E-Business E- governance E- learning Created by- Rohan Dev XI- B
Ebusiness is a term used to describe businesses run on the Internet, or utilizing Internet technologies to improve the productivity or profitability of a business. In a more general sense, the term may be used to describe any form of electronic business —- that is to say, any business which utilizes a computer . This usage is somewhat archaic, however, and in most contexts ebusiness refers exclusively to Internet businesses. The most common implementation of ebusiness is as an additional, or in some cases primary, storefront. By selling products and services online, an ebusiness is able to reach a much wider consumer base than any traditional brick-and- mortar store could ever hope for. This function of ebusiness is referred to as ecommerce, and the terms are occasionally used interchangeably. E--business
An ebusiness may also use the Internet to acquire wholesale products or supplies for in-house production. This facet of ebusiness is sometimes referred to as eprocurement , and may offer businesses the opportunity to cut their costs dramatically. Even many ebusinesses which operate without an electronic storefront now use eprocurement as a way to better track and manage their purchasing. Examples: www.trip.com www.bluefly.com www.crutchfield.com www.dockers.com www.gap.com www.3dshopping.com www.expedia.com www.fitfinder.com www.toyota.com www.ninewest.com www.le-shop.com www.ruoka.net www.peapod.com www.netgrocer.com www.killerapp.com www.ewallet.com www.thethinkingmedia.com www.9thsquare.com www.iconocast.com
Advantages: 1 Authenticity 2 Data integrity 3 Non-repudiation 4 Access control 5 Physical security 6 Data storage 7 Data transmission and application development 8 System administration 9 Access and data integrity 10 Privacy and confidentiality
Disadvantages: Sectoral Limitations : The main disadvantage of e-business is the lack of growth in some sectors on account of product or sector limitations. The food sector has not benefited in terms of growth of sales and consequent revenue generation because of a number of practical reasons like food products being perishable items. Consumers do not look for food products on the Internet since they prefer going to the supermarket to buy the necessary items as and when the need arises. Costly E-Business Solutions for Optimization : Substantial resources are required for redefining product lines in order to sell online. Upgrading computer systems, training personnel, and updating websites requires substantial resources. Moreover, Electronic Data Management (EDM) and Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) necessary for ensuring optimal internal business processes may be looked upon, by some firms, as one of the disadvantages of e-business. It's evident that the advantages clearly outweigh the disadvantages of e-business. Every business has to eventually change its modus operandi and adopt e-business practices in order to ensure survival and success.
Security - there are still some people who don't think it is save to buy on-line therefore as their isn't a high-street shop will loss their custom. · You may not recieve what you believe you have purchased. · Things such as viruses cpould meanlosing the site or affecting your customers computers while on your website. Sectoral Limitations E-business has some very potent sectoral limitations. For instance, the food sector has not really benefited due to e-business, in terms growth of sales and resultant revenue generation. Food products are perishable items and as such, customers, generally, do not look for them on the internet. They rather prefer to go to the super market or stores to buy the necessary food items. Similarly, some other industries do not seem to be benefiting from e-business. Costly E-Business Solutions for Optimization E-business requires substantial resources at hand for redefining product lines for online selling.Upgrading computer systems, training personnel, and updating websites are an important aspect of e-business, which require human resource.Electronic Data Management (EDM) and Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), necessary for ensuring optimal internal business processes, also require enough resources, which may be considered a disadvantage of e-business by many.
E-Governance e-Government (short for electronic government , also known as e-gov , digital government , online government , or connected government ) is digital interaction between a government and citizens (G2C), government and businesses (G2B), and between government agencies (G2G). This digital interaction consists of governance , information and communication technology (ICT), business process re- engineering (BPR), and e-citizen at all levels of government (city, state/provence, national, and international). Essentially, the term e-Government or also known as Digital Government, refers to 'How government utilized IT, ICT and other telecommunication technologies, to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness in the public sector' (Jeong, 2007).
