portrait of Diego Rivera himself (he often did that in his paintings), because he was mestizo.
  • Religious mixing: Often, patron saints adopted by indigenous believers tended to be remarkably closely related to indigenous deities. -Virgin of Guadalupe sighted originally on holy Aztec site. Even depictions of saints became darker, more similar in appearance to locals than Europeans. She is the patron virgin of latin america. -A church in Cusco has a depiction of the last supper with a guinea pig instead of bread as the sustenance. Obvious example of religious mixing (transculturation).
  • Urban centers: the political/social institutions were strongly European, made hegemonic rule more pronounced; racial and cultural mixing called transculturation Semi-rural: Secondary economies to support city life, less European culture, still lots of settlers farmers on the outskirts of cities. Fringes: subsistence farmers, indigenous groups, fewer slaves (but some escaped slave enclaves in indigenous communities, presence of native languages, racial mixing among poorer classes
  • Caste system: Chasteen doesn’t say the order of the castes, how were they placed in a hierarchy? -Official caste was recorded at baptism -Mixing occurred despite official ban (How common was mixing in Latin America compared to British colonies in the United States? Why more mixing in Latin America?) -One could move up the hierarchy officially by purchasing better caste status (gracias al sacar means “thanks to the taking” literally translated. Mixing: Caste system expanded to more than a dozen, so many categories “in the middle”
  • Students will be asked to define it, use it in a sentence (not directly from the book), draw a picture in the context of Latin America during colonial period, and last draw a picture of term as it would be relevant to contemporary society
  • Born in Blood and Fire - Chapter 2

    1. 1. BORN IN BLOOD AND FIRE: a concise history of Latin America by John Charles Chasten <ul><li>Chapter 2 </li></ul>© 2011 The Granger Collection.
    2. 2. Chapter 2: Colonial crucible <ul><li>Central themes from Chapter 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Latin America experienced three long centuries of colonial rule. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The extraction of resources for king determined economic and political structure of new colonies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Europeans exercised hegemonic power over Latin America. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transculturation characterized emergence of new Latin American identity. </li></ul></ul>PD-US
    3. 3. Chapter 2: Colonial economics Spanish Colonies Silver extraction concentrates economic activity in Potosí and Zacatecas. <ul><li>Economics: </li></ul><ul><li>Primary economic activity centers around mines </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of ports and transportation routes (Lima, Veracruz) </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary economies </li></ul><ul><li>Taxes </li></ul>Essential question: How did wealth extraction change the economic and political structures of the Americas? <ul><li>Politics: </li></ul><ul><li>New political centers - viceroyalties </li></ul><ul><li>Tax structures </li></ul>Politics and Economics: ? Portuguese Colony Sugar plantations and sugar mills center economic activity in Brazil. Classical Numismatic Group, Inc. PD-US
    4. 4. Chapter 2: Power called “hegemony”
    5. 6. Chapter 2: Process called transculturation <ul><li>Diego Rivera depicts birth of mestizo (child of Gonzalez Guerrero). </li></ul><ul><li>Dark colored Jesus in Mexico City Cathedral </li></ul><ul><li>Depiction of “Last Supper” in the Cuzco Cathedral (in Peru); Jesus and his disciples eat “cuey” (guinea pig) -- the local delicacy </li></ul>1 2 <ul><li>Intermarriage : birth of the mestizo race </li></ul><ul><li>Religious mixing : Cathedrals/churches built on indigenous holy sites; “patron saints” similar to indigenous deities </li></ul><ul><li>Latin American culture : a culture distinct from European heritage emerges in L.A. </li></ul>3
    6. 7. Chapter 2: Fringes of colonization <ul><li>Urban centers: </li></ul><ul><li>Urban institutions ➔ hegemony </li></ul><ul><li>Strong influence of European culture </li></ul><ul><li>Mixing of European/indigenous races and cultures - transculturation </li></ul><ul><li>Semi-rural: </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary economies </li></ul><ul><li>Less European control </li></ul><ul><li>Strong presence of settlers </li></ul><ul><li>Fringes: </li></ul><ul><li>Subsistence farming </li></ul><ul><li>Few slaves/cash crops </li></ul><ul><li>Little colonial presence </li></ul><ul><li>Racial mixing among poorer classes </li></ul><ul><li>Native languages </li></ul><ul><li>Escaped slave enclaves </li></ul>
    7. 9. Chapter 2: Racial mixing <ul><li>Characteristics of mixing : </li></ul><ul><li>Often not consensual </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitated by prostitution </li></ul><ul><li>New mixed races proved challenging for caste hierarchy </li></ul>“ Pure” castes European African Indigenous “ Mixed” castes European-African Indigenous-African European-Indigenous <ul><li>Caste system </li></ul><ul><li>Created by Iberian crowns </li></ul><ul><li>Enforced hierarchy, recorded at baptism </li></ul><ul><li>Mixing banned, but continued </li></ul><ul><li>“ Gracias al sacar” - buying whiteness </li></ul>
    8. 10. Chapter 2: Vocabulary Activity