homocisteine and heart disease


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homocisteine and heart disease

  1. 1. <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HOW HOMOCYSTEINE </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CAUSEs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HEART </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DISEASE ….. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  2. 2. What is homocysteine?
  3. 3. <ul><li>HOMOCYSTEINE is a naturally occurring by- </li></ul><ul><li>product of methionine metabolism in the </li></ul><ul><li>body.  </li></ul><ul><li>Methionine is an amino acid, ie part of food </li></ul><ul><li>proteins and is found primarily in meats, eggs, </li></ul><ul><li>dairy products, fish, chicken, seeds, nuts and </li></ul><ul><li>some vegetables. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Homocysteine pathways normally pave the way to </li></ul><ul><li>body production of other essentials including </li></ul><ul><li>glutathione a powerful detoxifier in the body on </li></ul><ul><li>the one hand and brain chemicals serotonin (the </li></ul><ul><li>happy hormone), melatonin (sleep and mood </li></ul><ul><li>improving hormone), dopamine (euphoria </li></ul><ul><li>hormone) and adrenaline (the fight and flight </li></ul><ul><li>hormone).  </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>The reason Homocysteine accumulates in </li></ul><ul><li>the body causing cell damage and the onset </li></ul><ul><li>of major disease, is because the </li></ul><ul><li>biochemical transformation process is not </li></ul><ul><li>working properly, usually due to lack of </li></ul><ul><li>these needed vitamins and minerals for the </li></ul><ul><li>given Homocysteine pathways.  </li></ul>
  6. 8. LEVELS OF HOMOCYSTINE <ul><li>5-15 micromoles per liter as normal. </li></ul><ul><li>15-30 micromoles per liter as moderate. </li></ul><ul><li>30-100 micromoles per liter as </li></ul><ul><li>intermediate. </li></ul><ul><li>Greater than 100 micromoles per liter as severe. </li></ul>
  7. 9. symptoms of elevated homocysteine levels <ul><ul><li>Hyperhomocysteinemia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deep vein thrombosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulmonary embolism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Homocystinuria (genetic) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 10. <ul><li>An elevated level of homocysteine in the blood </li></ul><ul><li>(hyperhomocysteinemia) cause narrowing and hardening </li></ul><ul><li>of the arteries (atherosclerosis). </li></ul><ul><li>The blood vessel narrowing in turn leads to diminished </li></ul><ul><li>blood flow through the affected arteries. </li></ul><ul><li>Elevated levels of homocysteine in the blood may also </li></ul><ul><li>increase the tendency to excessive blood clotting. Blood </li></ul><ul><li> clots inside the arteries can further diminish the flow of </li></ul><ul><li>blood. </li></ul><ul><li>The resultant lack of blood supply to the heart muscles may </li></ul><ul><li>cause heart attacks, and the lack of blood supply to the </li></ul><ul><li>brain causes strokes. </li></ul><ul><li>Elevated homocysteine levels also have been shown to be </li></ul><ul><li>associated with formation of blood clots in veins ( deep vein </li></ul><ul><li> thrombosis and pulmonary embolism ). </li></ul>
  9. 11. Plasma homocystine concentration is decreased by dietary intervetion.
  10. 12. High plasma homocystine conc. Is reported to be a risk factor for vascular diseases. In national public health institute Finland they investigated the extend to which serum folate and plasma homocystine respond to high intake of natural folate from food. The study included a baseline period and 2 to 5 weeks diet periods of low & high folate diet.
  11. 13. The low folate diet contained 1 serving of both vegetables & fruits/day, while during the high folate diet the subject ate at least 7 serving of vegetables, berries and citrus fruits/day. Serum & Erytrocyte (RBC) folate, serum vitB12 & plasma homocystine conc. Were measured at the baseline & at the end of the diet period .
  12. 14. The mean conc. of serum and (RBC) folate were 11.0(sd 3-0) nmol/l &412(sd 120)nmol/l. At the end of the low folate diet and 78% & 14% higher in response to high folate diet. The serum conc. of vitb12 remain unchanged during the intervention The mean plasma homocystine conc. was 8.0µmol/l, at the end of the low folate diet and decreases by 13% in response to high folate diet. In conclusion a diet high in berries citrus fruits andvegetables effectively increases serum & RBC folate and decreases plasma homocystine
  13. 15. RICH SOURCES OF FOLIC ACID IN µg JOWAR : 20.0 WHEAT WHOLE : 36.6 BENGAL GRAM WHOLE : 186 BEGALGRAM dhal : 147.5 BEGALGRAM rosted : 139 BLACK GRAM,dhal : 132 COW PEA : 133