LACTICÍNIOS E SAÚDE HUMANALisboa, 24 de Setembro de 2011   Pedro Carrera Bastos
HISTÓRIA DOS LACTICÍNIOS                       !
values defined by health institutions ( 120 mm HgTable 1 Historical milestones in human generations14,63–65                ...
!!                      !Tal como todas os seres vivos,                        o Homo sapiens do                        Sé...
QUAL FOI O NOSSO NICHO    ECOLÓGICO???  !
ORIGENS DO HOMEM!                       Homo sapiens                  0                                H. heidelbergensis ...
!Todos os humanos que vivem!      na Europa, Ásia, Oceania e           América têm uma !!          !            ORIGEM AFR...
População de Homo sapiens de ~1.000 indivíduos!            emigrou para a Eurásia há ~!             50 a 60,000 anos !    ...
CARACTERÍSTICAS UNIVERSAIS DO ESTILODE VIDA DE CAÇADORES -RECOLECTORES!
ACTIVIDADE FÍSICA OBRIGATÓRIA         VITAL PARA A       SOBREVIVÊNCIA!       Cordain L, et al. Int J Sport Med 1998;19:32...
CICLO SONO-VIGÍLIATodos os humanos, até a invenção da luz artificial, dormiam    em sincronia com a variação diurna da luz!...
RADIAÇÃO UV CONSTANTEFigure 1. The potential for synthesis of previtamin D3 in lightly pigmented human skin computed from ...
DIETAS DOS C-R!
FONTES VEGETAIS !!ü  Plantas!ü  Raízes e tubérculos!ü  Frutos do Bosque!ü  Fruta!ü  Oleaginosas!!!               Cord...
FONTES ANIMAIS !                                              ü  Animais                                                 ...
O QUE NÃO COMIAMOS CAÇADORES-RECOLECTORES?
LácteosAçúcar isolado                                                                                             Cereais ...
LEITE? PORQUE NÃO?!
Comparison of Infant Feeding Patterns Reported for Nonindustrial                                        WEANING IN NONINDU...
Indicators of ages at complementary feeding and weaning reported for nonindustrial societiesBuka          1929–1930       ...
Indicators of ages at complementary feeding and weaning reported for nonindustrial societies                              ...
Saami1         1913–1947,        3–4 mo            3–4 mo               6 mo to 2 y                3.5             3.5    ...
WEANING IN NONINDUSTRIAL SOCIETIES                                                    WEANING IN NONINDUSTRIAL SOCIETIES  ...
AMAMENTAÇÃOSellen DW. J Nutr. 2001 Oct;131(10):2707-15!
~10,000 anos                                   Revolução                                   Agrícola                       ...
EVIDÊNCIA DO CONSUMO DE LÁCTEOS                                        NO MÉDIO ORIENTE                                   ...
DATAS DE EXPANSÃO GEOGRÁFICA DAS2011                          Downloaded from rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org on February ...
EVIDÊNCIA DO CONSUMO DE LÁCTEOS                                    NO MÉDIO ORIENTE E EUROPA                              ...
UVBJablonski NG, Chaplin G. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 May 11;107 Suppl 2:8962-8
UVAJablonski NG, Chaplin G. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 May 11;107 Suppl 2:8962-8
FOLATOMiller AL, Kelley GS. Altern Med Rev. 1996;1(4):220-235
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva
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1ª Parte do Seminário Lacticínios e Saúde Humana, que decorreu no passado dia 24 e que teve a duração total de 7 horas de formação.

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Lacticínios e Saúde Humana - Perspectiva Histórica e Evolutiva

  1. 1. LACTICÍNIOS E SAÚDE HUMANALisboa, 24 de Setembro de 2011 Pedro Carrera Bastos
  2. 2. HISTÓRIA DOS LACTICÍNIOS !
  3. 3. values defined by health institutions ( 120 mm HgTable 1 Historical milestones in human generations14,63–65 T YHistorical milestones Generations % totalHomo habilis 76,667 100.0 AHomo erectus 60,000 78.2 0Modern Homo sapiens 6666 8.7 1Neolithic Revolution 366 0.48 2Industrial Revolution 7 0.009 3Food industry (junk food) and 4 0.005 4physical inactivity (Modern Age) 516 submit your manuscript | www.dovepress.com Carrera-Bastos P, Fontes-Villalba M, OKeefe JH, Lindeberg S, Cordain L. Res Rep Clin Cardiol 2011;2:15-35. Dovepress
  4. 4. !! !Tal como todas os seres vivos, o Homo sapiens do Séc. XXI está geneticamente adaptado para o ambiente em que os seus antepassados sobreviveram e que em consequência condicionou os seus genes.!Cordain L et al. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Feb;81(2):341-54!
  5. 5. QUAL FOI O NOSSO NICHO ECOLÓGICO??? !
