Everyone of us would probably experience different types of stress at one time or another. It could be some personal stress arising in the work place, strained family relationships with teenage children, emotional stress caused by financial problems, post traumatic disorders after an unhappy event like an accident or even feeling stress when you are on holiday!
Ontology of Stress
Stress is the excessive pressure on an
individual due to physical or psychological
The term "stress" was first used by the
endocrinologist Hans Selye in the 1930s
to identify physiological responses in
Stressors are stimuli that cause stress
Stressors – internal - e.g. pain, thoughts,
external - e.g. heat, crowding, noise, the
death of a family member .
Have you ever (I'm sure you have) felt:
- The feeling of excitement when you won a game
- The excitement when you bought your first car
- The accomplishment of a challenge
- The excitement of going for a holiday
These feelings sure make us feel good and they are the so-
called "good stress" or "positive stress".
Exert healthy effect on you.
Occurs for a short period of time.
Eustress is also often called the curative stress because it
gives a person the ability to generate the best performance
or maximum output.
Distress is a “negative stress”. It is a stress disorder that is caused
by adverse events and it often influences a person’s ability to deal
with. Some events leading to distress are:
- Death of a loved one
- Financial problems
- Heavy work responsibility and workload
Distress can be classified further as acute stress or chronic stress.
Acute stress is short-lived while chronic stress is usually
prolonged in nature.
When a person is pushed beyond what he or she can handle,
they will experience hyperstress.
Hyperstress results from being overloaded or overworked. It’s
like being stressed out. When someone is hyperstressed, even
little things can trigger a strong emotional response. People
who are most likely to suffer from hyperstress are:
- Working mothers who have to multi-task, juggling between
work and family commitments
- People who are under constant financial strains.
- Generally people working in fast pace environment.
Hypostress is experienced by a person who is constantly bored.
Someone in an unchallenging job, such as a factory worker
performing the same task over and over, will often experience
hypostress. The effect of hypostress is feelings of restlessness and
a lack of motivation.
Alarm is the first stage. When the threat or stressor is
identified or realized, the body's stress response is a state
Resistance is the second stage. If the stressor continue, it
becomes necessary to attempt some means of coping with the
Exhaustion is the third and final stage in the GAS model. At this
point, all of the body's resources are eventually washed-out and
the body is unable to maintain normal function.
Stressors associated with the
specific job a person performs.
Some occupations are by nature
more stressful than others.
Stressors associated with the
job’s physical setting, such as
the satisfactoriness of
temperature and lighting.
Stressors associated with the role a person is
expected to play.
Stressors associated with group pressures,
leadership, and personality conflicts.
The behavioral consequences of stress, such as
alcohol abuse, may harm the person under
stress or others.
Psychological consequences relate to a person’s
mental health and well-being.
Medical consequences affect a person’s physical
Heart disease and stroke, among other illnesses,
have been linked to stress.
One clear organizational consequence of too
much stress is a decline in performance.
The most significant forms of withdrawal
behavior are absenteeism and quitting.
Stress can have a negative effect on job
satisfaction, morale, organizational
commitment, and motivation to perform at
Is the general feeling of exhaustion that
develops when an individual simultaneously
experiences too much pressure and has too
few sources of satisfaction.
Role and task management
Spend time in nature
Supportive work and family
Health insurance coverage
Flexible scheduling of work
Stress reduction workshops