Pedagogy

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Pedagogy

  1. 1. General Pedagogy Teaching Strategies and Techniques
  2. 2. Supportive Learning Environment <ul><li>Student Relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Needs to be a balance of care, authority & mutual respect </li></ul><ul><li>Not friend or parent role </li></ul><ul><li>Positive Peer Relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Based on respect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot be teacher centered environment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consequences for behaviour that threatens must exist (I.e. detention for teasing) </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom Management </li></ul><ul><li>Mix of … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Balanced student-teacher & peer relations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriate tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expectations: proper behaviour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consistent application of consequences </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Engagement & Motivation <ul><li>Inspire to enquire (make tasks interesting, relevant, purposeful) </li></ul><ul><li>Display enthusiasm. If you don’t believe in what you are doing neither will the students. If they are interested, tell them about how learning about this has helped you. </li></ul><ul><li>Get their attention </li></ul><ul><li>Pick a signal (eg. hands up), make it sound adult, have confidence, use it! </li></ul><ul><li>Signal confidence and warmth - student relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Use names, greet them, ask them questions, smile, stand close, listen to the students. Students will work for a teacher they like (I.e. someone who likes and respects them). </li></ul>
  4. 4. General Teaching Strategies <ul><li>Direct Instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Questioning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Group Work </li></ul>
  5. 5. Direct Instruction <ul><li>Teacher centered explanations </li></ul><ul><li>A good idea to make use of resources or ICT to engage </li></ul><ul><li>Should not last more than 15 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Pro: </li></ul><ul><li>Good for introducing concepts. </li></ul><ul><li>Con: </li></ul><ul><li>Can be boring. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Discussion <ul><li>Ask open questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Require thought & more than a one word answer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Take an appropriate position in the room </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where you can see and hear all of the students </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pause for students to respond </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not answer your questions! The kids will get there with a second to think and help </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Get a diversity of opinion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask specific students to get a range of responses without offending </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use the pivot technique </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask a student to comment on another student’s response. Makes the students the focus. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ What do you think about what Caroline said Billy?” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Questioning Investigate by use of argument, sifting, debating, fom an opinion & give reason Discuss A clear statement of agreement, disagreement of partial agreement To what extent do you agree Say what something is like based on data. Describe Present a hypothesis Suggest Compare differences Contrast Arrange factors or elements according to their importance in cause or effect Rank Put together an argument, point of view or series of reasons Construct Use numerical measures, height, distance, time, to aid in description or analysis Quantify Combination of Describe, Explain & Analyze consider Give a summary of the main elements Outline Describe similarities & differences compare Give sufficient evidence to support a view or conclusion Justify Discuss the topic, give your opinion and the reasons for that opinion Comment on Establish the nature by a distinguishing features Identify Same as categorize Classify Look at all parts of a situation, including the pros & cons of an argument Explore Place characteristics, changes or facts into distinctive groups Categorize Gives reasons why something exists or occurs Explain Decide on the value or the role of factors or elements in the development of a situation, while giving a reason assess Describe what you know & understand about a particular situation Examine Use of incorporate information & ideas to a situation Apply Combination of rank & evaluate Evaluate the relative importance of Show the essence of something by breaking it down & examining each part Analyze Weigh or interpret a strengths/weakness Evaluate Gives reasons why something exists or occurs Account for
  8. 8. Group Work <ul><li>Can be a great learning tool or very unproductive </li></ul><ul><li>Be very prepared </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Know who’s going to work together, have a very targeting & engaging activity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spend a long time explain what students are to do…make sure it’s clear </li></ul><ul><li>Keep transitioning in mind </li></ul><ul><li>Can involve peer teaching activities </li></ul>
  9. 9. Classroom Activities <ul><li>Individual Activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pop quizzes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Journals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Essays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Textbook questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research Projects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Group Activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brainstorming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mind mapping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roleplays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Debates/Competitions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge games </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discussions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research Projects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presentations </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Keeping Control <ul><li>Pace </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep the lesson moving </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transitioning </li></ul><ul><li>Pivoting </li></ul><ul><li>Praise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>complement the good behaviour & attempt to ignore the bad </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ask & Leave </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t stand around students to ensure that they do what you want, it undermines them </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Role Play </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Go over scenarios and practice what you are going to say and do in certain situations </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Models of Control Role-plays Crouching, eyes lower than students, soft & calm voice Student tries to argue Student tells teacher to get lost Student says “who cares” Teacher explains what student is doing to disrupt Teacher offers a choice (consequence of continuing) Teacher diffuses power & offers next consequence Teacher reasserts & immediately resumes teaching 7 Student tries to argue Student tries again Student tries to argue Student tries to object Student tells teacher to get lost Student gives up Student tries to argue Student tries again Student tries to argue Student tries to object Student gives up Student stops, but repeat behaviour soon after Student stops, but repeat behaviour soon after Student stops, but repeat behaviour soon after Student stops, but repeat behaviour soon after Student gives up Student tries to argue Student tries to object Student complies Student tries to argue and denies involvement Student tries to argue Student tries again Student gives up Teacher explains what student is doing to disrupt Teacher reasserts what they would like Teacher reasserts - more emphatically Teacher offers a choice Teacher offers a choice - more empathically Teacher diffuses power & offers next consequence 6 Teacher explains what student is doing to disrupt Teacher reasserts what they would like Teacher reasserts - more emphatically Teacher offers a choice Teacher offers a choice - more empathically 5 Teacher explains what student is doing to disrupt Teacher offers a choice (consequence of continuing) Teacher implements punishment Teacher warns student about next level of punishment Teacher implements punishment 4 Teacher explains what student is doing to disrupt Teacher offers a choice (consequence of continuing) Teacher implements punishment 3 Teacher explains what student is doing to disrupt Teacher is unsure & restates expectation to the class 2 Teacher explains what student is doing to disrupt Teacher reasserts what they would like Teacher reasserts - more emphatically 1
  12. 12. Transitioning <ul><li>Demand attention with your signal </li></ul><ul><li>Tell the students when they will move </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ In 2 mins…” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>State what they will be doing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Give instructions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Explain who they will be working with </li></ul><ul><li>Signal movement </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor behaviour </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stand near student who will be off task </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Give feedback about transition </li></ul>
  13. 13. Classroom Management Pivot <ul><li>To be used when you need to get a student or students back on task, by avoiding distractions </li></ul><ul><li>Do not engage! Refocus with… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nevertheless </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>That’s not the issue right now, but </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You seem frustrated/upset, but </li></ul></ul><ul><li>+ … You need to be on task </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I asked could you please… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The problem here is the interruption… </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Non-verbal Techniques <ul><li>Folded Arms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Closed off, defensive position </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Open Hands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Openness, welcoming, inviting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Smile </li></ul><ul><ul><li>friendly, all the time even when kids are acting up </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hand out & Attention Elsewhere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Good for showing those that are misbehaving that their behaviour is not good, while not disrupting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Proximity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases student productivity and good behaviour, as well as participation </li></ul></ul>

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