  6. 6. ORIGENS DO HOMEM! Homo sapiens 0 H. heidelbergensis H. erectus Paranthropus H. neanderthalensis boisei 1 H. antecessor H. habilis P. robustus 2 H. ergaster Au. garhi Au. 3 rudolfensis P. aethiopicusMilhões de anos Kenyanthropus Au. africanus platyops Au. bahrelghazali 4 Ardipithecus ramidus Au. afarensis Au. anamensis 5 Orrorin tugenensis 6 7 Sahelanthropus tchadensis 8 Adaptado de Wood B. Nature 2002:418:133-35 e de Cordain L, 2009!
  7. 7. !Todos os humanos que vivem! na Europa, Ásia, Oceania e América têm uma !! ! ORIGEM AFRICANA! Etiópia! !! MENOR DIVERSIDADE GENÉTICA Liu H, et al., 2006! FORA DE ÁFRICA ! Relethford JH. Heredity. 2008 Jun;100(6):555-63.! Jakobsson M, et al. Nature 2008; 451(7181):998-1003! ! ! Manica A, et al. Nature; 2007; 448(7151):346-8! Hellenthal G, Auton A, Falush D. PLoS Genet. 2008 May 23;4(5):e1000078! ! ! Liu H, et al. Am J Hum Genet. 2006 Aug;79(2):230-7! Ramachandran S, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Nov 1;102(44):15942-7! ! ! Conrad D, et al. Nat Genet 2006; 38: 1251–1260! Prugnolle F, Manica A, Balloux F. Current Biology 2005; 15:R159–R160! ! ! RAY N, et al. Genome Res 2005; 15:1161–1167! Cavalli-Sforza LL, Feldman MW. Nat Genet 2003; 33:266–275! ! ! Macaulay V, et al. Science 2005; 308(5724):1034-6! Tishkoff S, Williams S. Nat Rev Genet 2002; 3: 611–621! ! ! Currat M, Excoffier L. PLoS Biology 2004; 2: 2264–2274! Harpending, H, Rogers, AR. Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet 2000; 1:361–385!
  8. 8. População de Homo sapiens de ~1.000 indivíduos! emigrou para a Eurásia há ~! 50 a 60,000 anos ! e habitaram todo o planeta ! Liu H, et al. Am J Hum Genet. 2006 Aug;79(2):230-7!
  9. 9. CARACTERÍSTICAS UNIVERSAIS DO ESTILODE VIDA DE CAÇADORES -RECOLECTORES!
  10. 10. ACTIVIDADE FÍSICA OBRIGATÓRIA VITAL PARA A SOBREVIVÊNCIA! Cordain L, et al. Int J Sport Med 1998;19:328-335.
  11. 11. CICLO SONO-VIGÍLIATodos os humanos, até a invenção da luz artificial, dormiam em sincronia com a variação diurna da luz! Wiley TS, Formby B, Lights Out – Sleep, Sugar and Survival. Pocket Books, New York, 2000
  12. 12. RADIAÇÃO UV CONSTANTEFigure 1. The potential for synthesis of previtamin D3 in lightly pigmented human skin computed from annual average UVMED. The highest annualvalues for UVMED are shown in light violet, withNG, Chaplinlower values in dark violet, then in light to dark shades of blue, orange, green and gray Jablonski incrementally G. J Hum Evol. 2000 Jul;39(1):57-106(64 classes). White denotes areas for which no UVMED data exist. Mercator projection. In the tropics, the zone of adequate UV radiation throughout
  13. 13. DIETAS DOS C-R!
  14. 14. FONTES VEGETAIS !!ü  Plantas!ü  Raízes e tubérculos!ü  Frutos do Bosque!ü  Fruta!ü  Oleaginosas!!! Cordain L et al. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Feb;81(2):341-54!
  15. 15. FONTES ANIMAIS ! ü  Animais terrestres selvagens ! (músculo, gordura e vísceras)! ü  Aves! ü  Insectos! ü  Peixe e outros alimentos marinhos!Cordain L et al. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Feb;81(2):341-54!
  16. 16. O QUE NÃO COMIAMOS CAÇADORES-RECOLECTORES?
  17. 17. LácteosAçúcar isolado Cereais (excepto mel) Sal Leguminosas Álcool Carne de animais Óleos Vegetais domesticados obesos Cordain L. Implications of Plio-Pleistocene Hominin Diets for Modern Humans. ! In: Early Hominin Diets: The Known, the Unknown, and the Unknowable. Ungar, P (Ed.), Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2006, pp 363-83 !
  18. 18. LEITE? PORQUE NÃO?!
