Diabetes Self Managment

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Diabetes Self Managment

  1. 1. Diabetes Self Management Mili Sarkar Diabetes Educator Dietician Associates Clinical Research & Trail
  2. 2. Learning Objectives• Understand the impact of diabetes• Distinguish the different types of Diabetes• Identify treatment options for diabetes management• Identify methods of applying the Chronic Care Model to diabetes self-management• Describe tools which health care providers can use to empower patients
  3. 3. DiabetesDiabetes is a chronicdisease, which occurs whenthe pancreas does notproduce enough insulin, orwhen the body cannoteffectively use the insulin itproduces. This leads to anincreased concentration ofglucose in the blood
  4. 4. Diabetes• Type 1• Type 2• Gestational• LADA: Latent Autoimmune Diabetes of Aging• Pre-Diabetes• Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT)• Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG)
  5. 5. Risk Factors for DiabetesType 1 Type 2• Under 30 • Older age• Genetics • Overweight• Autoimmune • Hypertension• Environment • Abnormal lipid levels• Viral • Geneticsinfection • Race/ethnicity • History of gestational diabetes • History of vascular disease • Inactivity
  6. 6. Clinical Manifestations: Comparisons Type 1 Type 2• Polyuria • Fatigue• Polyphagia • Dry, itchy skin• Polydipsia • Numbness, tingling • Polydipsia• Significant weight loss • Polyuria• Fatigue • Blurred vision • Impaired healing • Yeast infections • Sexual dysfunction
  7. 7. Acute Complications of Diabetes• Dawn Phenomenon• Somogyi Phenomenon• Hypoglycemia• Diabetic Ketoacidosis• Hyperglycemia, Hyperosmolar Syndrome
  8. 8. Chronic Complications of DiabetesMicrovascular• Retinopathy• Nephropathy• Neuropathy
  9. 9. Chronic Complications of DiabetesMacrovascular• Cardiovascular Disease• Cerebral Vascular Accident• Peripheral Vascular Disease
  10. 10. Glucose Tolerance Categories FPG 2-Hour PG or OGTT Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes Mellitus126 mg/dL 7.0 mmol/L 200 mg/dL 11.1 mmol/L Impaired Fasting Impaired Glucose Glucose Tolerance100 mg/dL 5.6 mmol/L 140 mg/dL 7.8 mmol/L Normal Normal
  11. 11. Treatment Options for Diabetes• Nutrition• Activity• Medications
  12. 12. Importance of Testing Blood Sugars• Testing blood glucose• Alternate times• Develop a pattern• Be sure to include 2 hours post prandial• Record the numbers• Discuss at visits• Use to revise treatment plan
  13. 13. Chronic Care Model and Diabeteso The patient becomes knowledgeable and the expert in diabetes and its complicationso The patient understands the importance of taking control of their diabeteso The patient has people who are important to them and their management of diabetes and the provider includes them as the patient wantso The provider will take time to build a relationship with the patient and understands their beliefs, values, culture
  14. 14. Maslow’s Theory
  15. 15. Using the 5 “A’s” With Diabetes• Assess• Advise• Agree• Assist• Arrange
  16. 16. 4 Important Lessons Patient Need to Learn• Their illness is serious• Their condition is essentially self- managed• They have options• They can change their behavior
  17. 17. Helping Patients Set Goals• Start at the problem• Develop a collaborative goal• Validate their goal and plan
  18. 18. Old Model vs New Model: Being put on Insulin Old Model New Empowering Model You have been working toIf you don’t start to control your blood glucose,control your blood but often a patient willglucose, I am going to need some assistance formhave to put you on insulin. Research showsinsulin and you will that starting someone onhave to take shots. insulin sooner than later,Your diabetes is not assists them in gettinggetting any better. better control. What about insulin concerns you?
  19. 19. World Health Organization and Diabetes • The mission of the WHO Diabetes Program is to prevent diabetes • Core Functions • Diabetes Action Now • World Diabetes day
  20. 20. Summary• Diabetes is a chronic condition affecting millions worldwide• Self-management techniques can delay or prevent complications• Empowering the and becoming a partner with them, will help provide positive results of control• Tools were given to assist the provider in understanding diabetes and thus assisting their patients
  21. 21. Questions and Discussion
  22. 22. ResourcesBooks:Diabetes BurnoutCaring for the Diabetic SoulOrganizations:American Diabetes Association (1-800-DIABETES)North Carolina Diabetes Association (1-877-362-2678)

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