diabetes mellitus


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diabetes mellitus

  1. 1. DIABETES MELLITUS ? Diabetes = flow through Mel = honey  It is a chronic metabolic disorder.  Has a strong hereditary basis.  Associated with high blood sugar and passage of sugar in the urine.
  2. 2. SYMPTOMS OF DM ?
  4. 4. SOME OTHER RISK FACTORS FORDM ?  Dietary restrictions in foetal stage  Excess sugar intake  Low dietary fibre  Infections  Acute stress – Physical injury, surgery, emotional distress  Prolonged malnutrition
  5. 5. RISK FACTORS FOR HT & Cigarette smoking  Psychological factorsIHD ? High HDL cholesterol  LP (a) High fat diet  Age – 50-55 years High blood pressure  Male gender Diabetes mellitus  Family history Physical inactivity  Obesity Low HDL cholesterol  Post menopausal High Triglycerides status
  7. 7. CHILDHOOD OBESITY ACONCERN!!! Pizza, Icecream , Candy,
  8. 8. PRINCIPLES OF DIETARYMANAGEMENT ? Low calorie Low cholesterol High in unsaturated fats – mono (MUFA) and poly (PUFA) High in fibre High in minerals and vitamins Low in sodium especially salt Plenty of fluids High in omega-3 fat (n-3) Low fat particularly saturated fats (SAFA)
  9. 9. DIETARY GUIDELINES Maintain slightly lower than normal weight. Diet should be rich in fibre. Have 500 gm of fruits & vegetables each day. Use vegetable oil rich in MUFA & n-3. Include fish in diet. Have small quantities of walnuts and almonds. Use only skimmed milk. Have coffee and tea in moderation. Include Soya bean, fenugreek, garlic, onion and turmeric in diet.
  10. 10. DIETARY GUIDELINESCONTINUED… Use combinations of oils. Have plenty of water. Prefer whole wheat instead of rice. Have 6 meals a day 3 main meals 3 in between meals (snacks) Avoid feasting and fasting.
  11. 11. AVOID THESE … Sweets, chocolates, cakes, pastries, Ice creams Aerated drinks, alcohol and sweetened juices Sago (sabudana) Egg yolk Coconut Sugar, honey, jaggery, glucose Meat and pork Sodium rich foods (salt) Fried foods Heavy meal
  12. 12. HAVE PLENTY OF THESE… Beans  Tomatoes(green)  Strawberries Broccoli  Buttermilk, low fat Cabbage  Milk, 1% milk fat Cauliflower  Soy milk Cucumber  Yogurt, plain Brinjal  Tea (no milk & sugar) Lettuce  Lime water (no Mushrooms sugar) Radishes  WaterTHESE ARE LOW CALORIE
  13. 13. ANIMAL FOODS HIGH IN SAFA ANDCHOLESTEROL Butter Ghee Cheese Egg yolk Chicken Beef Mutton Pork Organ meats – brain, heart, kidney, liver Prawns and shrimps AVOID THEM TO PROTECT YOUR
  14. 14. THE KEY TO GOOD
  15. 15. FIBRE RICH FOODS… Whole cereals Wheat, Barley, Ragi, Corn, Muesli, Oats, Isabgul… Leafy and other vegetables Cabbage, Peas, Broccoli, Carrots… Beans, whole pulses and legumes Rajmah, Tuver, Chole, Soyabean… Fruits Apples, Strawberries, Peach, Pear, Guava, Pomogeranate…
  16. 16. FOODS HIGH IN SODIUM Salt  Egg Baking powder  Lobster Cooking soda  Monosodium glutamate Biscuits  Soya & tomato sauce Breads  Pickles Salted butter  Wafers Cakes & pastries  Papad Cheese  Canned food Salted chips  Prepared mixes Corn flakes  Peanut butterBEST AT ITS MINIMUM !!!
  17. 17. NATURAL ANTIOXIDANTS  Guava  Orange  Red grapes  Lime  Pomegranate  Dark green leafy vegetables  Amla  Walnuts  Berries (Bor)  Almonds  Tomato  Whole grain cereals  PapayaTHESE FIGHT TO PROTECT
  18. 18. SOYA PROTEINS Soya bean Soya milk Tofu Textured Soya supplements Soya nuggets Soya flourIT REDUCES CHOLESTEROL!!!
  19. 19. GARLICDOSE: 1 or ½ clove of garlic per day  Reduces blood pressure.  Reduces cholesterol levels.
  20. 20. FENUGREEK SEEDS (Methi)DOSE: 25 to 50 g per day High in fibre Reduces blood sugar Reduces cholesterol and TG Helps loose weight
  21. 21. GLYCEMIC INDEX (GI)Ability of the food item to raiseblood sugar is measured in GI. Does not depend on amount of food But on how fast it is absorbed within the body Diabetics must prefer low GI foods
  22. 22. VERY LOW GI FOODS Dals and pulsesMoong dal, tur dal, rajmah, moong,soybeans, channa etc. Low fat dairy productsMilk, curds, paneer and buttermilk.
  23. 23. INTERMEDIATE GI FOODS All vegetablesCabbage, brinjal, spinach, methi, guvar etc. Fruits with low sugar and highwaterWatermelon, pineapple, apple, orange etc. Whole cerealsWhole wheat, whole wheat noodles, bajra,jowar, ragi, wheat bran, rice bran, barleyetc.
  24. 24. HIGH GI FOODS Cornflakes Rice Maida Bread Root vegetables like potato, yam Sugar, honey, jaggery, sweets, chocolate Icecream
  25. 25. ALCOHOL….. MUST BEAVOIDED of empty calories which is It is a source stored in the body as fat. It reduces blood sugar and hence must be avoided especially when on insulin and oral medicines. It damages liver. It may react with certain medicines.
  26. 26. MYTHS  … & FACTS  … Eating sweets cause diabetes. Sweets only increase weight. Inability of thebody to form insulin cause diabetes. Sugar free products can be freely taken. Sugar free products can be high in fat andhence must be avoided.
  27. 27. MYTHS  … & FACTS  …Continue… Diabetics must avoid fruits. Only few fruits such as mango, grapes,chikoo, coconut, sitaphal and banana must beavoided. Rest all can be taken daily. Diabetes is curable. Diabetes cannot be cured but can bemanaged with diet, exercise and medication.