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Hrm ppt


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Hrm ppt

  1. 1. "Ergonomics (or human factors) isthe scientific discipline concernedwith the understanding ofinteractions among humans andother elements of a system, andthe profession that applies theory,principles, data and methods todesign in order to optimize humanwell-being and overall systemperformance."Ergonomics
  2. 2. Ergonomics means literally the study ormeasurement of WorkIn addition to work as labour formonetary gain, work also includes„Sports„Leisure activities„Domestic work„Education and training„Health and social services
  3. 3. Efficiency in purposeful activityTo achieve desired result withoutWasteErrorDamage to personsWorking situation in harmony with theactivities of the worker
  4. 4. Ensures that human needs for safe andefficient working are met in the design ofwork systemTo designAppliancesTechnical SystemsTasksIn such a way to improveHuman SafetyHealthComfort andPerformance032inches63inches
  5. 5. Human operator is flexible and adaptableLarge individual differencesObvious differences: --> Physical size, strengthNot obvious differences --> Culture, style, levelof skill
  6. 6. Thus a systematic approach andtheory are necessary. There shouldbe measurable objectives to bechecked and remedial action taken.A detailed study of the science ofergonomics provides theseapproaches and theories
  8. 8. Physical work environmentChemical environment
  9. 9. Anthropometry (Body sizes)Occupational Biomechanics
  10. 10. Psychological aspectsSocial psychology
  11. 11. Macro ergonomicsWork physiology
  12. 12. Safety and ErgonomicsSystems ergonomics
  13. 13. Flexible working simply refers to anyworking schedule that is outside of anormal working pattern.This means that the working hours,instead of being repetitive and fixed, caninvolve changes and variations. It canmean the employee has variables such aswhen they are required to work or eventheir place of work.
  14. 14. Flexible Work SchedulesBenefitsRecruitment and retention ofemployees39Coordinating employee workschedules with productionschedulesAccommodating the leisure-timeactivities of employees whilefacilitating employee personalappointments
  15. 15. DisdavantagesOvertime payments requiredby the Fair Labor Standards Actfor employees working over 40hours in one week.The additional stress onmanagers and employees, andlong workdays can beexhausting.
  16. 16. FlextimeWorking hours that permit employeesthe option of choosing daily startingand quitting times, provided that theywork a set number of hours per day orweek.All employees are required to bepresent during a designated “coreperiod.”Flexible hours reduce absenteeism andtardiness.
  17. 17. Company’s FlextimeSchedule
  18. 18. Job SharingThe arrangement whereby two part-time employees perform a job thatotherwise would be held by one full-time employee.Job sharers may work three days aweek, creating an overlap day forextended face-to-face conferencing.
  19. 19. Compressed hours :‟ Here, employeeswork the same hours over fewer days.Annual hours :‟ Employees agree theywill work a given number of hoursduring the year, but the pattern ofwork can vary from week to week.Staggered hours :‟ This lets employeesstart and finish work at differenttimes. Employees may also take timeoff in lieu or take career breaks.
  20. 20. Telecommuting :- The use of personalcomputers, networks, and othercommunications technology such as faxmachines to do work in the home that istraditionally done in the workplace. Increased flexibility foremployees Ability to attract workerswho might not otherwise beavailable Lessened burden on workingparents Less time and money wastedon physical commuting
  21. 21. CASECompany: Eastman Kodak, an “info-imaging” companyPROFILEKodak has operations in over 30countries and a workforce of 70,000employees;approximately 39,000 of these areemployed in the United States.
  22. 22. Challenge :- Meeting employee desiresfor work-life balanceSolution :- Part-time work, job sharing,compressed work weeks, flextime, andtelecommuting/flex-placearrangements
  23. 23. Policy Parameters :-„ All regular and conditional full timeand part-time employees are eligible torequest any of the flexible workarrangements regardless of position orgeographic location.„ Employees must complete anapplication, receive permission fromtheir immediate supervisor, anddemonstrate that the arrangement willnot have an adverse impact on thebusiness.
  24. 24. Development & Oversight :- Employees are told about theprogram as part of the new hireorientation that includes an overview ofprograms and policies. Information isalso provided in company newslettersand on the company’s website, sinceemployees may not focus on theavailability of flexible workarrangements until there is animmediate need for them.
  25. 25. Development & Oversight:„ Employees are told about theprogram as part of the new hireorientation that includes an overviewof programs and policies. Informationis also provided in companynewsletters and on the company’swebsite, since employees may not focuson the availability of flexible workarrangements until there is animmediate need for them.
  26. 26. „ Training programs for supervisors, linemanagers and senior managers wereconducted, and newsupervisors also learn about the FWAprogram at orientation. The trainingmodule includes roleplaying, casestudies, scenarios, and barriers toparticipation in all types of FWAs.„ As of 2004, the company had notdeveloped a tracking system to measurethe impact of the flexiblework policy.
  27. 27. Outcomes: Eastman Kodak reports several successstories in which employees andsupervisors have made flexible workarrangements work. They credit trustingrelationships and regular communicationfor making these arrangements effective.The only negative impact they have seenrelated to offering the program is co-workers who are jealous of those usingFWAs. In many cases, these employeescould have applied to work flexiblythemselves but have not chosen to do so.