  19. 19. Comparison of Infant Feeding Patterns Reported for Nonindustrial WEANING IN NONINDUSTRIAL SOCIETIES Populations with Current Recommendations WEANING IN NONINDUSTRIAL SOCIETIES 270 1 Daniel W. Sellen TABLE 1 TABLE 1Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 Departments of Anthropology and International Health, Indicators of ages at complementary feeding and weaning reported for nonindustrial societies Indicators of ages at complementary feeding and weaning reported for nonindustrial societies ABSTRACT The observation that young child-feeding practices rarely conform to current global estimate Reported Best estimate Best recommenda- tions is of major public health ages of policy concern and raises questions about Best of average Reported nutrition Reported Best of average whether near-universal Best estimate estimate estimate compliance with recommendations is feasible in any population. This analysis uses indicatorsof averageof age of Reported introduction ages of age of of average of age at introduction estimate age Best of average Dates ofof complementary foods and termination of breastfeeding available from age of data introduction introduction age of of Reported ages of ethnographic and demographic reports averageof introduction introduction age of of age Ethnic publishedintroduction collection (or Dates of data between 1873 and 1998 to test the hypothesis thatof of nonbreast nonbreast Reported ages ofrecent introduction of cessation and contemporary introduction societies age of of nonbreast nonindustrial of nonbreast cessation of designationEthnic collection practice patterns of infant feeding concordant withbreastfeeding recommendations. Results nonbreast ethno- breastfeeding publication) (or milk liquids of nonbreast milk solids nonbreast cessation global current of milk liquids of suggest that of nonbreast milk solids cessation of Sodesignation graphically reported average milk solids publication) milk liquids ages at introduction of nonbreast milk liquids (4.5 6 6.0 mo) and solids (5.0 6 4.0 mo) breastfeeding milk liquids milk solids breastfeeding Source and the duration of breastfeeding (29.0 6 10.0 mo) among a sample of 113 such populations concord with those mo mo at which key weaning transitions are biologically optimal for most normal healthy children. However, wide variation mo meses meses meses in estimates across populations remains unexplained and serious limitations in the available data preclude proper mo mo mo Downloaded from jn.nutrition.org by on September 8, 2008 Amele1 1983–1994 7–8 mo 3 assessment of the underlying distribution of the 36.3 of weaning transitions within populations. 7.5Nutr. 131: 36.5 timing — J. (84Amele1 Amhara 1983–1994 1958–19612707–2715, 2001. 7–8 mo 36.33 y 2–3 — — 7.5 — 36.530 (84) (85Amhara Aranda 1958–1961 1881–1935, 2–3 y y 2–5 — — — — 30 39 (85) (86Aranda 1881–1935, (1929)KEY WORDS: c breastfeeding c child survival y public health policy c — 2–5 c — infant feeding c cross-cultural 39 (86,87) Arapaho (1929) 1935–1942 4 y usual, as old — — 48 (88Arapaho 1935–1942 4 y usual, y breastfeeding is — 18 mo (23). Globally, it has been esti- as 8 as old Observational studies show that exclusive breastfeeding in only — 48 (88) Araucani1 as 8 y the early months, continued partial breastfeeding and timelyy 1946–1952 1–2 — — mated that 85% of mothers do not conform to current recom- 18 (89Araucani12 Aymara 1946–1952 to high quality nonbreast milk foods deliver physi-y; 2–2.5 y 1940–1942; transition 1.5 y 1–2 y 1–2 mendations (24). Attempts to improve maternal 18 18; 27 — — — 18 and child (89,88) (90Aymara2 1940–1942; economic benefits to mothers and maximize y; 2–2.5 y 1961–1962 ological and 1.5 y 1–2 nu- health are often— frustrated because18 18; 27 normative practices differ (90,91) Azande 1961–1962 1911–1932 growth, development and survival for normaly trient intakes, Early 3–4 0 recommended ones for a number of rea- 0 42 (92 quite markedly fromAzande Badaga 