Aim for a healthy weight. Be physically active each day.Let the Pyramid guide yourfood choices.Choose a variety of grainsdaily,especially whole grains. Choose beverages and foods toChoose a variety of fruits moderate yourand intake of sugars.vegetables daily. Choose a diet that is low inKeep food safe to eat. saturated fat and cholesterol and moderate in total fat. Choose and prepare foods with less salt. If you drink alcoholic beverages, do so in moderation.
Six basic diet planning principles 1. adequacy enough energy and nutrients (all) are included in the diet to meet the needs of healthy people 2. balance consuming the right amount of each type of food – not too much, not too little 3. Calories (energy) • energy in from food = energy out for metabolism and activities • choose foods of high nutrient density 4. nutrient density • choose foods that give you the most nutrient for the least food energy • empty-calorie foods - deliver only energy, little or no protein vitamins, minerals
Cola = 150 kcalGrapes = 150 kcalGrapes also offer: traceof protein, somevitamins, minerals,phytochemicals, andfiberCola offers: only“empty” calories fromsugar without any othernutrients.
Moderation Variety › vary your choices, even wishing a food group different foods contain different nutrients eating nutritiously shouldn’t be boring
food group plans › sort foods of similar origin and nutrient content into groups exchange lists › organizes food by proportions of carbs, fats, proteins
easy way to create a balanced diet › just select foods from the 5 groups, according to the rules number of recommended serving is listed lists the foods according to their nutrient density
Decreased muscle strength & control Decreased ability to sweat Increased body core temperature Eventually, heat stroke.
Another source for planning a good diet foods are sorted according to energy nutrient contents cheeses and meats: both provide energy from protein carb group: starch, fruit, milk, others, veggies (non-starchy) meat/meat substitute group: very lean, lean, medium-fat, high fat fat group
Approx Approx. Measure Energy Protein CarbohydrS.NO. Exchange Amt of raw Fat(g) of raw (Kcal) (gm) ate(gm) food(g) food 1 Milk 250 1cup 170 8 12 10 2pieces or 2.a. Meat 40 1 egg 70 7 Neg 5 b. Pulse 30 3tbsp 100 7 17 Neg 3.a. VegA 100 1/2cup Neg Neg Neg Neg b. VegB 100-150 1/2CUP 40 2 7 Neg 4 Fruit 80-100 1 portion 40 Neg 10 Neg 5 Cereal 20 3tbsp 70 2 15 Neg 6 Fat 5 1tsp 45 Neg Neg 5 7 Sugar 5 1tsp 20 Neg 5 Neg
A food exchange list consists of similar foods grouped together so that specified amounts of each food listed in that group have approximately the same energy, carbohydrate, protein and fat content.
Food exchange are food equivalents designed to facilitate easy variation in diet. One can make the diet more flexible and exciting to match one’s taste and needs, by understanding the concept of Exchanges. For e.g In a cereal exchange, one chappati is equivalent to 3/4 katori cooked rice or one idli or two medium slices of bread. One cannot substitute chappati with milk or dal because of different nutritional quality. Similarly, the chart on vegetable exchange gives you a list of vegetables that can be exchanged with each other.
how do you plan a healthy diet? › start with what you like and build on that think food groups and nutrient-rich › most food is processed “treated to change physical, chemical microbiological or sensory properties”
choose › whole-grain regularly › fresh vegetables raw, frozen, cooked, canned (without salt) are OK › legumes beans and peas cheap, high in fiber › fresh fruits, mostly citrus frozen, dried, canned without sugar are OK › meat, fish and chicken with minimal fat › fat-free or low-fat milk, yogurt, cheese