Env. management and issues

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  • Env. management and issues

    1. 1. AED 1313AED 1313 INTRO. TO BUILT ENVIRONMENTINTRO. TO BUILT ENVIRONMENT Semester 1, 2013/2014Semester 1, 2013/2014 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENTENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT AND ISSUESAND ISSUES Compiled by DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE AND ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN, CENTRE FOR FOUNDATION STUDIES, IIUM, PETALING JAYA
    2. 2. CONTENT  INTRODUCTION  ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES  ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS AND STRATEGIES  ENVIRONMENTAL AWARENESS
    3. 3. INTRODUCTION “A community which takes satan rather than Allah as its patron and assault nature to the extend of altering Allah's creation, will face obvious and tangible loss and its ultimate abode will be (an environmental) hell from which it will find no escape.” (Al-Quran, 4:117-119) WHAT IS POLLUTION ?  The word comes from Latin word ”POLLUTUS’ which means MADE FOUL, UNCLEAN or DIRTY  Anything added to air, water, soil, or food that threatens the health, survival capability, or activities of living things.  Material that causes pollution is called pollutants
    4. 4. Definition from EQA (Act 127) Any direct or indirect alteration of the physical, thermal, chemical or biological properties of any part of the environment by discharging, emitting or depositing environmentally hazardous substances, pollutants or wastes, so as to affect any beneficial use adversely , to cause a condition that is hazardous or potentially hazardous to public health, safety or welfare, or to animals, birds, wildlife, fish or aquatic life, or to plants or to cause contravention of any condition, limitation or restriction to which a license under this Act is subject.
    5. 5. WATER POLLUTIONWATER POLLUTION DEFINITIONDEFINITION ““Any physical, biological or chemical change in water quality thatAny physical, biological or chemical change in water quality that adversely affects living organisms or makes water unsuitable foradversely affects living organisms or makes water unsuitable for desired uses”desired uses” (Saigo, Cunningham, Environmental science, Mc Graw- Hill)(Saigo, Cunningham, Environmental science, Mc Graw- Hill) WATER POLLUTION IS MAINLY CAUSED BY:  Domestic waste  Agriculture waste  Industrial waste  Marine pollution – oil spill
    6. 6. SOURCES OF WATER POLLUTION 1. POINT SOURCES OF WATER POLLUTION  Discharge of pollution from specific locations  Identifiable because it comes from specific locations  Can be monitored / regulated  E.g. Industrial discharge (wastewater, chemicals, factories) and sewage treatment plants that emit fluids of varying quality directly into water supply.
    7. 7. 2. NON – POINT SOURCES OF WATER POLLUTION  Cannot be traced into any one point of discharge.  Very hard to monitor  Eg. Agriculture runoff ( chemicals, pesticides, sediments) urban runoff, roadway runoff.
    8. 8. EFFECTS OF WATER POLLUTION TO THE ENVIRONMENT  Human health – poisoning from drinking water of untreated sewage, poisonous food animals where they accumulate toxin from environment and human consume these food.  Unbalanced river / lake ecosystems that can no longer support full biological diversity.  Deforestation from acid rain  Eutrophication
    9. 9. WATER POLLUTION CONTROL 1. Point sources solution Divert effluent from the waste streams and treat or filter it before it enters the environment. e.g. septic tank, primary & secondary sewage treatment
    10. 10. 2. Non point sources solution  Euthrophication - Harvesting excessive plant growth; unwanted weeds can be eliminated by chemical treatments.  Sediments - Construction and mining sites- sediment traps, destabilize the exposed area with grass immediately - Preserving wetlands  Urban runoff - Encourage to recycle waste oil and to minimize use of fertilizers and pesticides. - Regular street sweeping - reduce contaminants  Agriculture - Applying precisely determined amounts of fertilizers - Use slow-release fertilizers - Plant buffer zones of permanent vegetation between cultivated field and nearby surface water
    11. 11. AIR POLLUTION The air pollution have been predicted in the Quran: “Watch for the day when the sky will bring forth visible smoke that will engulf.” DEFINITION Substances which, when presents in the atmosphere can adversely affect the health of humans, animals and plants or microbial life, damage materials or interfere with the enjoyment of life and the use of property.
    12. 12. WHAT IS AIR POLLUTANTS? Chemical or physical changes brought about by either natural processes or human activities, resulting in air quality degradation. SOURCES OF AIR POLLUTION  Natural sources Volcanoes erupt ash, acid mists, hydrogen sulfide and other toxic gases Forest fire creates cloud of smoke into the air  Human-caused air pollution
    13. 13. Effects and Causes of Air Pollution Polluted air can cause health problems and damage to the environment such as:  Health problems affecting all living things  Acid rain  Greenhouse effect  Thinning of the ozone layer in the stratosphere  Global warming  Haze