1911–1932 Early trials 3–4 y healthy children (1–5). Recent randomized mo lend strong 1962–1977 3–5 1y 0 — 0 4 42 12 (92) (93 sons. For example, perceived milk insufficiency, work activitiesBadaga Chan Bang 1962–1977 the hypothesis that delaying mo introduction of mo (12–22 support to 1952–1954 3–5 the 1 y5–36 — — 4 — 12 13 (93) (94 and lack of social support often undermine maternal inten-Bang Chan 1952–1954 5–36 mo (12–22 mo complementary foods until 6 mo often benefits infants and usual); to initiate — maintain breastfeeding (25–29). In some — 13 (94) tions and momedian 13 mo3 mothers through reduced disease exposure, increased breast usual); settings, ethnographic studies show that scientific claims about Banoi milk intake and lengthened birth intervals (4,6 –9). Such1.5–6 or older3benefits of exclusive and continued breastfeeding53 (1965) median 13 mo data the — — lack (95Banoi (1965) attention on As soon as the scheduling and As soon as sucklingy older frequency of 1.5–6 or Bellacoola focus 1922–1924 2–3 local credibility — 0 — 0 53 30 because they conflict with local understand- (95) (96Bellacoola 1922–1924 nutritional quality and timing of as As soon as As soon introduction of possible 2–3 y and on the possible ings of the best 0strategies to enhance child survival30 –32). 0 (30 (96) possible possible nonbreast milk substances (10 –13). The data suggest that ay Bemba 1930–1934 2–3 These include delayed initiation of — — breastfeeding, use of 30 (97Bemba 1930–1934 specific subset of the potentially infinite variety of 2–3 y Bhil 1943–1954 From birth 10–11 mo possible prelacteals, discarding of colostrum,— 10.5 — 0 30 early introduction of wa- — (97) (98Bhil Buka breastfeeding andFrom birth 1943–1954 1929–1930 complementary feeding practices is optimaly 10–11 mo From birth 4–5 ter, herbal teas 0 — and nutritive liquids and the delayed — of 10.5 0 use 54 (98) (99Buka across a range of settings (14,15). From birth 1929–1930 4–5 y — semisolids and solid — 0 54 foods (24,33–38). Thus, in many contem- (99) Burmese 1949–1950 2–3 y — 30 (10Burmese It is logical to assume that recommendations based yon 1949–1950 2–3 — — 30 (100) Cayapa 1959–1960 of clinical outcomes reflect an adaptive pattern 3 y porary societies, a 2 comparison 2 mo 4 mo Up to complex mix of material and ideological 4 36 (10Cayapa 1959–1960 2 mo 4 mo Up to 3 y Chipewyan factors seem to 2 — constrain patterns of child feeding. 36 42 4 (101)Chipewyan naturally selected to optimize the sometimes-conflicting3–4 y 1960–1962 1960–1962 bio- 3–4 y — (10 Chuckchee logical interests of infants, mothers, 1 y and affines (16 –21).y 1919–1921 kin y 1 3–4 The scientific knowledge upon — 12 our current child- — which 42 (102)Chuckchee 1919–1921 3–4 y 3 — — 12 42 42 (103)(10 Datoga 1991–1992 3.6 mo3 mo3 10.6 to which21.93 21.9 feeding recommendations are based is 10.5 recently acquired 3.5 onlyDatoga 1991–1992 arise, however, about the 10.6 mo3 Questions 3.6 mo3 extent current 3.5 30 30 (38) (38 Delaware1 recommendations based on clinical observation fit with actualy 1951–1952 2–4 and remains limited— (39). It would10.5 — to know to36 be useful what (10Delaware1 1951–1952 2–4 y — — 36 (104,10 (1950) care-giving behaviors across the breadth of human societies extent populations primarily dependent on nonindustrial tra- (1950) Dogon ditional modes of subsistence achieved optimal infant-feedingDogon (1960) about the acceptability and feasibility of compliance yin (1960) and 2 y2 — — — 24 24 (10 Dorobo 1938–1939 1y patterns and to — specific cultural contexts. It isSellen DW. J Nutr. 2001 Oct;131(10):2707-15! — — any common factors that undermine identify — (106)Dorobo 1938–1939 estimated that in developing 1y — 12 12 (10 (107) Fang countries, where the relative benefits of optimalyfeeding are to 2 y 1946–1954 Before 1 18 mo optimal feeding in nonindustrial modern and postmodern set- — 6 21 (10
