We are what we eatThe path from public health to personal health                 Michael Müller                    Netherl...
Human Nutrition: State-of-the-art ?                                1883
I have a dream“I track, therefore I am”
2013 – our health (care) reality•   The next health tsunami => non-communicable diseases (NCDs) >    communicable diseases...
Nutrigenomics & molecular nutrition allows us to define the mechanistic framework                                   Blood ...
“2 hits” in Metabolic Syndrome  “Too much metabolic & inflammatory stress”Complex NC diseases are caused by dysregulation ...
Energy homeostasis & obesity
Genes and Nutrition => Phenotype       Its not that easy
Classification of hereditary diseases
SNP-trait associationsdetected in GWA studies
Understanding Nutrition        How nutrients regulate our genes: via sensing molecular switches                           ...
Phenotype plasticityPhenotypic plasticity is the ability of an organism tochange its phenotype in response to changes in t...
Your are what you eat  Healthy food (pattern)s have large impact on our gene expression & phenotype• (Micro & Macro) Nutri...
“We are what we eat and have eaten”Received, Recorded, Remembered & Revealed
NutrigenomicsQuantification of the nutritional genotype-phenotype                      Phenotype                      Meta...
chronically            Examples: Do not overload organs                                  40 cm4 cmC1     C2     C3      C4...
„Obese-linked‟ pro-inflammatory  gene expression profile by SFAsSFA diet   MUFA diet                       • The SFA-rich ...
How to age successfully?
Its easy (if your genes are ok)2 Meals a day, work as long as possible & embrace                    challenges            ...
Finally         “You are what you eat”Enjoy the huge diversity of food patterns
We are what we eat - a path towards personal health
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We are what we eat - a path towards personal health

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My 20 min short talk for the Science Cafe Wageningen 18-4-2013

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We are what we eat - a path towards personal health

  1. 1. We are what we eatThe path from public health to personal health Michael Müller Netherlands Nutrigenomics Centre & Nutrition, Metabolism and Genomics Group Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University
  2. 2. Human Nutrition: State-of-the-art ? 1883
  3. 3. I have a dream“I track, therefore I am”
  4. 4. 2013 – our health (care) reality• The next health tsunami => non-communicable diseases (NCDs) > communicable diseases (CDs).• Our research is often still focused on treatment instead of prevention of NCDs.• Research is largely fragmented with the ambition to find “magic bullets”: gene X is responsible for the disease & could be drug target.• We have no efficient strategies to treat or cure complex NCDs (Diabetes, CVD, cancer, mental disorders) => chronic diseases that require life-long treatment.• Mono-target approaches (“one drug fits all” bestsellers) fail in the efficient treatment of NCD => increasing health care costs & decreasing quality of life.• A “creative deconstruction of medicine (Eric Topol) and health care” is needed. We need a new dynamic health concept based on metabolic plasticity and resilience => “Health as the capacity to adapt to challenges!”
  5. 5. Nutrigenomics & molecular nutrition allows us to define the mechanistic framework Blood triglycerides
  6. 6. “2 hits” in Metabolic Syndrome “Too much metabolic & inflammatory stress”Complex NC diseases are caused by dysregulation Nature Medicine 2012
  7. 7. Energy homeostasis & obesity
  8. 8. Genes and Nutrition => Phenotype Its not that easy
  9. 9. Classification of hereditary diseases
  10. 10. SNP-trait associationsdetected in GWA studies
  11. 11. Understanding Nutrition How nutrients regulate our genes: via sensing molecular switches Changed organ metabolic capacityJ Clin Invest. 2004;114:94-103 BMC Genomics 2008; 9:262 Physiol. Genomics 2009 PLoS One. 2012;7(8):e43260.J Biol Chem. 2006;28:934-44 J Biol Chem. 2008;283:22620-7 Circulation 2010 J Hepatol. 2012 Dec;57(6):1370-3.Endocrinology. 2006;147:1508-16 Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2009;29:969-74. Diabetes 2010 Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2012Physiol Genomics. 2007;30:192-204 Plos One 2009;4(8):e6796 Cell Metabolism 2010 Physiol Genomics. 2012 Mar 19;44(6):352-61.Endocrinology. 2007;148:2753-63 Hepatology 2010;51:511-522 Physiol Genomics. 2011;43(23):1307-18. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2012BMC Genomics 2007; 8:267 Am J Clin Nutr. 2009; 90:415-24 PLoS One. 2011;6(4):e19145. Prog Lipid Res. 2012 Jan;51(1):63-70.Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2007;27:2420-7 Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;90:1656-64 Nature 2011 May 22 Mol Cell Biol. 2013 Jan 22.Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;86(5):1515-23 Mol Cell Biology 2009;29:6257-67 PLoS One. 2012;7(12):e49868. Hepatology. 2013 Jan 21.PLOS ONE 2008;3(2):e1681 Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;91:208-17 PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e51066. J Nutr. 2013 Jan 16.BMC Genomics 2008; 9:231 BMC Genomics 2009 PLoS One. 2012;7(10):e47303. Carcinogenesis. 2013 March BMC Med Genomics. 2012 Aug 28
  12. 12. Phenotype plasticityPhenotypic plasticity is the ability of an organism tochange its phenotype in response to changes in theenvironment (e.g. nutrition or exercise). CYP4A10 14 12 10 FC vs WT ctrl 8 6 4 2 0 WT KO WT KO WT KO WT KO WT KO WT KO WT KO WT KO WT KO ctrl WY feno C10:0TG C18:1TG C18:2TG C18:3TG C20:5TG C22:6TG
  13. 13. Your are what you eat Healthy food (pattern)s have large impact on our gene expression & phenotype• (Micro & Macro) Nutrients – Mono & polyunsaturated fatty acids – Vitamines (e.g. vitamine A & D) , minerals (e.g. Zn)• Microbiota (from foods) – Vegetarians / omni- /carnivores => different microbiota – “Raw” (e.g. “Sushi”) or fermented food consumption => food- specific microbiota• Food components (bitter, toxic, “healthy”) – Secondary plant metabolites (e.g. resveratrol, glucosinolates, cafestol....) – MicroRNA (e.g. rice) => “nutrient”?• Less foods/calories (caloric restriction) => “chromatin” exercise
  14. 14. “We are what we eat and have eaten”Received, Recorded, Remembered & Revealed
  15. 15. NutrigenomicsQuantification of the nutritional genotype-phenotype Phenotype Metabolome Lifestyle Proteome Nutrition Microbiota TranscriptomeEnvironment Epigenome Genotype
  16. 16. chronically Examples: Do not overload organs 40 cm4 cmC1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 C10 10% FAT 45% FAT
  17. 17. „Obese-linked‟ pro-inflammatory gene expression profile by SFAsSFA diet MUFA diet • The SFA-rich diet: • Induces a pro- inflammatory obese-linked gene expression profile • Decreases expression and plasma level of the anti- inflammatory cytokine adiponectin • “Personal Transcriptomes” Van Dijk et al. AJCN 2009
  18. 18. How to age successfully?
  19. 19. Its easy (if your genes are ok)2 Meals a day, work as long as possible & embrace challenges Walter Breuning (1896 - 2011)
  20. 20. Finally “You are what you eat”Enjoy the huge diversity of food patterns

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