    14. 14. Transportation  Hydrocarbon control  Emission control devices  Raise parking fees Industrial process  Using particular removal such as bag filter and electronic precipitator Stationary fuel combustion  Oil companies are required to offer alternative fuels, such as methanol or ethanol, hydrogen or compressed natural gas. AIR POLLUTION CONTROL
    15. 15. In mid-August 2005 several locations in mainland Malaysia declared air quality emergencies as smoke from burning in Indonesia wafted across the Strait of Malacca and blanketed the country with haze. This image, created using data collected by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on NASA’s Aura satellite, shows the density of the smoke on August 10, 2005. Red-colored areas show where smoke was thickest. AIR POLLUTION CASE STUDY
    16. 16. NOISE POLLUTIONNOISE POLLUTION WHAT IS NOISE POLLUTION? Sounds that are often annoys us, unpleasant or unwanted.
    17. 17. Noise PollutionNoise Pollution  Noise and sound are measured in decibels.  A decibel number of 65, for example, would cause distraction and is considered “intrusive.” This is about the level of your average, everyday traffic.  80 decibels is considered annoying and is approximately the loudness of an alarm clock. Neither one of these is dangerous to your hearing, but can impair your ability to sleep.  A decibel level of around 88 would occur in city traffic or in industrial work. Individuals exposed to this noise level for a lengthy period of time may experience actual hearing damage.  Once the decibel level goes above 80, prolonged exposure such as eight hours or more may cause increased tension, fatigue, changes in breathing, blood circulation and of course, loss of hearing.  Sound at the level of 135 decibels is beyond annoying and intrusive, it becomes simply painful and can damage your hearing. A pneumatic drill would cause a sound like this.
    18. 18. SOURCES 1. Transport noise Road noise comes from cars, buses, lorries, van & motorbike. 2. Social noise Neighborhood noise- Amplified music, dogs, domestic activities, car repairs. 3. Industrial noise From factory or by building works. - much more problem to people working in a factory, will suffer permanent hearing damage and report annoyance from general public.
    19. 19. NOISE POLLUTION SOLUTION Transport noise  Sound reflector wall that are : a) High concrete wall or b) Louvered wall to be built between residential area and highway road as a reflector.  Bumper as to avoid racing along special road or residential area.  Planting zone as a barrier between spaces Social noise -neighborhood  Layout housing arrangement for car parking spaces, resident have to few minutes walk away from residential area.  Landscape design such as planting, fountain to avoid hearing noise from road  Double glazing and better insulated walls to reduce noise
    20. 20. Industrial noise  Zoning and planning layout by following the guidelines of government  Finding a new technology on machine by engineers to avoid noise pollution. Precision Machinery Enclosure Low Decibel Room (Below 40dBA) High noise machinery enclosure (From130dBA, reduced to Below 80dBA)
    21. 21. GREEN HOUSE EFFECT
    22. 22. There are no passengers on Spaceship Earth. We are all crew members. -Buckminster Fuller DISCUSS THE FOLLOWING:
    23. 23. What is Environmental Ethics?  It is about how human beings should relate to their environment, how to use Earth’s resources, and how to treat other species, both plant and animal.
    24. 24. Environmental Values 1. Take from the environment – only resource needed for human life. 2. Modify the environment – only when the present environment is not conducive for human 2. Protects the public health – preserve the environment from deterioration. 3. Conserve renewable resources – planned and managed extraction. 4. Preserve special environment – nature reserve e.g. Kuala Gula, Hutan Belum, Gua Niah, Bukit Cherakah, Taman Negara, Tasik Bera, etc. 5. Protect special habitats – protect special animals, protect endangered species. 6. Protect the integrity of the global ecosystem – without it people won’t survive.
    25. 25. 3 primary theories of moral responsibility regarding the environment: 1. Anthropocentric (human-centered) - a theory of moral responsibility that views the environment as a resource for humankind. 2. Biocentric (life-centered) - a theory of moral responsibility that states that all forms of life have an inherent right to exist. Human have no right to reduce the richness and diversity except to satisfy vital needs. Living simple in means and co-exist with the rest of nature.
    26. 26. 3. Ecocentrism - an approach to environmental responsibility that maintains that the environment deserves direct moral consideration rather than consideration derived merely from human interests.
    27. 27. WHY ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS  Our natural resources are limited.  We are part of the environment. -every living thing is interrelated -concept of carrying capacity -Biogeochemical cycles  We must understand and cooperate with nature.  Our action must be ecological sound.
    28. 28. Inculcation of Environmental Ethics  Family  Education – formal and informal  Related agencies  Promoting models of sustainability  Everybody’s role  Faith
    29. 29. The end Take care of the earth…

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