  20. 20. Indicators of ages at complementary feeding and weaning reported for nonindustrial societiesBuka 1929–1930 From birth 4–5 y — 0 54 (99)Burmese 1949–1950 Reported 2–3 y — Best estimate — Best estimate 30 (100)Cayapa 1959–1960 2 Reported mo 4 mo of ages Up to 3 y 2 of average 4 of average 36 Best estimate (101)Chipewyan 1960–1962 age of introduction 3–4 y age of — age of— 42 of average (102)Chuckchee 1919–1921 Dates of data introduction 1 yof 3–4 y Reported ages of — introduction 12 introduction age42of (103)DatogaEthnic 1991–1992 collection (or 3.6 mo3 of nonbreast 10.6 mo3 nonbreast 21.93 cessation of 3.5 of nonbreast 10.5 of nonbreast 30 cessation of (38)Delaware1designation 1951–1952 publication) milk liquids milk solids 2–4 y breastfeeding — milk liquids — milk solids 36 breastfeeding (104,105) Sources (1950) meses meses mesesDogon (1960) 2y mo — mo — mo24 (106)Dorobo 1938–1939 1y — — 12 (107)Fang 1 Amele 1946–1954 1983–1994 7–8 mo 1 y Before 36.33 mo to 2 y 18 — — 7.5 6 36.5 21 (84) (108)Fulbe Amhara (1992) 1958–1961 2–3 y — — — — 30 24.53 (85) (109)Gainj Aranda 1982 1881–1935, 9–12 mo 2–5 y — — — 10.5 39 38.53 (110) (86,87)Garo (1929) 1954–1956 “Early” 9–12 mo Almost 2 y 0 10.5 24 (111) ArapahoGoajiro 1935–1942 (1950) 6–8 mo 4 y usual, as old 1–3 y or later — — — 7 48 24 (88) (112)Gond/Maria 1927–1934, Up 8 y 3 y as to — — 36 (113) Araucani1 1946–1952 1940–1941 1–2 y(walking) — — 18 (89,88)Gros 2 Aymara 1940–1942; 1940–1948 1.5 y 1–2 y or more 2 y; 2–2.5 y — — 18 — 18; 2724 (90,91) (114) Ventre 1961–1962 (sometimes as Azande 1911–1932 Early 3–4 y as 6) old 0 0 42 (92) BadagaHadza 1962–1977 1980–1992 3–5 mo 1 y or 3 y 2 — — 4 — 12 30 (93) (115)Hare Chan Bang 1952–1954 (1962) 6 mo 5–36 mo (12–22 2–3 y — — — 6 13 30 (94) (116)Hausa 1949–1950 2 y usual); mo 3 — — 24 (117)Humbebe (1992) 29.63 13 mo median — — 29.5 (109) Downloaded from jn.nutrition.org by on September 8, 2008 Banoi (1965) 1.5–6 or older — — 53 (95)Igbo1,2 1929–1932, 2.5–3 y; 2–3.5 y — — 33; 33 (118,119) Bellacoola 1922–1924 As soon as As soon as 2–3 y 0 0 30 (96) 1951–1960 possible possibleIgorot Bemba (1985) 1930–1934 4 mo 2–3 y y 1–1.5 — — — 4 30 15 (97) (120)Ila Bhil 1902–1914 1943–1954 From birth “Very 10–11 mo 2–3 y 0 — 10.5 0 — 42 (98) (121) Buka 1929–1930 early” From birth 4–5 y — 0 54 (99)Iroquois Burmese 1951–1956 1949–1950 2–3 y y 3–4 — — — — 30 (100) (122)Javanese Cayapa 1952–1904 1959–1960 2 mo From birth 4 mo Up tomoy to several 14 3 2 0 4 0 36 14 (101) (123) Chipewyan 1960–1962 3–4 y y — — 42 (102)Jivaro2 Chuckchee 1917–1928, 1919–1921 1 Teething y 3–4 y y; 4–7 y 2–3 — — 12 — 42 30; 66 (103) (124,125) Datoga 1956–1907, 1991–1992 3.6 mo3 10.6 mo3 21.93 3.5 10.5 30 (38) Delaware1 1964, 1969 1951–1952 2–4 y — — 36 (104,105)Kapauku 1954–1955 (1950) 3y — — 36 (126)Kikuyu Dogon 1925–1952 (1960) 2 y least 2 y At — — — — 24 24 (106) (127,128)Klamath Dorobo (1950) 1938–1939 1y 2–3 y — — — — 12 30 (107) (129) FangKogi 1946–1954 1946–1950 Before 1 y 181moor less y to 2 y — — 6 — 21 12 (108) (130) FulbeKoryak (1992) 1900–1902 Early 2–3 y — — — 0 24.5330 (109) (131) GainjKpelle1,2 1982 1914–1915, 9–12 mo Early 1.5 y or older; —0 10.5 0 38.53 33; 30 18; (110) (132–135) Garo 1954–1956 1957–1958, “Early” 9–12 mo Almost 2 y (2.5 1–4 y 0 10.5 24 (111) Goajiro (1950) 1968–1969, 6–8 mo 1–3 y or later 2–4 y average); — 7 24 (112) Gond/Maria 1927–1934, 1970–1971 Up to 3 y — — 36 (113)Kwoma 1940–1941 1936–1937 (walking) 2–4 y — — 36 (136) GrosLolo2 1940–1948 (1924, 1947) From birth 2 y or morey 1 y; 4–5 — — — 0 24 54; 12 (114) (137) VentreLozi2 (1922, 1944) 18 mo; 2–3 as (sometimes y — — 18 (138)3 old as 6)Hadza 1980–1992 2 or 3 y — — 30 (115) (table continuedHare (1962) 6 mo 2–3 y — Sellen DW. J Nutr. 2001 Oct;131(10):2707-15! 6 30 (116)