E-Government should enable anyone visiting a city website to communicate and interact with city employees via the Internet with graphical user interfaces (GUI), instant-messaging (IM), audio/video presentations, and in any way more sophisticated than a simple email letter to the address provided at the site”and “the use of technology to enhance the access to and delivery of government services to benefit citizens, business partners and employees”. The focus should be on: The use of Information and communication technologies , and particularly the Internet, as a tool to achieve better government. The use of information and communication technologies in all facets of the operations of a government organization. The continuous optimization of service delivery, constituency participation and governance by transforming internal and external relationships through technology, the Internet and new media. Whilst e-Government has traditionally been understood as being centered around the operations of government, e-Governance is understood to extend the scope by including citizen engagement and participation in governance. As such, following in line with the OECD definition of e-Government, e-Governance can be defined as the use of ICTs as a tool to achieve better governance.
Disadvantages: Risks There are many considerations and potential implications of implementing and designing e-government, including disintermediation of the government and its citizens, impacts on economic, social, and political factors, vulnerability to cyber attacks , and disturbances to the status quo in these areas] See also Electronic leviathan . Hyper-surveillance Increased contact between government and its citizens goes both ways. Once e-government begins to develop and become more sophisticated, citizens will be forced to interact electronically with the government on a larger scale. This could potentially lead to a lack of privacy for civilians as their government obtains more and more information on them. In a worse case scenario, with so much information being passed electronically between government and civilians, a totalitarian -like system could develop. When the government has easy access to countless information on its citizens, personal privacy is lost.
Cost Although “a prodigious amount of money has been spent” on the development and implementation of e-government, some say it has yielded only a mediocre product. The outcomes and effects of trial Internet-based governments are often difficult to gauge or unsatisfactory . Inaccessibility An e-government site that provides web access and support often does not offer the “potential to reach many users including those who live in remote areas, are homebound, have low literacy levels, exist on poverty line incomes, suffer from chronic illness, are single parents or older adults. False sense of transparency and accountability Opponents of e-government argue that online governmental transparency is dubious because it is maintained by the governments themselves. Information can be added or removed from the public eye. To this day, very few organizations monitor and provide accountability for these modifications. Those that do so, like the United States’ OMBWatch and Government Accountability Project , are often nonprofit volunteers. Even the governments themselves do not always keep track of the information they insert and delete.
Advantages Benefits: It is convenient and cost-effective for businesses, and the public benefits by getting easy access to the most current information available without having to spend time, energy and money to get it. E-government helps simplify processes and makes access to government information more easily accessible for public sector agencies and citizens. For example, the Indiana Bureau of Motor Vehicles simplified the process of certifying driver records to be admitted in county court proceedings. Indiana became the first state to allow government records to be digitally signed, legally certified and delivered electronically by using Electronic Postmark technology. In addition to its simplicity, e-democracy services can reduce costs. Alabama Department of Conservation & Natural Resources, Wal-Mart and NIC developed an online hunting and fishing license service utilizing an existing computer to automate the licensing process. More than 140,000 licenses were purchased at Wal-Mart stores during the first hunting season and the agency estimates it will save $200,000 annually from service. [ The anticipated benefits of e-government include efficiency, improved services, better accessibility of public services, and more transparency and accountability.
Democratization: One goal of e-government will be greater citizen participation. Through the internet, people from all over the country can interact with politicians or public servants and make their voices heard. Blogging and interactive surveys will allow politicians or public servants to see the views of the people they represent on any given issue. Chat rooms can place citizens in real-time contact with elected officials, their offices or provide them with the means to replace them by interacting directly with public servants, allowing voters to have a direct impact and influence in their government. These technologies can create a more transparent government, allowing voters to immediately see how and why their representation in the capital is voting the way they are. This helps voters better decide who to vote for in the future or how to help the public servants become more productive. A government could theoretically move more towards a true democracy with the proper application of e-government. Government transparency will give insight to the public on how decisions are made and hold elected officials or public servants accountable for their actions. The public could become a direct and prominent influence in government legislature to some degree.
