"Ergonomics (or human factors) isthe scientific discipline concernedwith the understanding ofinteractions among humans andother elements of a system, andthe profession that applies theory,principles, data and methods todesign in order to optimize humanwell-being and overall systemperformance."Ergonomics
Ergonomics means literally the study ormeasurement of WorkIn addition to work as labour formonetary gain, work also includes„Sports„Leisure activities„Domestic work„Education and training„Health and social services
Efficiency in purposeful activityTo achieve desired result withoutWasteErrorDamage to personsWorking situation in harmony with theactivities of the worker
Ensures that human needs for safe andefficient working are met in the design ofwork systemTo designAppliancesTechnical SystemsTasksIn such a way to improveHuman SafetyHealthComfort andPerformance032inches63inches
Thus a systematic approach andtheory are necessary. There shouldbe measurable objectives to bechecked and remedial action taken.A detailed study of the science ofergonomics provides theseapproaches and theories
INCREASE PRODUCTIVITYBETTER COMFORTREDUCE FATIGUESAVE TIMELESSEN CHANCE OF INJURYREDUCE ABSENTEEISN
Physical work environmentChemical environment
Flexible working simply refers to anyworking schedule that is outside of anormal working pattern.This means that the working hours,instead of being repetitive and fixed, caninvolve changes and variations. It canmean the employee has variables such aswhen they are required to work or eventheir place of work.
Flexible Work SchedulesBenefitsRecruitment and retention ofemployees39Coordinating employee workschedules with productionschedulesAccommodating the leisure-timeactivities of employees whilefacilitating employee personalappointments
DisdavantagesOvertime payments requiredby the Fair Labor Standards Actfor employees working over 40hours in one week.The additional stress onmanagers and employees, andlong workdays can beexhausting.
FlextimeWorking hours that permit employeesthe option of choosing daily startingand quitting times, provided that theywork a set number of hours per day orweek.All employees are required to bepresent during a designated “coreperiod.”Flexible hours reduce absenteeism andtardiness.
Job SharingThe arrangement whereby two part-time employees perform a job thatotherwise would be held by one full-time employee.Job sharers may work three days aweek, creating an overlap day forextended face-to-face conferencing.
Compressed hours :‟ Here, employeeswork the same hours over fewer days.Annual hours :‟ Employees agree theywill work a given number of hoursduring the year, but the pattern ofwork can vary from week to week.Staggered hours :‟ This lets employeesstart and finish work at differenttimes. Employees may also take timeoff in lieu or take career breaks.
Telecommuting :- The use of personalcomputers, networks, and othercommunications technology such as faxmachines to do work in the home that istraditionally done in the workplace. Increased flexibility foremployees Ability to attract workerswho might not otherwise beavailable Lessened burden on workingparents Less time and money wastedon physical commuting
CASECompany: Eastman Kodak, an “info-imaging” companyPROFILEKodak has operations in over 30countries and a workforce of 70,000employees;approximately 39,000 of these areemployed in the United States.
Policy Parameters :-„ All regular and conditional full timeand part-time employees are eligible torequest any of the ﬂexible workarrangements regardless of position orgeographic location.„ Employees must complete anapplication, receive permission fromtheir immediate supervisor, anddemonstrate that the arrangement willnot have an adverse impact on thebusiness.
Development & Oversight :- Employees are told about theprogram as part of the new hireorientation that includes an overview ofprograms and policies. Information isalso provided in company newslettersand on the company’s website, sinceemployees may not focus on theavailability of ﬂexible workarrangements until there is animmediate need for them.
Development & Oversight:„ Employees are told about theprogram as part of the new hireorientation that includes an overviewof programs and policies. Informationis also provided in companynewsletters and on the company’swebsite, since employees may not focuson the availability of ﬂexible workarrangements until there is animmediate need for them.
„ Training programs for supervisors, linemanagers and senior managers wereconducted, and newsupervisors also learn about the FWAprogram at orientation. The trainingmodule includes roleplaying, casestudies, scenarios, and barriers toparticipation in all types of FWAs.„ As of 2004, the company had notdeveloped a tracking system to measurethe impact of the ﬂexiblework policy.
Outcomes: Eastman Kodak reports several successstories in which employees andsupervisors have made ﬂexible workarrangements work. They credit trustingrelationships and regular communicationfor making these arrangements effective.The only negative impact they have seenrelated to offering the program is co-workers who are jealous of those usingFWAs. In many cases, these employeescould have applied to work ﬂexiblythemselves but have not chosen to do so.