  21. 21. Indicators of ages at complementary feeding and weaning reported for nonindustrial societies Reported Best estimate Best estimate Reported ages of of average Best estimateBest estimate Best estimate of average age of introduction of average age of of average ofBest estimate age of average Dates of data introduction of Reported ages of Reported age of Reported ages of introduction of age introductionof age age average of ofEthnic Dates of data collection (or introduction of cessation of ages of nonbreast of nonbreast of nonbreast introduction Reported of introduction of nonbreast age of introduction cessation of Ethnicdesignation publication) (or collection nonbreast milk milk liquids milk milk solids nonbreast cessation of milk liquids breastfeeding of nonbreast breastfeeding of of nonbreast milk solids cessation Source designation publication) liquids solids breastfeeding milk liquids milk solids breastfeeding Sour meses meses meses mo mo moMaasai 1895–1908 From birth ;2 y 0 — 24 (139)MarshallsAmele1 1908–1910 1983–1994 7–8 mo 36.33 2–3 y — — 7.5 — 36.5 30 (140) (84) IslandersAmhara 1958–1961 2–3 y — — 30 (85)MbunduAranda 1945–1951 1881–1935, 2–5 y 2–4 y — — — — 39 36 (141) (86,87)Micmac 1911–1912, (1929) 2–3 y — — 30 (142)Arapaho 1953 1935–1942 4 y usual,(traditionally) as old — — 48 (88)Mongo (1938) as 8 2–2.5 y y — — 27 (143)NahaneAraucani1 1943–1945 1946–1952 1–2 y 2–3 y — — — — 18 30 (144) (89,88)NavahoAymara21,2 1940–1943; 1940–1942; 6 mo 6 mo 1.5 y 1–2 y; 2–2.5 y to 2 y; as 18 mo — 6 18 6 22.5 18; 27 (145,1 (90,91) 1960–1966 1961–1962 long as 3 yOjibwaAzande (1935) 1911–1932 Early 3–4 y 2–3 y 0 — 0 — 42 30 (147) (92)OkayamaBadaga 1950–1951 1962–1977 5–6 mo 3–5 mo 1y 2y — — 4 5.5 12 24 (148) (93)OkinawanBang Chan 1954–1955 1952–1954 Before 1 y 5–36 mo (12–22 — — 6 13 24 (149) (94)Ona No date mo usual); — — 24 (150)Papago2 1931–1939; median 13 mo3 (eldest 18–30 mo — — 24; 30 (151,1Banoi (1965) 1942–1943 1.5–6 or older 4–5 y child, — — 53 (95)Bellacoola 1922–1924 As soon as As soon as 2–3 y (youngest 0 0 30 (96) possible possible child); 2–3 yBemba Yuma Plateau 1930–1934 1951–1958 2–3 y 3–4 y — — — — 30 42 (97) (153)Bhil “Pygmies” 1943–1954 (1986) From birth 10–11 mo “Soon” 3y 0 — 10.5 0 — 36 (98) (154)Buka Quechua1,2 1929–1930 1940–1941, 6 mo From birth mo 4–5 y 1.5–4 y; from 18 6 mo; 8 — 6 0 6; 8 54 32; 21 (99) (155–Burmese 1949–1950 1949; 2–3 y mo, 213 — — 30 (100)Cayapa 1959–1960 1970–1971 2 mo 4 mo Up to 3 y 2 4 36 (101)Chipewyan Rimaibe 1960–1962 (1992) 3–4 y 22.43 — — — — 42 22 (102) (109)Chuckchee Rucuyen 1919–1921 1948–1959 1y 3–4 y 14–18 mo — — 12 — 42 16 (103) (159)Datoga Rundi1 1991–1992 1949–1951, 3.6 mo3 10.6 mo3 21.93 18–24 3.5 — 10.5 — 30 22.5 (38) (160,1Delaware1 1951–1952 1956–1957 2–4 y — — 36 (104,10 Saami1 (1950) 1913–1947, 3–4 mo 3–4 mo 6 mo to 2 y 3.5 3.5 16.5 (162,1Dogon (1960) 1951–1952 2y — — 24 (106)Dorobo Sarakatsani 1938–1939 1954–1955 1y 2–3 y — — — — 12 30 (107) (164)Fang Senoi 1946–1954 1961–1962 Before 1 crawling mo to 2to age 4 or 5 When y 18 Up y — — 6 — 21 54 (108) (165)Fulbe (1992) y — — 24.53 (109)Gainj Siriono 1982 1940–1941 9–12mo 6 mo 3 y, sometimes — — 10.5 6 38.5336 (110) (166)Garo 1954–1956 “Early” 9–12 mo Almost 2 y old as 4 or as 0 10.5 24 (111)Goajiro (1950) 6–8 mo 1–3 y or later 5y — 7 24 (112)Gond/Maria Tallensi 1927–1934, 1934–1937, “Soon” Up to 33yy — — — 0 36 36 (113) (167,1 1940–1941 1943 (walking)GrosTarasco 1940–1948 1940–1941 3–4 mo 2 y or more mo (as old 18–24 — — — 3.5 24 21 (114) (169) Ventre (sometimes as y, rare) as 3–4 Sellen DW. J Nutr. 2001 Oct;131(10):2707-15! old as 6)
  22. 22. Saami1 1913–1947, 3–4 mo 3–4 mo 6 mo to 2 y 3.5 3.5 16.5 (1 1951–1952Sarakatsani 1954–1955 Reported 2–3 y Best estimate — Best estimate — 30 (1Senoi 1961–1962 Reported When of ages crawling Up to age 4 or 5 of average — of average — Best54estimate (1 age of introduction y age of age of of averageSiriono Dates of data 1940–1941 introduction 6 moof 3 y, sometimes introduction Reported ages of — introduction 6 age of 36 (1Ethnic collection (or of nonbreast nonbreast cessation of as 4 or of nonbreast as old of nonbreast cessation ofdesignation publication) milk liquids milk solids breastfeeding 5y milk liquids milk solids breastfeeding STallensi 1934–1937, “Soon” 