Environmental bonuses Proponents of e-government argue that online government services would lessen the need for hard copy forms. Due to recent pressures from environmentalist groups, the media, and the public, some governments and organizations have turned to the Internet to reduce this paper use. The United States government utilizes the website http:// www.forms.gov to provide “internal government forms for federal employees” and thus “produce significant savings in paper. Speed, efficiency, and convenience E-government allows citizens to interact with computers to achieve objectives at any time and any location, and eliminates the necessity for physical travel to government agents sitting behind desks and windows. Improved accounting and record keeping can be noted through computerization, and information and forms can be easily accessed, equaling quicker processing time. On the administrative side, access to help find or retrieve files and linked information can now be stored in databases versus hardcopies stored in various locations. Individuals with disabilities or conditions no longer have to be mobile to be active in government and can be in the comfort of their own homes
E-Learning E-learning comprises all forms of electronically supported learning and teaching . The Information and communication systems , whether networked or not, serve as specific media to implement the learning process. The term will still most likely be utilized to reference out-of-classroom and in-classroom educational experiences via technology, even as advances continue in regard to devices and curriculum. E-learning is essentially the computer and network-enabled transfer of skills and knowledge. E-learning applications and processes include Web-based learning, computer-based learning, virtual classroom opportunities and digital collaboration. Content is delivered via the Internet, intranet/extranet, audio or video tape, satellite TV, and CD-ROM. It can be self-paced or instructor-led and includes media in the form of text, image, animation, streaming video and audio. Abbreviations like CBT (Computer-Based Training), IBT (Internet-Based Training) or WBT (Web-Based Training) have been used as synonyms to e-learning. Today one can still find these terms being used, along with variations of e-learning such as elearning, Elearning, and eLearning. The terms will be utilized throughout this article to indicate their validity under the broader terminology of E-learning.
Advantages: Technology has revolutionized business; now it must revolutionize learning. In the 21st century, people have to learn more than ever before. Especially for global organizations, live classroom-based training is becoming too costly and cumbersome. Even if employees had the time to attend all the courses and seminars and to read all the books and reports they should to remain up-to-date in their area of work, the cost of such learning would be prohibitive. The need to transform how organizations learn points to a more modern, efficient, and flexible alternative: eLearning. The mission of corporate eLearning is to supply the workforce with an up-to-date and cost-effective program that yields motivated, skilled, and loyal knowledge workers. Anywhere, anytime, anyone. The Internet can offer the logical solution for a company's education and training objectives. Approximately 80% of the professional workforce already uses computers on the job. Technical obstacles, such as access, standards, infrastructure, and bandwidth, will not be an issue in a few years. The growth of the World Wide Web, high-capacity corporate networks, and high-speed desktop computers will make learning available to people 24 hours a day, seven days a week around the globe. This will enable businesses to distribute training and critical information to multiple locations easily and conveniently. Employees can then access training when it is convenient for them, at home or in the office.
Substantial cost savings due to elimination of travel expenses. When delivered through technology based solutions, training is less expensive per end user due to scaleable distribution and the elimination of high salaries for trainers and consultants. The biggest benefit of eLearning, however, is that it eliminates the expense and inconvenience of getting the instructor and students in the same place. According to Training Magazine, corporations save between 50-70% when replacing instructor-led training with electronic content delivery. Opting for eLearning also means that courses can be pared into shorter sessions and spread out over several days or weeks so that the business would not lose an employee for entire days at a time. Workers can also improve productivity and use their own time more efficiently, as they no longer need to travel or fight rush-hour traffic to get to a class. Just-in-time access to timely information. Web-based products allow instructors to update lessons and materials across the entire network instantly. This keeps content fresh and consistent and gives students immediate access to the most current data. Information can be retrieved just before it is required, rather than being learned once in a classroom and subsequently forgotten. Training Magazine reported that technology-based training has proven to have a 50-60% better consistency of learning than traditional classroom learning (c-learning).