3y — 0 36 (1 mo meses meses mo meses mo 1943Tarasco 1940–1941 3–4 mo 18–24 mo (as old — 3.5 21 (1Amele1 1983–1994 7–8 mo 36.33 as 3–4 y, rare) — 7.5 36.5 (8AmharaTeda 1958–1961 1930–1955 2–3 y 17 mo — 12 —— 3017 (8 (1ArandaTibetans 1881–1935, 1904–1925 10–12 mo 2–5 y 10–12 mo — — — 11 3911 (8 (1Tiv 1949–1952 (1929) week 1 6 mo 2–3 y 0.25 6 30 (1TlingitArapaho 1893–1914 1935–1942 4 y usual, or older 3 y as old — — —— 4836 (1 (8Toda (1873) as 8 yy (up to 6 y, 3 — — 36 (1Araucani1 1946–1952 1–2 y rare) — — 18 (8Aymara2 1,2Trobriands 1914–1920, 1940–1942; From birth 1.5 y 1 y 1–2 y; 1–3 y; 2 y 2–2.5 y — 0 18 12 18; 27 24 22.5; (1 (9 1971–1972, 1961–1962Azande (1982) 1911–1932 Early 3–4 y 0 0 42 (9TroniBadaga (1992) 1962–1977 3–5ymo 1 1 y 29.52 — — 4 — 29.5 12 (1 (9TrukBang Chan (1953) 1952–1954 A few mo 1–2 y (or 5–36 mo (12–22 — — —— 18 13 (1 (9 teething) mo usual);Tuareg 1929–1940 2–2.5 y median 13 mo3 — — 27 (1Banoi 1Turkana (1965) 1948– (1927), 1.5–6 or older 3 y; 2 y At least — — —— 53 24 36; (1 (9Bellacoola 1949 1922–1924 As soon as As soon as 2–3 y 0 0 30 (9Tzeltal1 1957–1958, 6–12 mo possible 3–4 mo possible 1.5 y or older 9 3.5 28.5 (1Bemba 1965–1967 1930–1934 2–3 y — — 30 (9Bhil 2Warao 1933–1944, 1943–1954 From birth 10–11 mo 10 mo to 2 or 3 0 — 10.5— 19; 24 — (1 (9Buka (1956) 1929–1930 From birth 4–5 y y; ;2 y — 0 54 (9WogeoBurmese (1943) 1949–1950 2–3 y 3–4 y — — —— 42 30 (1 (1WoleaiCayapa (1949) 1959–1960 2 mo 4 3 mo mo Up to 3 y or later 2 4 3 36 36 (1 (1Yahgan2Chipewyan 1918–1924, 1960–1962 4 mo 3–4 y 10–15 mo, — —4 12.5; 24 42 (1 (1Chuckchee (1946) 1919–1921 1y 3–4 y sometimes — 12 42 (1Datoga 1991–1992 3.6 mo3 10.6 mo3 21.93 much later; 2 y 3.5 10.5 30 (3Delaware1 1Yanomamo 1958–1967, 1951–1952 2–4 y 2–3 y — — 33 36 (1 (1 1964–1966, (1950)Dogon 1967, 1968, (1960) 2y — — 24 (1Dorobo 1972–1979, 1938–1939 1y — — 12 (1Fang 1987 1946–1954 Before 1 y 18 mo to 2 y — 6 21 (1Fulbe (1992) — — 24.53 (1Gainj 1982 9–12 mo — 10.5 38.53 (1Garo 1954–1956 “Early” 9–12 mo Almost 2 y 0 10.5 24 (1Goajiro (1950) Sellen DW. J Nutr. 2001 or later 6–8 mo 1–3 y Oct;131(10):2707-15! — 7 24 (1
  23. 23. WEANING IN NONINDUSTRIAL SOCIETIES WEANING IN NONINDUSTRIAL SOCIETIES TABLE 1 TABLE 1 (continued) Indicators of ages at complementary feeding and weaning reported for nonindustrial societies Indicators of ages at complementary feeding and weaning reported for nonindustrial societies Reported Best estimate Best estimate Reported ages of of average of average Best estimate Reported Best estimate Best estimate age of introduction age of age of of average ages of Reported ages of of average introduction of average introduction Best of age estimate Dates of data introduction ofEthnic collection (or of nonbreast introduction cessation of Reported age of nonbreast age of of nonbreast age of of nonbreast of average cessation ofdesignation Dates of data publication) milk liquids of milk solids introduction of introduction breastfeeding ages milk liquids Reported milk solids age of introduction breastfeeding SEthnic collection (or nonbreast milk nonbreast of cessation of of nonbreast of nonbreast cessation ofdesignation publication) liquids milk solids breastfeeding milk liquids meses milk solids meses breastfeeding meses mo mo moYapAmele1 1947–1948 1983–1994 7–8 mo6 mo 36.33 2–3 y (4–5 y if — 7.56 36.5 30 (8Amhara 1958–1961 2–3 y youngest) — — 30 (8YokutsAranda 1925–1930 1881–1935, 2 wks–2 mo 1 mo 2–5 y 2 y (sometimes — —1 39 24 (8 (1929) as 1.25 y oldArapaho 1935–1942 4 y usual, as or 5) as 4 old — — 48 (8Yoruba 1949–1959 as 8 y y 2–3 30Yucatec1Araucani1 1932–1936; 1946–1952 1–2 y 1–3 y — —6 18 24 (8Aymara2 1929–1931 1940–1942; 1.5 y 1–2 y; 2–2.5 y — 18 18; 27 (9Yurok1,2 1961–1962 6–7 mo 1 y maximum 6.5 12ZapotecAzande 1929–1933; 1911–1932 Early 3–4 y 1–3 y; ;2 y (or 0 0 42 24 (9Badaga 1957–1959; 1962–1977 3–5 mo 1y older) — 4 12 (9Bang Chan 1956–1957 1952–1954 5–36 mo (12–22 — — 13 (9Zulu2 1883–1945; mo 2–3 y; 2–4 y usual); 30;36 (1965) median 13 mo3ZuniBanoi 1942–1948 (1965) At termination of 1.5–6 1–3 y or older — — 53 24 (9Bellacoola 1922–1924 As breastfeeding As soon as soon as 2–3 y 0 0 30 (9!Kung 1963–1972, possible possible or 6 mo 3 or 4 y 3 42Bemba 1930–1934 1963–1973 earlier 2–3 y — — 30 (9Bhil 1943–1954 From birth 10–11 mo 0 10.5 — (9Buka Estimates 1929–1930 1 From birth conducted within 10 y of each other; means of original author’s estimated midpoin combine data from two or more field studies 4–5 y — 0 54 (9Burmeseof arithmetic midpoint of pooled reported ranges whenever2–3 yinstead 1949–1950 available. — — 30 (1Cayapa or more independent estimates from field studies conducted .10 y apart included in analysis. 2 Two 1959–1960 2 mo 4 mo Up to 3 y 2 4 36 (1Chipewyan estimate from survival analysis. 3 Median 1960–1962 3–4 y — — 42 (1Chuckchee 1919–1921 1y 3–4 y — 12 42 (1Datoga 1991–1992 3.6 mo3 10.6 mo3 21.93 3.5 10.5 30 (3Delaware1 1951–1952 2–4 y — — 36 (1mother–infant (1950) It would raise the possibility that under- pairs. Table 2. Assumptions that the same socioecologicalstanding the (1960)Dogon sociocultural factors that supported optimal 2001 Oct;131(10):2707-15! — both cross-cultural and 24 Sellen DW. J Nutr. feed- 2y nants drive — intracultural (1 vDorobo 1938–1939 1y — — 12 (1
  24. 24. AMAMENTAÇÃOSellen DW. J Nutr. 2001 Oct;131(10):2707-15!
  25. 25. ~10,000 anos Revolução Agrícola ocorreu no Médio Oriente!Cordain L et al. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Feb;81(2):341-54.Dubreuil L. Journal of Archaeological Science 2004; 31(11): 1613-1629.Bar-Yosef O. Evol Anthropol 1998;6:159 –77.
  26. 26. EVIDÊNCIA DO CONSUMO DE LÁCTEOS NO MÉDIO ORIENTE Primeira  evidência  do  consumo  de  lácteos  no  Médio  Oriente  (Turquia)4   Domes<cação  de  ovelhas,  cabras  e  gado  bovino  (Médio  Oriente)  1-­‐3   Presente 10 000 9 000 8 000 7 000 6 000 5 000 4 000 3 000 2 000 1 000HumanasGerações 333 300 267 233 200 167 133 100 66 33 1 - Hiendleder S, et al. Proc Biol Sci. 2002 May 7;269(1494):893-904 2 - Luikart G, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 May 8;98(10):5927-32 3 - Loftus RT, et al. Mol Ecol. 1999 Dec;8(12):2015-22 4 - Evershed RP et al. Nature. 2008 Sep 25;455(7212):528-31.
  27. 27. DATAS DE EXPANSÃO GEOGRÁFICA DAS2011 Downloaded from rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org on February 18, PRIMEIRAS !68 P. Gerbault et al. Evolution of lactase persistence NEOLÍTICAS! CULTURAS 3950 4100 4000 < 5000 5500 5200 5600 5300 6000 5600 5500 5400 6200 5200 < 7000 8500 6100 7800 6600 9000 8300 Villeneuve-Saint-Germain al. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci.(TRB) 27;366(1566):863-77. Gerbault P, et Funnel Beaker Culture 2011 Mar Balkan Neolithic
  28. 28. EVIDÊNCIA DO CONSUMO DE LÁCTEOS NO MÉDIO ORIENTE E EUROPA 1ª  evidência  de  lácteos  no  Norte  da  Europa  (RU)6   1ª  evidência  do  consumo  de  lácteos    na  Europa  (Roménia)  5   Primeira  evidência  do  consumo  de  lácteos  no  Médio  Oriente  (Turquia)4   Domes<cação  de  ovelhas,  cabras  e  gado  bovino  (Médio  Oriente)  1-­‐3   Presente 10 000 9 000 8 000 7 000 6 000 5 000 4 000 3 000 2 000 1 000HumanasGerações 333 300 267 233 200 167 133 100 66 33 1 - Hiendleder S, et al. Proc Biol Sci. 2002 May 7;269(1494):893-904 2 - Luikart G, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 May 8;98(10):5927-32 3 - Loftus RT, et al. Mol Ecol. 1999 Dec;8(12):2015-22 4 - Evershed RP et al. Nature. 2008 Sep 25;455(7212):528-31. 5 - Craig OE, et al. Antiquity 2005; 79:882-894 6 - Copley MS et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Feb 18;100(4):1524-9
  29. 29. UVBJablonski NG, Chaplin G. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 May 11;107 Suppl 2:8962-8
  30. 30. UVAJablonski NG, Chaplin G. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 May 11;107 Suppl 2:8962-8
  31. 31. FOLATOMiller AL, Kelley GS. Altern Med Rev. 1996;1(4):220-235

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