Higher retention of content through personalized learning. Technology-based solutions allow more room for individual differences in learning styles. They also provide a high level of simulation that can be tailored to the learner's level of proficiency. With 24 x 7 access, people can learn at their own pace and review course material as often as needed. Since they can customize the learning material to their own needs, students have more control over their learning process and can better understand the material, leading to a 60% faster learning curve, compared to instructor-led training. The delivery of content in smaller units, called "chunks," contributes further to a more lasting learning effect. Whereas the average content retention rate for an instructor-led class is only 58%, the more intensive eLearning experience enhances the retention rate by 25 - 60%.1 Higher retention of the material puts a higher value on every dollar spent on training.
Improved collaboration and interactivity among students. In times when small instructor-led classes tend to be the exception, electronic learning solutions can offer more collaboration and interaction with experts and peers as well as a higher success rate than the live alternative. Teaching and communication techniques which create an interactive online environment include case studies, story-telling, demonstrations, role-playing, simulations, streamed videos, online references, personalized coaching and mentoring, discussion groups, project teams, chat rooms, e-mail, bulletin boards, tips, tutorials, FAQs, and wizards. Distance education can be more stimulating and encourage more critical reasoning than a traditional large instructor-led class because it allows the kind of interaction that takes place most fully in small group settings. Studies have shown that students who take online courses are typically drawn into the subject matter of the class more deeply than in a traditional course because of the discussions they get involved in.2 This engagement is further facilitated by the fact that instructors do not monopolize attention in an online environment. Another study found that online students had more peer contact with others in the class, enjoyed it more, spent more time on class work, understood the material better, and performed, on average, 20% better than students who were taught in the traditional classroom.
Online training is less intimidating than instructor-led courses. Students taking an online course enter a risk-free environment in which they can try new things and make mistakes without exposing themselves. This characteristic is particularly valuable when trying to learn soft skills, such as leadership and decision making. A good learning program shows the consequences of students' actions and here/why they went wrong. After a failure, students can go back and try again. This type of learning experience eliminates the embarrassment of failure in front of a group. With all of these advantages of taking classes online, it is hard to imagine why anyone would opt to sit in a lecture to learn new information. There are online classes available free on a multitude of topics, just start surfing, find one to your liking, and start learning!
Disadvantages: Unmotivated learners or those with poor study habits may fall behind Lack of familiar structure and routine may take getting used to Students may feel isolated or miss social interaction Instructor may not always be available on demand Slow or unreliable Internet connections can be frustrating Managing learning software can involve a learning curve Some courses such as traditional hands-on courses can be difficult to simulate
Contd.. One disadvantage of eLearning is that learners need to have access to a computer as well as the Internet. They also need to have computer skills with programs such as word processing, Internet browsers, and e-mail. Without these skills and software it is not possible for the learner to succeed in eLearning. eLearners need to be very comfortable using a computer . Slow Internet connections or older computers may make accessing course materials difficult. This may cause the learners to get frustrated and give up. Access
eLearning also requires time to complete especially those with assignments and interactive collaborations. This means that students have to be highly motivated and responsible because all the work they do is on their own. Learners with low motivation may not complete modules. High motivation Another disadvantage of e-learning is managing computer files, software comfortability and learning new software, including eLearning. For learners with beginner-level computer skills it can sometimes seem complex to keep their computer files organized. The lesson points you to download a file which the learner does and later cannot find the file. The file is downloaded to the folder the computer automatically opens to rather than a folder chosen by the learner. This file may be lost or misplaced to the learner without good computer organizational skills. Software and files
Another disadvantage of e-learning is that students may feel isolated and unsupported while learning. Instructions are not always available to help the learner so learners need to have discipline to work independently without assistance. eLearners may also become bored with no interaction. Isolation